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As dimensões militares, ambientais e econômicas da segurança energética : análise a partir dos desafios e oportunidades do Brasil no contexto internacional; The military, environmental and economic dimensions of energy security : analisys from the challenges and opportunities of Brazil in the international context

Henry Iure de Paiva Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/01/2015 PT
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66.12%
A perspectiva defendida nesta tese parte do princípio de que as políticas e ações dirigidas a garantir os recursos energéticos para manutenção e desenvolvimento de um Estado e de sua população (segurança energética) admitem a pluralidade de concepções e a ampliação do conjunto de problemas confrontados, bem como uma diversidade de atores, contextos, interesses e objetivos. Diante dessa conjuntura, o objetivo geral desta tese é contribuir para a percepção de que os estudos científicos e as práticas políticas relativas à segurança energética não se restringem a uma perspectiva que relacione a temática exclusivamente à lógica da guerra, à "política de exceção", ao emprego de medidas excepcionais ou à consecução de objetivos predominantemente político-militares, tal qual defendem os autores das correntes clássicas e neoclássicos nos estudos sobre segurança. Dada a multiplicidade de questões com as quais está relacionada a segurança energética, os estudos científicos e as práticas políticas sobre segurança acabam, portanto, deixando de ser um domínio de significado e práticas restritos, os quais tendem, assim, a conviver com uma variedade de concepções e abordagens, em razão da diversidade desafios com os quais precisa confrontar. Além do embasamento teórico-analítico que sustenta a visão progressista aqui defendida sobre a compreensão dos fenômenos relativos à segurança energética...

The Eastern Mediterranean: energy, maritime security and strategic alliances

İlter, Kağan
Fonte: Monterey, California : Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California : Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
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Reissued 13 Mar 2013 to rearrange reference list and change distribution code from F to A.; Energy and maritime-history affairs have played particularly important parts in the alignment of regional and international relations in the Eastern Mediterranean, and Turkey has played a pivotal regional role in all these matters. This study examines the role of Turkey as it explores the Middle East more generally, from World War II to the present day, asking how dynamic strategic alliances and regional relations in the Eastern Mediterranean have been regulated in terms of energy and maritime-security issues. The thesis has five chapters: Chapter II discusses the geographic, political, military, and especially economic importance of the region. Chapter III provides a historical review of energy and maritime-related crises and case studies that occurred in the Eastern Mediterranean and their effect on the alignments of strategic alliances. Chapter IV presents the current situation in the Eastern Mediterranean in terms of energy and maritime security and examines Turkey`s increasing strategic role in the region. This chapter provides information about the importance of Eastern Mediterranean hydrocarbon resources, the geopolitical importance of Turkey as an energy hub...

Energy Security and Global Politics, The militarization of resource management

Moran, Daniel; Russell, James A.
Fonte: Routledge global security studies Publicador: Routledge global security studies
Tipo: Livro
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Book edited by Daniel Moran and James A. Russell. PDF is just of the Introduction to the book.; This book analyzes the strategic dimensions of energy security, particularly where energy resources may become the object of military competition. The volume explores the diverse risks that may arise from conditions of increasing economic competition and resource scarcity, and the full range of problems that may follow if major producers or consumers of energy lose confidence in the equity and efficiency of the market, and resort instead to the use of force to secure access to energy. It surveys the strategic outlook of both producer and consumer states, with emphasis on nations or regions (Central Asia, Russia, China, Venezuela, the Persian Gulf) where unstable or rapidly evolving political conditions may undermine the currently prevailing market consensus. It also examines the role of the United States as the chief guarantor of the global economy, and the challenge this unique role poses for its exercise of military power. The book contends that while the global energy market may be largely self-regulating, it is not self-defending. A failure to consider how it can be most effectively defended from emerging and potential challenges merely heightens the risk that those challenges may some day become real. This book will be of interest to students of energy policy...

Fueling the Dragon: energy security in China; is there a role for US policy?

