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A constructive technology assessment of stationary energy storage systems: prospective life cycle orientated analysis

Baumann, Manuel
Fonte: IET Publicador: IET
Tipo: Relatório
Publicado em /01/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
Based on the presentation and discussion at the 3rd Winter School on Technology Assessment, December 2012, Universidade Nova de Lisboa (Portugal), Caparica Campus, PhD programme on Technology Assessment; Environmental concerns over the use of fossil fuels and their resource constraints have increased the interest in generating electric energy from renewable energy sources (RES) to provide a sustainable electricity supply. A main problem of those technologies (wind or solar power generation) is that they are not constant and reliable sources of power. This results inter alia in an increased demand of energy storage technologies. Related stake holders show a big interest in the technical, economic and ecologic aspects of new emerging energy storage systems. This comes especially true for electrochemical energy storage systems as different Li-Ion batteries, Sodium Sulfur or Redox Flow batteries which can be utilized in all grid voltage levels, a wide range of grid applications as well as end user groups (e.g. private households, industry). A prospective and active Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA) can help to minimize potential mismatches, wrong investments, possible social conflicts, and environmental impacts of new energy storage technologies in an early development stage. It is insufficient to exclusively look at the operation phase to assess a technology. Such an approach can lead to misleading interpretations and can furthermore disregard social or ecological impact factors over the whole life cycle. Different energy storage technologies have to be evaluated in a prospective manner with a full integrated sustainability and life cycle approach to form a base for decision making and to support technology developers in order to allow distinctions between more or less sustainable battery technology variations. Therefore CTA is used as a scientific approach using several “neighbouring” engineering orientated disciplines e.g. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA)...

Compressed air energy storage with waste heat export: An Alberta case study

Safaei, Hossein; Keith, David
Fonte: Elsevier BV Publicador: Elsevier BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.03%
Interest in compressed air energy storage (CAES) technology has been renewed driven by the need to manage variability form rapidly growing wind and solar capacity. Distributed CAES (D-CAES) design aims to improve the efficiency of conventional CAES through locating the compressor near concentrated heating loads so capturing additional revenue through sales of compression waste heat. A pipeline transports compressed air to the storage facility and expander, co-located at some distance from the compressor. The economics of CAES are strongly dependant on electricity and gas markets in which they are embedded. As a case study, we evaluated the economics of two hypothetical merchant CAES and D-CAES facilities performing energy arbitrage in Alberta, Canada using market data from 2002 to 2011. The annual profit of the D-CAES plant was $1.3 million more on average at a distance of 50 km between the heat load and air storage sites. Superior economic and environmental performance of D-CAES led to a negative abatement cost of −$40/tCO2e. We performed a suite of sensitivity analyses to evaluate the impact of size of heat load, size of air storage, ratio of expander to compressor size, and length of pipeline on the economic feasibility of D-CAES.

The integration of fluctuating renewable energy using energy storage

Connolly, David
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: Doctoral thesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations; none
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
peer-reviewed; Energy storage is often portrayed as an ideal solution for the integration of fluctuating renewable energy (RE) due to the flexibility it creates. However, there is uncertainty surrounding energy storage in terms of the technologies that currently exist, the additional RE it enables, and its role in modern electricity markets. These uncertainties have hampered the deployment of large‐scale energy storage and hence, this research examined these concerns. This research began by identifying the most feasible energy storage technology available for the integration of fluctuating RE, specifically for Ireland. Due to its technical maturity and large‐scale capacities, pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES) was deemed the most viable technology, but the literature outlined a lack of suitable sites for its construction. Therefore, a new software tool was developed in this study to search for suitable PHES sites, which was then applied to two counties in Ireland. The results indicate that these two counties alone have over 15 sites suitable for freshwater PHES, which in some cases could be twice as large as Ireland’s only existing PHES facility. Hence, the next stage of this research assessed the benefits of constructing large‐scale energy storage in Ireland. To do this...

