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The 10-year experience of an academically affiliated occupational and environmental medicine clinic.

Rosenstock, L; Daniell, W; Barnhart, S; Stover, B; Castorina, J; Mason, S E; Heyer, N J; Hubbard, R; Kaufman, J D; Brodkin, C A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1992 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
Occupational and environmental diseases are underrecognized. Among the barriers to the successful diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these conditions are inadequate consultative and information resources. We describe the 10-year clinical and training experiences of an academically affiliated referral center that has as its primary goal the identification of work-related and other environmental diseases. The University of Washington Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program has evaluated 6,048 patients in its diagnostic and screening clinics. Among the 2,841 seen in the diagnostic clinics, 1,553 (55%) had a work-related condition. The most prevalent diagnoses included asbestos-related lung disease (n = 603), toxic encephalopathy (n = 160), asthma (n = 119), other specific respiratory conditions (n = 197), carpal tunnel syndrome (n = 86), and dermatitis (n = 82). The clinics serve as a training site for fellows in the specialty training program, primary care internal medicine residents, residents from other medical specialties, and students in industrial hygiene, toxicology, and occupational health nursing. The program serves two additional important functions: providing consultative services to community physicians and training specialists and other physicians in this underserved area of medicine.

Subcutaneous Injection of Mercury: “Warding Off Evil”

Prasad, Venkat L.
Fonte: National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
Deliberate injection of mercury, especially subcutaneous injection, is rare but is seen in psychiatric patients, individuals who attempt suicide, those who are accidentally injected, and boxers who wish to build muscle bulk. Metallic mercury plays a major role in ethnic folk medicine. Neurologic and renal complications can result from high systemic levels of mercury, and subcutaneous injection usually results in sterile abscesses. Urgent surgical evacuation and close monitoring for neurologic and renal functions as well as chelation (if toxicity is indicated) are key aspects of treatment. Education of the adverse effects and dangers of mercury is important, especially in pregnant women and children. As increased immigration changes demographic patterns, proper disposal of mercury and preventing its sale and use should become urgent societal priorities. Psychiatric consultation should be obtained whenever appropriate.

Acute Infections and Environmental Exposure to Organochlorines in Inuit Infants from Nunavik

Dallaire, Frédéric; Dewailly, Éric; Muckle, Gina; Vézina, Carole; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Ayotte, Pierre
Fonte: National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.78%
The Inuit population of Nunavik (Canada) is exposed to immunotoxic organochlorines (OCs) mainly through the consumption of fish and marine mammal fat. We investigated the effect of perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) on the incidence of acute infections in Inuit infants. We reviewed the medical charts of a cohort of 199 Inuit infants during the first 12 months of life and evaluated the incidence rates of upper and lower respiratory tract infections (URTI and LRTIs, respectively), otitis media, and gastrointestinal (GI) infections. Maternal plasma during delivery and infant plasma at 7 months of age were sampled and assayed for PCBs and DDE. Compared to rates for infants in the first quartile of exposure to PCBs (least exposed), adjusted rate ratios for infants in higher quartiles ranged between 1.09 and 1.32 for URTIs, 0.99 and 1.39 for otitis, 1.52 and 1.89 for GI infections, and 1.16 and 1.68 for LRTIs during the first 6 months of follow-up. For all infections combined, the rate ratios ranged from 1.17 to 1.27. The effect size was similar for DDE exposure but was lower for the full 12-month follow-up. Globally, most rate ratios were > 1.0, but few were statistically significant (p < 0.05). No association was found when postnatal exposure was considered. These results show a possible association between prenatal exposure to OCs and acute infections early in life in this Inuit population.

Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Associated with Environmental Mycobacteria

Beckett, William; Kallay, Michael; Sood, Akshay; Zuo, Zhengfa; Milton, Donald
Fonte: National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.78%
A previously healthy man working as a machine operator in an automotive factory developed respiratory symptoms. Medical evaluation showed abnormal pulmonary function tests, a lung biopsy showed hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and his illness was traced to his work environment. His physician asked the employer to remove him from exposure to metalworking fluids. Symptoms reoccurred when he was later reexposed to metalworking fluids, and further permanent decrement in his lung function occurred. Investigation of his workplace showed that five of six large reservoirs of metalworking fluids (cutting oils) grew Mycobacterium chelonae (or Mycobacterium immunogenum), an organism previously associated with outbreaks of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in automaking factories. His lung function remained stable after complete removal from exposure. The employer, metalworking fluid supplier, union, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health were notified of this sentinel health event. No further cases have been documented in this workplace.