Moseley, Albert G.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xviii, 172 p.;28 cm.
EN_US
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Many authors talk about the rising power of China and the "China threat." One area where conflict has frequently been predicted is in China's pursuit of energy security. This thesis explores China's energy situation, options available to meet rising demand, environmental impact of these options, and possible ways to mitigate these effects. The thesis then determines to what extent China will be unable to meet its needs from domestic sources and have to look overseas. Then, a review of China's most likely overseas suppliers will explain where China's actions could be threatening to U.S. interests, and where fears are overblown. The areas where concern is most warranted is in China's increasing dependence on imports for its oil needs, and its continued reliance on coal usage. The desire to ensure secure oil supplies has led China to deal with Iran and Iraq, despite U.S. desires to isolate these nations. China is also increasing its influence throughout the Middle East, Central Asia, South America, and retains claims in the South China Sea. While actions in these regions are not necessarily threatening, U.S. policy can play a role in keeping it that way; http://www.archive.org/details/fuelingdragonene00mose; Captain...

AN ENERGY BRIDGE TOO FAR? UNCONVENTIONAL NATURAL GAS INNOVATIONS AND EURASIA'S ENERGY BRIDGE

Dahl, Wayne J., Jr.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Energy security has become a key watchword in defining the contemporary security landscape. Although the 1973 Oil Crisis is likely the most significant energy dispute in modern history, energy conflicts continue to impact nations and citizens around the world. Several energy disputes with Russia in the first decade of the twenty-first century serve as poignant examples of contemporary energy insecurity. The 2006 Russia-Ukraine gas disagreement halted the delivery of 100 million cubic meters of gas to Europe; in 2007, the Russian-Belarus energy clash direly affected Germanys economy. Subsequently, Ukraine siphoned gas from its pipeline to Europe in an attempt to hold European households hostage during a row with Russia over gas prices in 2009. However, unconventional natural gas innovations, such as shale gas and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), are dynamically altering the energy security relationships between Russia, the former Soviet republics, and Europe. This thesis will utilize a comparative study of the contemporary natural gas pipeline market and current unconventional gas market to analyze the ramifications both markets have on European and Eurasian energy security, future prospects for expansions...

Natural gas and energy security in Trinidad and Tobago, and their impact on U.S. energy security and stability in the Caribbean

Kelshall, Jason R.
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 105 p. : ill. ;
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The current focus of the Global War on terror in the Middle East and in increased surveillance on U.S. borders has left a third border, the Caribbean, open to terrorist infiltration and attack. Large scale U.S. direct investment in the industrialized island nation of Trinidad and Tobago relative to the other islands in the region and Latin America, and the United State's current dependence on it for the majority of its liquefied natural gas imports, makes it an attractive target for terror. While there has been reasonable research on the effects of a domestic terrorist attack on the American economy, there has been little research on the effects of an attack on one of the United States critical energy sources. This thesis will examine this subject and analyze the possibility of such an attack and the projected dire consequences for Trinidad and Tobago, the region and U.S. energy security initiatives. This thesis will also attempt to focus on some policy implications for improved security in this area.; Degree received should read: M.A. in National Security Affairs. Error on title page.

The impact of Sino-Indian energy security ambitions on Burma's domestic and foreign politics

Randall, Dimitri.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: x, 63 p. ; 28 cm.
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The rivalry between China and India poses significant challenges for the regional security of Southeast Asia, and particularly for the security of Burma. Within the context of their rivalry, China and India compete over oil and gas resources in Burma. They seek not only to establish energy security for their own countries, but to reaffirm an economic and political presence in the region. This thesis will explore the impact of China and India's pursuit of energy resources on Burma's domestic and foreign politics. It will show how, over the last few years, the competitive agendas of these two countries over the natural resources in Burma, has strengthened the military junta in the country. In particular, it will detail how, with the revenues from selling its energy resources, the government of Burma is able to operate with relative autonomy and impunity in formulating authoritarian domestic policies and pursuing foreign policy. It suggests that progress on democratization and liberalization in Burma is likely to occur more slowly as a result of this access to energy revenue.; US Navy (USN) author

BRIC by BRIC : Governance and Energy Security in Developing Countries

Chan, Gabriel; Gabel, Mathias; Jenner, Steffen; Schindele, Stephan
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: ResearchPaper; info:eu-repo/semantics/other
EN
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Security of energy supply is a top priority of policymakers around the globe, especially in countries of the economically emerging world. This paper's aim is to investigate the link between the mode of governance in four developing countries and the way policies to secure energy supply are established. The paper looks at the four "BRIC" countries, Brazil, Russia, India, and China. These countries are experiencing rapid economic growth and poverty alleviation but differ in their modes of governance. The four BRIC countries provide a window into the particular relationship between governance and energy security policy in developing countries. From a theoretical stance, a public choice model is applied to energy policies to develop hypotheses relating the similarities and differences of incentive schemes between democratic and authoritarian governments to predict policy outcomes. We hypothesize that authoritarian regimes seek control and the capability to reward and repress social groups by providing public goods, such as energy supply. In the first empirical step, the current energy economic performance is examined by focussing on domestically available resources, de-concentration and decentralization of the supply side and energy development indices. Doing so...

