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Linking biodiversity indicators, ecosystem functioning, provision ofservices and human well-being in estuarine systems: Application of aconceptual framework

Pinto, Rute; de Jonge, Victor N.; Marques, João Carlos
Fonte: Elsevier Ltd. Publicador: Elsevier Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.86%
Assuming that human well-being strongly relies on the services provided by well-functioning ecosys-tems, changes in the ecological functioning of any system can have direct and indirect effects on humanwelfare. Intensive land use and tourism have expanded in recent decades along coastal ecosystems,together with increasing demands for water, food and energy; all of these factors intensify the exploita-tion of natural resources. Many of the interrelations between ecosystem functioning and the provisionof ecosystem services (ES) still require quantification in estuarine systems. A conceptual framework toassess such links in a spatially and temporally explicit manner is proposed and applied to the Mondegoestuary (Portugal). This framework relies on three consecutive steps and discriminates among biodi-versity structural components, ecosystem functioning and stability and the services provided by theecosystem.Disturbances in abiotic factors were found to have a direct effect on biodiversity, ecosystem functioningand the provision of ES. The observed changes in the species composition of communities had a positiveeffect on the ecosystem’s productivity and stability. Moreover, the observed changes in the estuarineES provision are likely to arise from changing structural and abiotic factors and in the present casefrom the loss or decline of locally abundant species. This study also indicates that linear relationshipsbetween biodiversity...

Serviços ecossistêmicos e a atividade minerária: um estudo de caso no Vale do Ribeira, SP; Ecosystem services and mining activities: a case study in Vale do Ribeira, SP

Longo, Mariana Hortelani Carneseca
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/06/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
As atividades antrópicas vêm continuamente influenciando as transformações no ordenamento do solo. A mineração, em suas fases de operação e desativação, é um dos maiores agentes de mudança do uso do solo e alteração da paisagem, o que, consequentemente, resulta em modificações na dinâmica das funções ecológicas, interferindo na oferta de serviços ecossistêmicos. Considerando a inclusão da abordagem dos serviços ecossistêmicos na avaliação ambiental de empreendimentos, a partir de um estudo de caso em uma mineração de rocha fosfática (apatita), localizada no município de Cajati - SP, o presente estudo teve como objetivo responder a seguinte questão: a atividade de mineração interfere na oferta local de serviços ecossistêmicos? Para isso, o método de análise utilizado foi fundamentado em um modelo de avaliação não monetária, com base nos padrões da atividade de mineração ao longo do tempo e do espaço, bem como na capacidade das diferentes classes de uso e ocupação do solo dessa atividade em fornecer serviços ecossistêmicos. O estudo concluiu que todos os serviços ecossistêmicos avaliados são afetados pelos impactos ambientais gerados pela atividade minerária, sendo que a alteração na extensão da área ocupada por floresta nativa - tanto redução quanto aumento - é o que mais influenciou no fornecimento de serviços ecossistêmicos potenciais. Além disso...

Identificação e valoração sociocultural dos serviços ecossistêmicos - o caso da comunidade de Marujá, Ilha do Cardoso - SP, Brasil; Socio-cultural identification and valuation of ecosystem services the case of Marujá community, Cardoso Island SP, Brazil

Daminello, Camila Jericó
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/12/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
A intensa relação entre sistema econômico e ambiental é tema de discussões e análises de diversas áreas de estudo, mas foi com o surgimento da Economia Ambiental e, posteriormente, da Economia Ecológica que este tópico teve o seu destaque. Mesmo com diferenças substanciais ambas as áreas têm como um dos seus objetivos a identificação e quantificação dos recursos e processos naturais que apresentam utilidade humana, chamados atualmente de serviços ecossistêmicos, através da técnica de valoração ambiental. Dependendo de seu enfoque, a valoração ambiental pode apresentar cálculos e concepções diferentes. Basicamente, existem três esferas de valor dos serviços ecossistêmicos: a econômica, a ecológica e a sociocultural. Por questões metodológicas, de definição e, principalmente, de relutância em discutir questões socioculturais, a última esfera se apresenta pouco desenvolvida e aplicada. A motivação de modificar este quadro se encontra na busca de um melhor entendimento dos diferentes usos dos serviços ecossistêmicos, com destaque para os chamados serviços ecossistêmicos culturais, a fim de uma tomada de decisão que se baseie nas três esferas de valor. Assim, com o objetivo de contribuir para o desenvolvimento da faceta sociocultural da valoração dos serviços ecossistêmicos...