Occupational Bladder Cancer in a 4,4′-Methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MBOCA)-Exposed Worker

Liu, Chiu-Shong; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Loh, Ching-Hui; Yu, Yi-Chun; Uang, Shi-Nian; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Chen, Hong-I
Fonte: National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.78%
A 52-year-old male chemical worker was admitted to the hospital with a history of paroxysmal microscopic hematuria for about 2 years and nocturia with gross hematuria about five times per night for 2 months. He was a nonsmoker and denied a history of any other bladder carcinogen exposure except for occasional pesticide application during agricultural work. Intravenous urogram imaging showed a mass occupying half of the bladder capacity. Cystoscopy revealed a mass over the left dome of the bladder. Cystoscopic biopsy revealed a grade 3 invasive transitional cell carcinoma with marked necrosis. From 1987 until hospital admission in 2001, the patient had worked in a company that produced the 4,4′-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MBOCA) curing agent. He did not wear any personal protective equipment during work. Ambient air MBOCA levels in the purification process area (0.23–0.41 mg/m3) exceeded the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s permissible exposure level. Urinary MBOCA levels (267.9–15701.1 μg/g creatinine) far exceeded the California Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s reference value of 100 μg/L. This patient worked in the purification process with occupational exposure to MBOCA for 14 years. According to the environmental and biologic monitoring data and latency period...

A Case of Bowen’s Disease and Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma: Long-Term Consequences of Chronic Arsenic Exposure in Chinese Traditional Medicine

Lee, Linda; Bebb, Gwyn
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.89%
Chronic arsenic toxicity occurs primarily through inadvertent ingestion of contaminated water and food or occupational exposure, but it can also occur through medicinal ingestion. This case features a 53-year-old lifetime nonsmoker with chronic asthma treated for 10 years in childhood with Chinese traditional medicine containing arsenic. The patient was diagnosed with Bowen’s disease and developed extensive-stage small-cell carcinoma of the lung 10 years and 47 years, respectively, after the onset of arsenic exposure. Although it has a long history as a medicinal agent, arsenic is a carcinogen associated with many malignancies including those of skin and lung. It is more commonly associated with non–small-cell lung cancer, but the temporal association with Bowen’s disease in the absence of other chemical or occupational exposure strongly points to a causal role for arsenic in this case of small-cell lung cancer. Individuals with documented arsenic-induced Bowen’s disease should be considered for more aggressive screening for long-term complications, especially the development of subsequent malignancies.

Intoxication from an Accidentally Ingested Lead Shot Retained in the Gastrointestinal Tract

Gustavsson, Per; Gerhardsson, Lars
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.78%
A 45-year-old woman was referred to the Department of Occupational and Environmental Health in January 2002 because of increased blood lead concentrations of unknown origin. She suffered from malaise, fatigue, and diffuse gastrointestinal symptoms. She had a blood lead level of 550 μg/L (normal range < 40 μg/L). The patient had not been occupationally exposed to lead, and no potential lead sources, such as food products or lead-glazed pottery, could be identified. Her food habits were normal, but she did consume game occasionally. Clinical examination, including standard neurologic examination, was normal. No anemia was present. Laboratory tests showed an increased excretion of lead in the urine, but there were no signs of microproteinuria. An abdominal X ray in October 2002 revealed a 6-mm rounded metal object in the colon ascendens. Before the object could be further localized, the patient contracted winter vomiting disease (gastroenteritis) and the metal object was spontaneously released from the colon during a diarrhea attack. The object was a lead shot pellet, possibly but not normally used in Sweden for hunting wild boar or roe deer. Blood lead levels slowly decreased. Nine months later the patient’s blood lead levels were almost normal (~ 70 μg/L) and her symptoms had almost completely disappeared. In this case...

A case series of 71 patients referred to a hospital-based occupational and environmental medicine clinic for occupational asthma.

Wheeler, S; Rosenstock, L; Barnhart, S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
In a ten-year period at the Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program (OEMP) of the University of Washington in Seattle, 71 patients were determined by attending physicians to have work-related asthma. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, we describe these patients. Data were obtained from a database maintained by the OEMP and from chart reviews. We found that the three most common specific agents causing asthma were isocyanates, red cedar, and crabs. At least one pulmonary function study was available for all patients and was positive in 56 patients (79%). Among the 71 asthma cases reported in this article, 18 (25%) were attributed to reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS); 19 (27%) to exacerbation of pre-existing asthma; 27 (38%) to sensitization; and 7 (10%) had undetermined causes. We conclude that occupational asthma presents as a result of diverse exposures in multiple work settings and with an array of characteristics. Prevention efforts need to recognize this diversity.