A hybrid solar and chemical looping combustion system for solar thermal energy storage

Jafarian, S.; Arjomandi, M.; Nathan, G.
Fonte: Elsevier Sci Ltd Publicador: Elsevier Sci Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.06%
A novel hybrid of a solar thermal energy and a chemical looping combustion (CLC) system is proposed here, which employs the oxygen carrier particles in a CLC system to provide diurnal thermal energy storage for concentrated solar thermal energy. In taking advantage of the chemical and sensible energy storage systems that are an inherent part of a CLC system, this hybrid offers potential to achieve cost effective, base load power generation for solar energy. In the proposed system, three reservoirs have been added to a conventional CLC system to allow storage of the oxygen carrier particles, while a cavity solar receiver has been chosen for the fuel reactor. The performance of the system is evaluated using ASPEN PLUS software, with the model being validated using independent simulation result reported previously. Operating temperature, solar efficiency, solar fraction, exergy efficiency and the fraction of the solar thermal energy stored for a based load power generation application are reported.; Mehdi Jafarian , Maziar Arjomandi, Graham J. Nathan

Some Policy and Research Questions Related to Energy Storage

SIOSHANSI, Ramteen
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.1%
This paper provides a survey of the history and future of storage development in the US and policy and analytical questions relating to storage. The paper discusses the history of storage development in the US, and some of the limitations in how storage investment was justified beginning in the 1970s, when much of the US’s current storage capacity was built. Then we discuss potential uses of storage beyond serving as an alternative to peaking capacity and uses of storage by entities other than a traditional vertically-integrated utility. After we lay out some policy and research questions related to energy storage and show how questions such as regulation, market products, and ownership can greatly affect the true value of storage and incentives for and efficiency of storage use and investment.; Loyola de Palacio Programme on Energy Policy

Adequacy of generation system with large-scale deployment of solar power and energy storage

Gafurov, Tokhir
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
Solar power and energy storage technologies are expected to have a large contribution in future electricity supply mix. This implies their significant impact on generation system adequacy (GSA) and creates the need for their inclusion into reliability studies. The most precise approach for performing such analyses, particularly in the presence of time-dependent power sources and complex operating policies, is the sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) technique. The general objective of this thesis was to develop new or adapt the existing models for creating chronological time series of power production/consumption from solar power and energy storage plants that would allow incorporating the given power sources into the SMC-based adequacy assessments. The final models had to be reasonably simplified to reduce the overall calculation time. The simplification also concerned the minimization of the required specific knowledge and input data. To achieve the goal of the thesis, the following four tasks were completed. First, a solar radiation model (SRM) was developed to create synthetic values of the hourly total, beam and diffuse radiation for single or multiple locations. SRM represents a set of single-site univariate stochastic algorithms and other auxiliary models which deploy the clearness index as a primary predictor. The SRM extension for multiple locations...

Energy storage with PCM in fluidized beds: Modeling and experiments

Izquierdo-Barrientos, María Asunción; Sobrino, Celia; Almendros-Ibáñez, José Antonio
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Publicado em /03/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.04%
In recent years, the development of phase change materials (PCMs) has introduced new ways to increase the energy storage capacity of a system due to the high latent heat and high storage density of these materials. The aim of this work is to model the charging process of a fluidized bed with PCMs operating as an energy storage device. The temperature in the bed during the charging process of the fluidized bed has been modeled using the two phase theory of fluidization. The dense phase is taken to be perfectly mixed, and the bubble phase is taken to be in plug flow. The numerical model presented takes into account the fact that the phase change process of the bed material occurs over a temperature range and also estimates the energy stored in the wall of the bed and in the distributor plate. The energy equation of the dense phase is numerically solved in enthalpy form, considering the dependence of enthalpy on temperature for phase changes occurring over a range of temperatures. The model's validity is verified against experimental data for two granular materials: sand, a typical material used in fluidized beds, and a granular PCM with a mean particle diameter of 0.54 mm and a phase change temperature of approximately 50 °C. For the sand...

A review of energy storage technologie sfor marine current energy systems

ZHOU, Zhibin; BENBOUZID, Mohamed; CHARPENTIER, Jean-Frederic; SCUILLER, Franck; TANG, Tianhao
Fonte: Pergamon Publicador: Pergamon
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
Increasing concerns about the depletion of fossil resources and the issue of environment lead to a global need for producing more clean energy from renewable sources. Ocean is appreciated as a vast source of renewable energies. Considering marine renewable energies, it can be noticed that significant electrical power can be extracted from marine tidal currents. However, the power harnessed from marine tidal currents is highly fluctuant due to the swell effect and the periodicity of the tidal phenomenon. To improve the power quality and make the marine generation system more reliable, energy storage systems can play a crucial role. In this paper, an overview and the state of art of energy storage technologies are presented. Characteristics of various energy storage technologies are analyzed and compared for this particular application. The comparison shows that high-energy batteries like sodium–sulphur battery and flow battery are favorable for smoothing the long-period power fluctuation due to the tide phenomenon while supercapacitor and flywheel are more suitable for eliminating short-period power disturbances due to swell or turbulence phenomena. This means that hybrid storage technologies are needed for achieving optimal results in tidal marine current energy applications.; This work was funded by BMO (Brest Métropole Océane)