Food-web composition affects cross-ecosystem interactions and subsidies

Romero, Gustavo Q.; Srivastava, Diane S.
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1122-1131
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.86%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Processo FAPESP: 04/13658-5; Processo FAPESP: 05/51421-0; P>1. Ecosystems may affect each other through trophic interactions that cross ecosystem boundaries as well as via the transfer of subsidies, but these effects can vary depending on the identity of species involved in the interaction.2. In this study, we manipulated two terrestrial bromeliad-living spider species (Aglaoctenus castaneus, Corinna gr. rubripes) that have variable hunting modes, to test their individual and combined effects on aquatic invertebrate community structure and ecosystem processes (i.e. decomposition rate and nitrogen cycling). We predicted that these terrestrial predators can affect aquatic invertebrates and nutrient dynamics within water-filled bromeliads.3. Aglaoctenus spiders reduced the richness, abundance and biomass of aquatic insect larvae via consumptive or non-consumptive effects on ovipositing terrestrial adults, but effects of the two spider species in combination were usually the linear average of their monoculture effects. In contrast, invertebrates with entirely aquatic life cycles were unaffected or facilitated by spiders. Spiders did not affect either net detritivore biomass or the flux of detrital nitrogen to the bromeliad. Instead...

Ecosystem approaches to human health

Nielsen,N. Ole
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.83%
The promotion of human health must be embedded in the wider pursuit of ecosystem health. Interventions will be impaired if ecosystem-linked determinants of health are not taken into account. In the extreme case, if ecosystems lose their capacity for renewal, society will lose life support services. Essential features of ecosystem health are the capacity to maintain integrity and to achieve reasonable and sustainable human goals. An ecosystem approach to research and management must be transdisciplinary and assure participation of stakeholders. These requisites provide a means for science to better deal with the complexity of ecosystems, and for policy-makers and managers to establish and achieve reasonable societal goals. The ecosystem approach can determine links between human health and activities or events which disturb ecosystem state and function. Examples are: landscape disturbance in agriculture, mining, forestry, urbanization, and natural disasters. An understanding of these links can provide guidance for management interventions and policy options that promote human health. An ecosystem approach to management must be adaptive because of irreducible uncertainty in ecosystem function.

Global mapping of ecosystem services and conservation priorities

Naidoo, R.; Balmford, A.; Costanza, R.; Fisher, B.; Green, R. E.; Lehner, B.; Malcolm, T. R.; Ricketts, T. H.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.85%
Global efforts to conserve biodiversity have the potential to deliver economic benefits to people (i.e., “ecosystem services”). However, regions for which conservation benefits both biodiversity and ecosystem services cannot be identified unless ecosystem services can be quantified and valued and their areas of production mapped. Here we review the theory, data, and analyses needed to produce such maps and find that data availability allows us to quantify imperfect global proxies for only four ecosystem services. Using this incomplete set as an illustration, we compare ecosystem service maps with the global distributions of conventional targets for biodiversity conservation. Our preliminary results show that regions selected to maximize biodiversity provide no more ecosystem services than regions chosen randomly. Furthermore, spatial concordance among different services, and between ecosystem services and established conservation priorities, varies widely. Despite this lack of general concordance, “win–win” areas—regions important for both ecosystem services and biodiversity—can be usefully identified, both among ecoregions and at finer scales within them. An ambitious interdisciplinary research effort is needed to move beyond these preliminary and illustrative analyses to fully assess synergies and trade-offs in conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services.