What happens to the manuscripts that have not been accepted for publication in Occupational and Environmental Medicine?

Nemery, B
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.89%
OBJECTIVES—To evaluate the fate of manuscripts rejected by Occupational and Environmental Medicine (OEM).
METHODS—A Medline search was conducted, up to March 2001, to find out whether and where articles submitted to OEM in 1995, 1996, and 1997, but not accepted for publication, were published. The articles were matched by authors and title, sometimes using the abstract to help decide whether the published article was the one that had been previously submitted to OEM.
RESULTS—Out of 405 manuscripts rejected (44% of those submitted), 218 articles (54%) were traced in 72 different journals, with more than half being published in seven other major journals dealing with occupational and environmental health (rather than in specialty journals). Most papers were published within 2 years of their initial submission to OEM. Only a small proportion (10%) were published in a journal with a higher impact factor than OEM (1.96 in 1999).
CONCLUSION—More than half the articles rejected by OEM found their way into the scientific literature covered by Medline. This figure is comparable with the few available data from other journals. It would be interesting to know the fate of articles published by OEM before they were submitted to our journal.


Keywords: journalology; bibliometry; impact factor

Environmental factors influencing public health and medicine: policy implications.

Warren, Rueben; Walker, Bailus; Nathan, Vincent R.
Fonte: National Medical Association Publicador: National Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
Environmental health threats are increasing throughout the United States, particularly in low-income populations and in communities of color. Environmental science researchers are investigating plausible associations between the environment and human health. As a result, the role and responsibility of the primary care physicians and other health care providers are changing. This paper highlights selected lines of evidence suggesting that clinicians should now consider interactions between humans and their environment as central to providing effective primary care. Subject areas include: exposure to environmental agents, reproductive toxicity, pulmonary disease, neurobehavioral toxicity, endocrine disruptors, mechanisms of environmental disease, and cultural competence. Concerns about these and other environmentally related issues influence the manner in which primary care is practiced now, and will be practiced in the future. Biomedical technology and community awareness demand that physicians pay more attention to advances in environmental medicine. Ironically, one of the least taught subjects in medical school is environmental medicine. To effectively respond to growing concerns about the role of the environment in human health, clinicians...

New trends for practice in telecommunication applied to preventive and environmental medicine

Sekikawa, Akira; Koyama, Akio; Satoh, Toshihiko; Nishimura, Rimei; Higashi, Toshiaki; Akazawa, Shunichi; Ochi, Genro; Shimada, Kazuhito; Shinohara, Minoru; Yamaguchi, Naohito; Takahashi, Ken; Tajima, Naoko
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1997 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.95%
This paper presents survey results of connectivity to the Internet from preventive and environmental medicine-related departments in medical schools and other institutions in Japan and propose means to establish connectivity among them. Of 191 facilities surveyed, 134 (70%) responded by March 31, 1996. The data presented here are from 132 facilities. One hundred seventeen facilities (89%) answered that they were connected to the Internet. More than 80% of them got access to the Internet in the past two years. One hundred three facilities (78%) answered that e-mail was available. Despite the large percentage being connected, only 11 facilities (8%) had their own homepages. However, just 6 months later more than 25 facilities could be found by their own homepages. The Global Health Network (GHNet) has been developed in the USA based upon the concept that the best means to produce improved health is a better surveillance and information system applying the latest telecommunication technology to public health. The GHNet will offer an initial homepage for Preventive and Environmental Medicine related facilities in Japan to promote and establish sustainable connectivity among them.

A Bibliometric Analysis in the Fields of Preventive Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Epidemiology, and Public Health

Falagas, Matthew E; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.05%
Background: Research in the fields of Preventive Medicine, Occupational/Environmental Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health play an important role in the advancement of knowledge. In order to map the research production around the world we performed a bibliometric analysis in the above fields. Methods: All articles published by different world regions in the above mentioned scientific fields and cited in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) database of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) during the period 1995 and 2003, were evaluated. The research production of different world regions was adjusted for: a) the gross domestic product in 1995 US dollars, and b) the population size of each region. Results: A total of 48,861 articles were retrieved and categorized. The USA led the research production in all three subcategories. The percentage of articles published by USA researchers was 43%, 44% and 61% in the Preventive Medicine, Epidemiology, and Public Health subcategories, respectively. Canada and Western Europe shared the second position in the first two subcategories, while Oceania researchers ranked second in the field of Public Health. Conclusion: USA researchers maintain a leadership position in the production of scientific articles in the fields of Preventive Medicine...