Energy Storage Technologies for Smoothing Power Fluctuations in Marine Current Turbines

ZHOU, Zibhin; BENBOUZID, Mohamed; CHARPENTIER, Jean-Frederic; SCUILLER, Franck; TANG, Tianhao
Fonte: IEEE Publicador: IEEE
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.07%
With regard to marine renewable energies, significant electrical power can be extracted from marine tidal current. However, the power harnessed by a marine current turbine varies due to the periodicity of the tidal phenomenon and could be highly fluctuant caused by swell effect. To improve the power quality and make the marine current generation system more reliable, energy storage systems will play a crucial role. In this paper, the power fluctuation phenomenon is described and the state of art of energy storage technologies is presented. Characteristics of various energy storage technologies are analyzed and compared for marine application. The omparison shows that high-energy batteries like sodiumsulphur battery and flow battery are favorable for smoothing the long-period power fluctuation due to the tide phenomenon while supercapacitors and flywheels are suitable for eliminating short-period power disturbances due to swell or turbulence phenomena. It means that hybrid storage technologies are needed for achieving optimal performance in marine current energy systems.

Modeling of Hydro-Pneumatic Energy Storage Using Pump Turbines

ORTEGO, Egoï; DAZIN, Antoine; CAIGNAERT, Guy; COLAS, Frédéric; COUTIER-DELGOSHA, Olivier
Fonte: SHF - Société Hydrotechnique de France Publicador: SHF - Société Hydrotechnique de France
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.05%
Modelling of a hydro-pneumatic energy storage system is presented in this paper. Hydro pneumatic storage aims to combine the good efficiency of hydraulic energy conversion and the space flexibility of pneumatic storage. The project aims to model a prototype which uses a rotodynamic multi-stage pump-turbine to displace a virtual liquid piston to compress air. To facilitate mass and heat transfers between both phases, there is no separation between the water and the air. A dynamic model of the storage system is developed using block diagram methodology. It takes into account characteristic curves of the pump-turbine and thermodynamic equations. Modelling results show that vapour diffusion contributes to reducing compression final temperature. This implies an increase of storage efficiency. A test rig construction will begin at the end of autumn 2011. It will be electrically connected to the “Distributed Energies” platform of ‘’Arts et Métiers Paristech’’ in Lille.; ademe

Wave propagation and thermodynamic losses in packed-bed thermal reservoirs for energy storage

White, Alexander; McTigue, Joshua; Markides, Christos
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.03%
This is the accepted manuscript for a paper published in Applied Energy Volume 130, 1 October 2014, Pages 648?657, DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.02.071; This paper presents a numerical and theoretical analysis of thermal wave propagation in packed bed thermal reservoirs for energy storage applications. In such reservoirs, the range of temperatures encountered is usually such that the solid storage medium will exhibit significant changes in specific heat capacity. This in turn results in non-linear wave propagation and may lead to the formation of shock-like thermal fronts. Such effects have an impact on the exergetic losses due to irreversible heat transfer, and should be taken into account during the design and optimisation of the reservoirs. In the present paper, the emphasis is on thermal losses due to irreversible heat transfer. Frictional (pressure) losses and heat leakage between the storage medium and the environment are also important but are not considered here. The implications of the results for storage material, and particle size are discussed briefly in the context of loss minimisation.

Second-generation high-temperature superconducting coils and their applications for energy storage

Yuan, Weijia
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Department of Engineering Publicador: University of Cambridge; Department of Engineering
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.07%
The full text of this thesis is not available due to ongoing discussions regarding publication; Since a superconductor has no resistance below a certain temperature and can therefore save a large amount of energy dissipated, it is a 'green' material by saving energy loss and hence reducing carbon emissions. Recently the massive manufacture of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials has enabled superconductivity to become a preferred candidate to help generation and transportation of cleaner energy. One of the most promising applications of superconductors is Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) systems, which are becoming the enabling engine for improving the capacity, efficiency, and reliability of the electric system. SMES systems store energy in the magnetic field created by the flow of direct current in a superconducting coil. SMES systems have many advantages compared to other energy storage systems: high cyclic efficiency, fast response time, deep discharge and recharge ability, and a good balance between power density and energy density. Based on these advantages, SMES systems will play an indispensable role in improving power qualities, integrating renewable energy sources and energizing transportation systems. This thesis describes an intensive study of superconducting pancake coils wound using second-generation(2G) HTS materials and their application in SMES systems. The specific contribution of this thesis includes an innovative design of the SMES system...