Ecosystem Services and Green Growth

Vincent, Jeffrey R.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
"Ecosystem services" has become a catch-phrase for the complex connections between the natural environment and human well-being. This paper considers the impact of changes in the supply of ecosystem services, and programs to increase their supply, on near-term growth of gross domestic product. It focuses on the relationship between locally generated versus transboundary services and growth in developing countries, where the highest rates of ecosystem degradation tend to be found. There is a common perception that there is a tradeoff between environmental protection and economic growth, especially in the near term. This perception can make policymakers reluctant to support environmental protection. Where the environment is a source of economically important services, then environmental protection may stimulate growth of gross domestic product instead of reducing it. The paper considers evidence on the economic value of regulating services; the degree to which ecosystems actually supply some of the services they are commonly assumed to supply; and the near-term growth implications of restoring ecosystems...

Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services, and Climate Change : The Economic Problem

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.86%
Climate change is both a cause and an effect of biodiversity change. Along with anthropogenic dispersion, climate change is the main driver of change in the geographical distribution of both beneficial and harmful species, crops, livestock, harvested wild species, pests, predators and pathogens. And the capacity of ecosystems to adapt to climate change depends on the diversity of species they currently support. This paper considers the connection between climate, biodiversity and ecosystem services. The impact of climate change on human wellbeing is measured by the change in ecosystem services caused by climate related change in biodiversity. Similarly, the role of species richness and abundance in climate change mitigation or adaptation is measured by the change in the climate-related services of biodiversity. The categories of ecosystem services are those applied in the millennium ecosystem assessment. The paper first considers how climate and biodiversity have been linked in recent attempts to link the two things. From the side of the natural sciences...

GEF Investments on Payment for Ecosystem Services Schemes

Global Environment Facility
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.94%
The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA), The Economics of Ecosystems & Biodiversity study (TEEB) and the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) provide a comprehensive and useful framework to understand human dependence on ecosystem services and how best to protect these services in perpetuity. In these three authoritative studies, payment for ecosystem services (PES) is listed as one of the mechanisms that should allow societies to pay for the maintenance of these services. Ecosystem services are receiving increased attention in the context of human development through The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity study (TEEB). This is an international initiative designed to call attention to the global economic benefits of biodiversity, and the growing costs of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation. In TEEB s Report for Policymakers, PES schemes are listed as potentially useful mechanisms to compensate those who maintain the flow of ecosystem services. The study emphasizes that PES schemes offer considerable potential to raise new funds for biodiversity or to use existing funding more efficiently...

Partitioning carbon fluxes in a Mediterranean oak forest to disentangle changes in ecosystem sink strenght during drought

Unger, Stephan; Máguas, Cristina; Pereira, João Santos; Aires, Luis M.; David, Teresa S.; Werner, Christiane
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.83%
Net carbon flux partitioning was used to disentangle abiotic and biotic drivers of all important component fluxes influencing the overall sink strength of a Mediterranean ecosystem during a rapid spring to summer transition. Between May and June 2006 we analyzed how seasonal drought affected ecosystem assimilation and respiration fluxes in an evergreen oak woodland and attributed variations in the component fluxes (trees, understory, soil microorganisms and roots) to observations at the ecosystem scale. We observed a two thirds decrease in both ecosystem carbon assimilation and respiration (Reco) within only 15 days time. The impact of decreasing Reco on the ecosystem carbon balance was smaller than the impact of decreasing primary productivity. Flux partitioning of GPP and Reco into their component fluxes from trees, understory, soil microorganisms and roots showed that declining ecosystem sink strength was due to a large drought and temperatureinduced decrease in understory carbon uptake (from 56% to 21%). Hence, the shallow-rooted annuals mainly composing the understory have a surprisingly large impact on the source/ sink behavior of this open evergreen oak woodland during spring to summer transition and the timing of the onset of drought might have a large effect on the annual carbon budget. In response to seasonal drought Reco was increasingly dominated by respiration of heterotrophic soil microorganisms...