The Ambulatory Pediatric Association Fellowship in Pediatric Environmental Health: A 5-Year Assessment

Gitterman, Ben; Lanphear, Bruce; Forman, Joel; Karr, Catherine; Moshier, Erin L.; Godbold, James; Crain, Ellen; Landrigan, Philip J.; Woolf, Alan David
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.06%
Background: Evidence is mounting that environmental exposures contribute to causation of disease in children. Yet few pediatricians are trained to diagnose, treat, or prevent disease of environmental origin. Objectives: To develop a cadre of future leaders in pediatric environmental health (PEH), the Ambulatory Pediatric Association (APA) launched a new 3-year fellowship in 2001—the world’s first formal training program in PEH. Sites were established at Boston Children’s Hospital, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, George Washington University, University of Cincinnati, and University of Washington. Fellows are trained in epidemiology, biostatistics, toxicology, risk assessment, and preventive medicine. They gain clinical experience in environmental pediatrics and mentored training in clinical research, policy development, and evidence-based advocacy. Thirteen fellows have graduated. Two sites have secured follow-on federal funding to enable them to continue PEH training. Discussion: To assess objectively the program’s success in preparing fellows for leadership careers in PEH, we conducted a mailed survey in 2006 with follow-up in 2007. Conclusions: Fifteen (88%) of 17 fellows and graduates participated; program directors provided information on the remaining two. Nine graduates are pursuing full-time academic careers...

Grand Rounds: Asbestos-Related Pericarditis in a Boiler Operator

Abejie, Belayneh A.; Nesto, Richard W.; Chung, Eugene H.; Kales, Stefanos Nicholas
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.78%
Context: Occupational and environmental exposures to asbestos remain a public health problem even in developed countries. Because of the long latency in asbestos-related pathology, past asbestos exposure continues to contribute to incident disease. Asbestos most commonly produces pulmonary pathology, with asbestos-related pleural disease as the most common manifestation. Although the pleurae and pericardium share certain histologic characteristics, asbestos-related pericarditis is rarely reported. Case presentation: We present a 59-year-old man who worked around boilers for almost 30 years and was eventually determined to have calcific, constrictive pericarditis. He initially presented with an infectious exacerbation of chronic bronchitis. Chest radiographs demonstrated pleural and pericardial calcifications. Further evaluation with cardiac catheterization showed a hemodynamic picture consistent with constrictive pericarditis. A high-resolution computerized tomography scan of the chest demonstrated dense calcification in the pericardium, right pleural thickening and nodularity, right pleural plaque without calcification, and density in the right middle lobe. Pulmonary function testing showed mild obstruction and borderline low diffusing capacity. Discussion: Based on the patient’s occupational history...

A Most Convenient Truce: Teaming up with Environmental Medicine to "Green" our Library Survivor Tour

Rosen, Marilyn
Fonte: Edward G. Miner Library Publicador: Edward G. Miner Library
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.06%
The Environmental Medicine Department received a pilot grant to integrate environmental medicine into the first and second year medical school curriculum. The lead investigators invited the library liaison to join their steering committee. In previous years, the library had created a scavenger hunt, called The Library Survivor Tour, to replace the traditional orientation for first year medical students. Teams, while scouting out answers, became acquainted with each other, the physical and virtual library space, and responded to some website usability questions. The tour was the perfect opportunity to fulfill one of the goals of the grant, to expand the medical students’ awareness of environmental health dangers at home and work. Librarians consulted with the researchers to identify these themes around which the questions would revolve: Water Pollution, Air Pollution, Lead Poisoning, Infectious Diseases, and Household Risks. Tasks that had involved finding articles titles or book subjects readily lent themselves to transformation along the assigned issues. Other questions focused on library operations, such as hours, etc.; these were redirected towards the topics of energy expenditure of computers and facts on paper use in American offices. The steering committee recommended a question on that would show students a list of environmental web resources . The librarians decided this would make an excellent usability question...

India : Diagnostic Assessment of Select Environmental Challenges, Volume 1. An Analysis of Physical and Monetary Losses of Environmental Health and Natural Resources

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.05%
This report provides estimates of social and financial costs of environmental damage in India from three pollution damage categories: (i) urban air pollution, including particulate matter and lead; (ii) inadequate water supply, poor sanitation, and hygiene; (iii) indoor air pollution; and four natural resource damage categories: (a) agricultural damage from soil salinity, water logging, and soil erosion; (b) rangeland degradation; (c) deforestation; and (d) natural disasters. The estimates are based on a combination of Indian data from secondary sources and on the transfer of unit costs of pollution from a range of national and international studies. The quantification and monetary valuation of environmental damage involves many scientific disciplines including environmental, physical, and biological and health sciences, epidemiology, and environmental economics. Estimates of the costs of degradation are generally reported as a percent of conventional gross domestic product (GDP). This provides a useful estimate of the importance of environmental damages but it should not be interpreted that GDP will increase by a given percent if the degradation were to be reduced to zero. Any measures to reduce environmental degradation will have a cost and the additional cost goes up the greater is the reduction that is made. Hence a program to remove all degradation can well result in a lower GDP. This report provides a measure of the overall damage relative to a benchmark...