Energy security in the EU and beyond

Pomfret, R.
Fonte: CD ROM Publicador: CD ROM
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2009 EN
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Past episodes of energy insecurity have been fleeting and the fears have been assuaged by market forces or technical change. This paper analyses the nature of the EU's current energy security problems, emphasising the increased importance of natural gas and high level of dependence on Russian supplies through a small number of pipelines. Building alternative pipeline routes is expensive and with finite reserves in any gas field pipelines may be mutually exclusive; especially since China has entered the market for Central Asian gas, new non-Russian pipelines to the EU may not be economically feasible. However, global gas reserves are large, and high energy prices in the 2000s encouraged investment in alternative delivery modes, notable liquefied natural gas (LNG). As a spot market for LNG emerges EU energy-importing countries may face volatile prices, but will not be exposed to insecurity of supply.; Richard Pomfret

Renewable technologies for energy security: institutions and investment in Fiji's electricity sector

Dornan, Matthew
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN_AU
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Renewable energy technologies have been advocated in Fiji's electricity sector on the basis that they improve energy security and serve as a risk-mitigation measure against oil price increases. This follows a decade of significant oil price volatility and historically high oil prices, which negatively affected the oil-dependent electricity sector in Fiji and other Small Island Developing States in the Pacific. This dissertation examines the extent to which renewable technologies can improve energy security in the electricity grid and in rural off-grid areas of Fiji. The main contributions from the research are a novel empirical analysis of generation cost-risk in the electricity grid; an analysis of institutions governing power sector investment; a survey, interview and focus group-based analysis of rural electricity supply; and an evaluation of implications of the research findings for policy. In Fiji's electricity grid, threats to energy security are primarily the result of increased generation costs and their impact on electricity prices. Risk is therefore financial. In this thesis, it is assessed using portfolio theory. Detailed data on costs and variability is fed into a stochastic portfolio model, which is developed to analyse the impact of renewable technologies on generation costs and financial risk in Fiji's electricity grid looking forward to 2025. The analysis demonstrates that renewable technologies can be expected to significantly improve the security of electricity supply through diversification...

Feeding the dragon: China's energy security Beijing's strategies in the 21 st century

Schiavo, Emilia
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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66.21%
China's energy security has become increasingly important in the 21st century. The growth of China's thriving economy and global standing are of central concern to the establishment of a viable energy security policy. Contextually, China's energy insecurity stems from its shift from major exporter, to major importer of oil in 1993. This marked a serious break from China's traditional energy procurement and China has subsequently remained a net importer in the new millennium. Energy security is therefore defined in this paper as China's ability to obtain an adequate physical supply of energy at a reasonable cost. However, increasingly, wider ramifications apply, including environmental and institutional insecurity as well as China's international relations. China's need for energy security in the 21st century is directly linked to its rapid economic growth and the shift in its demand /supply at the end of the last century. There are two main arguments surrounding China's energy security policy. The first involves securing China's energy supply through traditional means, focusing on strategic oil reserves and developing a strong military force. The converse argument asserts that China's energy demand must be tackled through non- traditional means. China' s energy security depends on the country's ability to minimise energy demand and focus on energy conservation and efficiency. These arguments appear to present competing priorities. However...

The Rise of China- Energy Security and International Ambition: How China's engagement in Africa and navy modernisation efforts are motivated by energy security concerns and domestic political desires for international influence.

Wagener, Sarah
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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66.09%
China's rapid development over the last few decades could almost be described as an 'economic miracle'. However, the trajectory of its economic development has also led to rising demand for energy resources, particularly oil. This has created significant problems for China- specifically, a reliance on imported oil, which is only going to increase. Thus, the Chinese government has turned to investing in Africa's vast, untapped resources in order to diversifY and secure its oil supplies. As these resources will need to be transported via critical sea lines of communication, China has turned its interests to developing an energy security strategy that will enable China's growth to continue, Simultaneously, it has been pursuing a program of naval modernisation, and is in the process of transforming it into a 'blue-water' navy. Together, these developments have attracted some international criticism that China is a military and economic threat that will ultimately destabilise the region. However, both China's investment strategies in Africa and navy modernisation efforts are motivated by energy security concerns and domestic political desires for increased international influence. The Chinese government seems to have staked their legitimacy on improving living standards for their people...