The Potential of Energy Storage Systems with Respect to Generation Adequacy and Economic Viability

Bradbury, Kyle Joseph
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%

Intermittent energy resources, including wind and solar power, continue to be rapidly added to the generation fleet domestically and abroad. The variable power of these resources introduces new levels of stochasticity into electric interconnections that must be continuously balanced in order to maintain system reliability. Energy storage systems (ESSs) offer one potential option to compensate for the intermittency of renewables. ESSs for long-term storage (1-hour or greater), aside from a few pumped hydroelectric installations, are not presently in widespread use in the U.S. The deployment of ESSs would be most likely driven by either the potential for a strong internal rate of return (IRR) on investment and through significant benefits to system reliability that independent system operators (ISOs) could incentivize.

To assess the potential of ESSs three objectives are addressed. (1) Evaluate the economic viability of energy storage for price arbitrage in real-time energy markets and determine system cost improvements for ESSs to become attractive investments. (2) Estimate the reliability impact of energy storage systems on the large-scale integration of intermittent generation. (3) Analyze the economic, environmental, and reliability tradeoffs associated with using energy storage in conjunction with stochastic generation.

First...

Energy Storage in Deregulated Market Structures

Morris, Gary
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project Formato: 2471597 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
Wind energy is able to provide electricity with a minimal environmental footprint and is therefore anticipated to play a much larger role in future electricity generation. Although wind is able to provide electricity with limited environmental externalities, it produces the most electricity at night, when there is little demand, and produces the least electricity during the day, when demand is highest. One approach to address this countercyclical production is the implementation of energy storage. The ability to store electricity enables an operator to match electricity production to demand. The focus of this project is to understand the revenue generating capabilities of energy storage in deregulated market structures. A model was developed to analyze the possible revenue generation of utility scale energy storage. The two main categories of energy storage, short-term and long-term applications, as well as two deregulated markets, ERCOT and CAISO, were evaluated. The objective of the analysis was to determine the energy storage application and market structure generated the most value. The model integrated the price of electricity and ancillary services with wind production data to determine the revenue generation of each application and each market. The results indicate that annual revenue generation between the different energy storage applications and the different markets is very similar. Although the storage applications provided similar revenues...

Nanomaterial synthesis and characterization for energy storage and conversion devices

DiLeo, Roberta A.
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.06%
Synthesis conditions and characterization techniques were investigated for a variety of nanomaterials that have potential for use in a plethora of energy storage and conversion devices, such as photovoltaics, thermionic emitters, lithium-ion batteries, and PEM fuel cells. A portion of this work focused on the development of a chemical vapor deposition synthesis technique for multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) using an iron dimer in xylene as a liquid catalyst precursor. The optimization of synthesis conditions for this technique was subsequently followed by the development of a quantitative purity assessment method for MWNTs from Raman spectroscopy, which involves the ratios of peak heights in Raman spectra. Initial work in the development of this purity assessment method was extended to a second Raman excitation energy, and a universal equation of purity was developed for two excitation laser energies. The capability exists to develop free-standing electrode papers from these synthesized MWNTs for several of the aforementioned applications. A large portion of this work also focused on the characterization of materials commonly used in organic solar cells with the technique of cyclic voltammetry. Electrochemical measurements of semiconducting CdSe quantum dots...

Single-walled carbon nanotube film for electrochemical energy storage devices

Rong, Jiepeng
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.1%
Wei, Bingqing; Development of materials and structures leading to high energy and power density electrochemical energy storage systems is a major requirement to the power needs of portable electronics and electric vehicles. Lithium-ion batteries and electrical double-layer capacitors are among the leading electrical energy storage technologies today. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), since the discovery in 1991, have exhibited promising applications in electrochemical energy storage by taking advantage of their unique mechanical, chemical, and electrical properties. Two concrete examples of CNT macro-film ‘s applications in lithium-ion batteries and electrical double-layer capacitors are demonstrated in this thesis. Lithium-ion batteries with substantially higher specific capacity and better cycling performance are needed in next generation portable electronics, especially if all-electric vehicles are to be deployed broadly as replacements for gasoline-powered vehicles. Silicon (Si) is an attractive anode material being closely scrutinized for use in lithium-ion batteries but suffers from a poor cyclability and early capacity fading. A simple method to fabricate tandem structure of porous Si film on CNT film to significantly improve cycling stability of Si film as lithium-ion battery anode materials was reported in this thesis. With the new structure...