Ecosystem services in practice: well-being and vulnerability of two European urban areas

Depietri, Yaella
Fonte: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.85%
La gran mayoría de la población europea habita en ciudades y el mejoramiento de la calidad de vida en zonas urbanas constituye un objectivo primordial de las políticas gubernamentales. Las ciudades se ven típicamente afectadas por apiñamientos, tráfico intenso, contaminación atmosférica y acústica, y factores que aumentan su vulnerabilidad con respecto a riesgos naturales. Esta Tesis explica cómo los ecosistemas contribuyen a mejorar la habitabilidad de las ciudades, con foco en zonas urbanas europeas medianas, sirviéndose para ello de estudios empíricos integrados (por ejemplo cualitativos y cuantitativos o socio-ecológicos), así como estudios relevantes con respecto a las medidas a tomar por las autoridades gubernamentales. Explora cómo y porqué las zonas urbanas pueden beneficiarse, en términos del bienestar de sus habitantes y de la reducción de las vulnerabilidad frente a riesgos naturales, de una más amplia gama de medidas y soluciones cuando se tienen en cuenta en forma apropriada los aspectos ecológicos utilizando diferentes escalas geográficas. La revisión de la literatura consultada para esta Tesis comprueba que las funciones reguladoras de los sistemas ecológicos a menudo proveen alternativas eficientes y rentables o soluciones complementarias para las infraestructuras que contribuyen a asegurar el bienestar de la población urbanas y reducir el riesgo de desastres. La investigación empírica en la ciudad de Colonia (Alemania) demuestra que las variables medioambientales juegan un rol central y decisivo...

POTENTIAL CHANGES IN ECOSYSTEM SERVICES FROM LAND USE POLICY IN PUERTO RICO

Smith, Miranda B.
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' Project Formato: 4794379 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2007 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.86%
Ecosystem services are self- evidently important to society as natural capital inputs into economic markets, the basis for life-support systems such as clean air, clean water, and climate control, and are integral to quality of life issues. These services provided by communities of living organisms in their natural environment are, in some instances, invaluable and irreplaceable. Conservation planners must focus on ecosystem services as conservation priorities and target levels of ecosystem services as conservation goals, in order to manage and conserve these beneficial services. This paper explores 1) how Puerto Rico’s draft national land use plan changes the environment’s capacity to provide ecosystem services and 2) the limitations to describing ecosystem services and values. The modeled losses in ecosystem service provision that occur with policy implementation support that ecosystem service conservation is not a goal of the draft land use plan. Limitations of modeling and mapping services likely inhibit policy consideration of ecosystem services, as do the limitations of describing numeric output of models, where they exist. Yet, qualitative outputs from the models provide useful information to policy makers about how land use policies will affect ecosystem services. This study is useful for future projects that wish to utilize ecosystem service mapping and valuation to review policy decision.

Federal Fisheries Management: An Adaptive Ecosystem-based Perspective

White, Callie
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project Formato: 507234 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.89%
Marine ecosystem health has been severely degraded by years of overfishing and ineffective management. Fisheries provide a source of food, jobs, and products and are backed by significant commercial, social, and industrial interests. Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSFCMA) was a major legislative benchmark for fisheries management, establishing regional management councils and national fishing standards. Single species, or target-focused management practices have been ineffective at preventing overfishing, bycatch, and habitat degradation. Fisheries continue to be unsustainable. The Sustainable Fisheries Act (SFA - 1996 MSFCMA amendments) and the MSFCMA reauthorization in 2006, seek to shift management’s perspective to an ecosystem-based approach. The SFA formed the Ecosystem Principles Advisory Panel (EPAP) to research federal fisheries and management and to develop a model to advise Congress and managers. The panel identified basic principles of marine ecosystems and developed policies for ecosystem-based management, promoting health and sustainability. The high degree of uncertainty associated with ecosystem-based management has created considerable opposition. Fishermen and industries are unwilling to trade current economic benefits for future marine health...