Evidence based environmental management: what can medicine and public health tell us?

Frazey, Ioan; Salisbury, Janet
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 75958 bytes; 366 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
Introduction: Ioan welcomed participants and explained that the central theme of the workshop was that environmental managers could learn much from the approach to systematically reviewing and critically appraising scientific literature that has been developed in medicine and public health over the last 30 years. This method, referred to as ‘evidence-based medicine’ (EBM), has turned clinical medicine around from being based largely on ad hoc literature reviews, trial and error and expert opinion, to being firmly based on the best quality evidence available internationally. The idea that the model of EBM can be applied to environmental management has now originated in at least three ‘nodes’ where people either work or are linked in some way across scientific disciplines. Janet Salisbury made this connection when her consultancy work in science information took her between writing about clinical and public health issues for the NHMRC, on the one hand, and about environmental science and resource management issues on the other. She noticed that whereas in the medical and health areas there is a systematic approach to gathering, ranking and critically appraising evidence (eg for the efficacy of a clinical procedure or lifestyle change)...

An information sources map for Occupational and Environmental Medicine: guidance to network-based information through domain-specific indexing.

Silverstein, S. M.; Miller, P. L.; Cullen, M. R.
Fonte: American Medical Informatics Association Publicador: American Medical Informatics Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1993 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.95%
This paper describes a prototype information sources map (ISM), an on-line information source finder, for Occupational and Environmental Medicine (OEM). The OEM ISM was built as part of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) project of the National Library of Medicine. It allows a user to identify sources of on-line information appropriate to a specific OEM question, and connect to the sources. In the OEM ISM we explore a domain-specific method of indexing information source contents, and also a domain-specific user interface. The indexing represents a domain expert's opinion of the specificity of an information source in helping to answer specific types of domain questions. For each information source, an index field represents whether a source might provide useful information in an occupational, industrial, or environmental category. Additional fields represent the degree of specificity of a source in individual question types in each category. The paper discusses the development, design, and implementation of the prototype OEM ISM.

Environmental medicine in Germany--a review.

Seidel, Hans Joachim
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
In this review I describe the development of environmental medicine as a specialized field of clinical medicine in Germany. New scientific societies were founded, based on traditions of public hygiene and occupational medicine, as a reaction to environmental issues concerning human health. Environmental medicine issues were also addressed by independent "critical" physicians. The first institutions to accept patients were centers for environmental medicine affiliated with research institutions and/or with the public health service. Medical professional organizations, particularly the German General Medical Council, described the need for and formulated conditions for additional qualification for doctors in environmental medicine, including a 200-hr course. This course and a qualifying exam were passed by about 3,000 doctors, mainly from the public health service and from occupational medicine. Unfortunately, few general physicians in primary outpatient care were similarly trained. To date, no representative study has been conducted on environmental patients, but I include in this review a typical list of patients' complaints. I also summarize research activities typical for environmental medicine in Germany. Present problems concern accounting systems and...

Can methods applied in medicine be used to summarize and disseminate conservation research?

Fazey, Ioan; Salisbury, Janet G; Lindenmayer, David; Maindonald, John; Douglas, Robert M
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
To ensure that the best scientific evidence is available to guide conservation action, effective mechanisms for communicating the results of research are necessary. In medicine, an evidence-based approach assists doctors in applying scientific evidence when treating patients. The approach has required the development of new methods for systematically reviewing research, and has led to the establishment of independent organizations to disseminate the conclusions of reviews. (1) Such methods could help bridge gaps between researchers and practitioners of environmental conservation. In medicine, systematic reviews place strong emphasis on reviewing experimental clinical trials that meet strict standards. Although experimental studies are much less common in conservation, many of the components of systematic reviews that reduce the biases when identifying, selecting and appraising relevant studies could still be applied effectively. Other methods already applied in medicine for the review of non-experimental studies will therefore be required in conservation. (2) Using systematic reviews and an evidence-based approach will only be one tool of many to reduce uncertainty when making conservation-related decisions. Nevertheless an evidence-based approach does complement other approaches (for example adaptive management)...