Smart battery management systems: towards an efficient integration of electrical energy storage in smart regions

Gano, A. J.; Silva, Hugo M.; Correia, João Bernardino; Martins, Maria João
Fonte: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia Publicador: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.05%
Electrical energy storage systems for electric vehicles or stationary applications will be important actors in Smart Region's energy scenarios, strongly contributing to increase the efficient and sustainable use of available resources. However, massive integration of such systems stillposes many problems, requiring enhancements in batteries's life time, autonomy, reliability and cost. The development of new smart and accurate battery management systems able to communicate with a broad range of smart devices and energy management systems, to account with users' needs and smart management directives, are essential to operate such battery based energy storage systems, improving their overall performance. The paper discusses some of the technological developments needed in this domain and the requirements of smart battery management systems to comply with, presenting a modular hardward platform, developed at LNEG, as an example of required structure and functionalities, relevant both in electrical mobility and decentralized smart-grid energy storage systems.

Energy storage for wind integration: hydropower and other contributions

Estanqueiro, Ana; Ardal, Atle Rygg; O'Dwyer, Ciara; Flynn, Damian; Huertas-Hernando, Daniel; Lew, Debra; Gomez-Lázaro, E.; Ela, Erik; Revuelta, Javier; Kiviluoma, J.; Rodrigues, L.; Amelin, Mikael; Holttinen, Hannele
Fonte: IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Publicador: IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.06%
The amount of wind power and other timevariable non-dispatchable renewable energy sources (RES) is rapidly increasing in the world. A few power systems are already facing very high penetrations from variable renewables which can surpass the systems’ consumption during no-load periods, requiring the energy excess to be curtailed, exported or stored. The limitations of electric energy storage naturally lead to the selection of the well-known form of storing potential energy in reservoirs of reversible hydropower stations, although other technologies such as heat storage are also being used successfully. This paper reviews the storage technologies that are available and may be used on a power system scale and compares their advantages and disadvantages for the integration of fast-growing renewables, such as wind power, with a special focus on the role of pumped hydro storage.

Experimental analysis of a solar absorption system with interior energy storage

Pastakkaya,Bilsay; Yamankaradeniz,Nurettin; Kaynakli,Omer; Coskun,Salih; Yamanakaradeniz,Recep
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.03%
This study examines experimentally the cooling application of a solar absorption system with interior energy storage that uses two different auxiliary systems. The experiments were performed at Uludag University, Bursa, Turkey on the 3rd and 4th of August 2010 that had the approximately same average outdoor temperature, 31°C. A solar hot water was delivered via a 40 m2 array of flat plate solar collectors that drove a lithium chloride (LiCl) absorption heat pump with a cooling power peak of 20 kW. A solar-powered air conditioning system was designed for heating and cooling in a test room that had a total floor space of 30 m2. Chilled water produced in the evaporator was supplied to the fan coil units, and the heat of condensation and absorption was rejected by means of a wet cooling tower. An electric heater and an air source heat pump were used as auxiliary systems for the absorption cooling application for two different cases when the solar energy was insufficient. Temperature variations were recorded for the absorption machine components, the test room, and the outdoors. The cooling energy, thermal energy, and daily average coefficient of performance (COP) of the absorption system were calculated for two days. Solar absorption cooling was considered for two different auxiliary systems and is presented in this manuscript. The results showed that the daily average COP of the absorption system was 0.283 for Case 1 and 0.282 for Case 2. For both cases...

The potential impact of small-scale flywheel energy storage technology on Uganda's energy sector

Okou,Richard; Sebitosi,Adoniya Ben; Khan,Azeem; Pillay,Pragasen
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.06%
The energy crisis in Uganda has caused a sharp decline in the growth of the industry sector from 10.8% to 4.5% between 2004/5 and 2005/6. This crisis has escalated the power disruptions, which have had adverse effects on various sectors. While business owners have resorted to importation of fossil fuel generators that have increased the cost of production, others have resorted to battery energy storage systems to cater for short outages, which are limited in life span, depth of discharge, among others. These interventions have, thus, further increased the cost of goods and services. In addition, the rural populations using solar home systems incur high battery maintenance and replacement costs. In this paper an electromechanical flywheel battery is proposed as a better alternative in mitigating energy storage problems. It is found that by replacing the battery storage systems with the electromechanical flywheel battery, a saving of up to 35% on cost of energy can be made in the solar home systems and for the industry sector, the power disruptions could be reduced.