Affordable, reliable, secure, sustaninable: an integrated energy security framework for Australia

Trudgen, Kelly
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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66.1%
In 2004, the Australian Government released its energy white paper: Securing Australia's Energy Future. This paper was designed to lay out a policy framework that ensured Australia's ability to retain a cost-effective, reliable and sustainable energy supply in the face of rising demand for energy. Australia's economy relies on low-cost energy resources to remain healthy. Australia has been endowed with unusually high levels of easily accessible coal and gas, giving it a competitive advantage when competing to attract international investment and sell its exports on the world stage. Because of this endowment, Australia's economy is built on the development of energy­ intensive industries and the export of energy and energy-intensive production. To secure these industries, the Australian Government laid out a policy framework designed to develop the infrastructure necessary to ensure the security of supply could be maintained into the future at an affordable cost. However, in 2006 the Stern Review appeared, outlining the economic costs of climate change and forewarning the impending transition to a carbon constrained world. The Australian Government, therefore, now has to secure its economy against both a rising demand for energy and the possibility of future ramifications for emissions-intensive production. Australia's low-cost energy is predominantly supplied by coal...

Energy security, and implications for Australia's strategic environment

Cole, Courtney
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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66.04%
Oil began its life as an economic commodity in 1859. Since that time, the world has utilised oil to drive cars, fly planes, manufacture household items, and generate electricity. The use of oil is very much taken for granted, with most being blissfully unaware of our overwhelming modern day reliance on it. After a century of exploration and drilling however, the world's oil wells are beginning to either dry up or be deemed inoperable due to poor extraction ratios. Over a period of less than a decade, the world has managed to deplete a significant proportion of the oil that took some 2 million years to create within the earth's surface. Essentially then, we began running out of oil as soon as we began drilling for it. With current rates of drilling and consumption, it is impossible for world oil reserves to reach full capacity once again without the complete shut down of the oil industry. The occurrence of 'Peak Oil' and the inevitable and subsequent drop in oil availability presents itself as a challenge to nations and international relations itself. It is the responsibility of states to create for themselves a level of energy security conducive with national stability and the maintenance of peace between nations. If states do not secure themselves access to one reliable form of energy resource or another...

Strengthening Energy Security in Uruguay

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The Uruguayan energy sector is at the crossroads. As in the case of many other countries, high oil prices in the international market are taking their toll on an economy which imports all of its oil and oil products. Uruguay has also depended, to a large extent, on import of electricity from Argentina to complement its supplies. Trade in electricity and natural gas collapsed during the economic recession of 2001-02 and Argentina's crisis in the same period, which, together with the rise of oil prices, have brought to the fore questions of energy security (that is, ensuring sufficient, reliable and cost-effective supply of national energy demand) and the cost/risk trade-offs involved in depending on foreign suppliers. The Uruguayan government has rightly perceived this to be a fundamental economic issue and sought to put together a strategy for addressing it.

Bioenergy Systems in Canada: Towards Energy Security and Climate Change Solutions

Hacatoglu, Kevork
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 814966 bytes; application/pdf
EN; EN
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The energy security and climate change risks of fossil fuel consumption have stimulated interest in developing renewable energy sources. Canada’s vast biomass potential is an attractive local resource but high transportation costs are a barrier to implementation. This study assesses how transformative systems can enable large-scale bioenergy production through integration with existing transportation corridors and fossil fuel infrastructure. Potential bioenergy corridors include the network of natural gas pipelines and the Great Lakes St. Lawrence Seaway (GLSLS). Sustainable lignocellulosic biomass production integrated with traditional food and fibre production was assumed to occur on 196 Mha of land within 100 km of pipelines. Conservative (81 Mt of dry biomass per year) and aggressive (209 Mt) scenarios were investigated for converting biomass to synthetic natural gas (SNG) via gasification, methanation, and upgrading, yielding enough pipeline-quality gas to meet 20% to 60% of Canada’s current needs. A systems analysis approach was used to calculate bioSNG life-cycle emissions of 15 to 18 kgCO2e GJ-1, compared to 68 or 87 for conventional or liquefied natural gas, respectively. Production costs ranged from $16 to $20 GJ-1, which were high compared to regional gas prices ($5 to $10 GJ-1). The biomass potential on 125 Mha of land area within 100 km of the Canadian portion of the GLSLS and railway lines ranged from 36 to 80 Mt(dry) per year...

South America and energy security: An overview according to the international political system; Suramérica y la seguridad energética: Una visión a la luz del sistema político internacional

Gómez-Patiño, Dilia Paola; Universidad Militar “Nueva Granada”
Fonte: Universidade La Sabana Publicador: Universidade La Sabana
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
SPA
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Understanding energy in the planet put in the face of world governments to measure their generating capacity in the global hierarchy, especially when the privileges of energy policies are now a challenge for the South American nationsspecific case of this analysisin their processes and energy behavior as the region must tackle if its course in this area will own or multiglobal. So, the thoughts that support this content seek to do a balance in the context of the International Political System (IPS), essential realities that energy security in the world is facing and move the conceptual level and from there, to clarify what kind of relations should undertake States South Americans with the rest of the global community in order to decrease dependency and enhance its status as producing region, emphasizing to become possible leadership in alternative energy generation only if the integration of the Southern States is strengthened to take advantage in order to design a competitive politics for energy security for the world.; El entendimiento energético global pone a los gobiernos del mundo a medir su capacidad generadora en la jerarquía mundial, especialmente cuando los privilegios de las políticas energéticas constituyen hoy un reto para las naciones suramericanas —caso específico de este análisis— en cuanto a sus procesos y comportamientos energéticos...

Conceptualizing Energy Security

Winzer, Christian
Fonte: Faculty of Economics Publicador: Faculty of Economics
Tipo: Working Paper; not applicable
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66.1%
Energy security is one of the main targets of energy policy. However, the term has not been clearly defined, which makes it hard to measure and difficult to balance against other policy objectives. We review the multitude of definitions of energy security. They can be characterized according to the sources of risk, the scope of the impacts, and the severity filters in the form of the speed, size, sustention, spread, singularity and sureness of impacts. Using a stylized case study for three European countries, we illustrate how the selection of conceptual boundaries along these dimensions determines the outcome. This can be avoided by more clearly separating between security of supply and other policy objectives. This leads us to the definition of energy security as the continuity of energy supplies relative to demand. If security is defined from the perspective of private utilities, end consumers or public servants, the concept could further be reduced to the continuity of specific commodity or service supplies, or the impact of supply discontinuities on the continuity of the economy.

Measuring Energy Security

Winzer, Christian
Fonte: EPRG, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge Publicador: EPRG, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge
Tipo: Working Paper; not applicable
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66%
Continuity of energy supplies is a central aspect of concerns about energy security. Although the continuity of supplies can be influenced by a large number of risks, most models only analyse a small subset of risk sources and often neglect interdependencies between them. In this paper we introduce a probabilistic time-series model that quantifies the impact of inter-dependent natural, technical and human risk sources on energy supply continuity. Based on a case study of Italian gas and electricity markets we conclude that typical simplifications in time-series models and alternative approaches lead to a bias, which justifies the usage of detailed time-series models of interdependent risks such as the framework suggested in this paper, even though more detailed versions of this and other frameworks may quickly become very resource intensive.

Shale Gas in the United States: Transforming Energy Security in the Twenty-first Century *

Parraguez Kobek,Maria Luisa; Ugarte,Alberto; Campero Aguilar,Georgina
Fonte: UNAM, Centro de Investigaciones sobre América del Norte Publicador: UNAM, Centro de Investigaciones sobre América del Norte
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2015 EN
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The United States is the biggest energy consumer in the world, accentuating its energy security priorities in twenty-first century geopolitics. As an alternative to oil, shale gas has modified today's economic and global political scenario, providing Washington with new capabilities for redesigning its national and foreign energy policies toward innovative, self-sufficient development. The U.S. economy is highly dependent on energy resources; however, in the last decade, the shale revolution has aided the country in gaining relative economic stability in a volatile global economy. Shale gas has encouraged economic development in the North American region, while raising important environmental concerns about the extraction process called hydraulic fracturing or "fracking".