Mangroves in Ecuador: An application and comparison of ecosystem service models

Burgess, Paul; Li, Xiangyi; Qin, Siyu
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 21/04/2015 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.85%
Mangroves provide an abundant supply of ecosystem services such as coastal protection, fish nursery, recreation, and carbon sequestration. After a severe loss of mangroves predominately due to shrimp farming from 1969 to 2000, Ecuador realized the importance of mangroves and their related ecosystem services. In response, the government’s interest grew to understand ecosystem services valuation (ESV) models that provide robust valuation for the ecosystem services(ES). Working with the Conservation Strategy Fund (CSF), this report identified and evaluated applicable ESV models, valued and mapped the ecosystem services values of Ecuadorian mangrove with ESV models. This report aims to calculate the value of ecosystem services of mangroves with the existing modeling tools. The following models were initially considered: InVEST, AIRES, MIMES, Co$ting Nature, EcoServ, LUCI, and SolVES. Each model is different, and therefore likely to generate a different valuation of ecosystem services for the same area. In addition, the report compared the variance within models for four different scenarios: status-quo, lose-all, reforestation, full-recovery. Results include both numerical information and highlight the usefulness of each different modeling tool. Based on results and analyses...

Effects of urbanization on stream ecosystem functions

Sudduth, Elizabeth
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2011
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%

As the human population continues to increase, the effects of land use change on streams and their watersheds will be one of the central problems facing humanity, as we strive to find ways to preserve important ecosystem services, such as drinking water, irrigation, and wastewater processing. This dissertation explores the effects of land use change on watershed nitrate concentrations, and on several biogeochemical ecosystem functions in streams, including nitrate uptake, ecosystem metabolism, and heterotrophic carbon processing.

In a literature synthesis, I was able to conclude that nitrate concentrations in streams in forested watersheds tend to be correlated with soil solution and shallow groundwater nitrate concentrations in those watersheds. Watershed disturbances, such as ice storms or clear-cutting, did not alter this relationship. However both urban and agricultural land use change increased the nitrate concentrations in streams, soil solution, and groundwater, and altered the correlation between them, increasing the slope and intercept of the regression line. I conclude that although the correlation between these concentrations allows for predictions to be made, further research is needed to better understand the importance of dilution...

Geospatial Analysis of Select Ecosystem Services provided by the Protected Lands of The Land Trust for Central North Carolina

Montgomery, Alison; Zhu, Di
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 24/04/2013 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.85%
The Land Trust for Central North Carolina is a non-profit organization that works to protect and preserve land – natural areas, rural landscapes, family farms, and historic places within North Carolina’s heartland. For this client, we were tasked with performing an ecosystem service analysis to determine the benefits that The LandTrust’s properties offer to humans. Of the many ecosystem services these properties generate for human benefit, we examined water quality, carbon storage, and recreation using geospatial data available from the USGS, the US Census Bureau, and NC OneMap to demonstrate the value of land protection. To aid in future conservation decisions, we also determined land use change and forest type change in The Land Trusts’ counties of operation on non-protected lands. Through geospatial analysis, we were able to quantify these select ecosystem services, which will aid in making these abstract ecosystem services more tangible. Our non-monetary quantification of 3 ecosystem services from already protected lands will help The LandTrust describe the benefits of land for a range of different interest groups. With our land use and forest changes results, The Land Trust can further focus conservation efforts on areas that are likely to be impacted from development and land use change. This ecosystem service analysis also lays a framework for future ecosystem service studies...

Geospatial Analysis of Select Ecosystem Services provided by the Protected Lands of The Land Trust for Central North Carolina

Montgomery, Alison; Zhu, Di
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 24/04/2013 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.85%
The Land Trust for Central North Carolina is a non-profit organization that works to protect and preserve land – natural areas, rural landscapes, family farms, and historic places within North Carolina’s heartland. For this client, we were tasked with performing an ecosystem service analysis to determine the benefits that The LandTrust’s properties offer to humans. Of the many ecosystem services these properties generate for human benefit, we examined water quality, carbon storage, and recreation using geospatial data available from the USGS, the US Census Bureau, and NC OneMap to demonstrate the value of land protection. To aid in future conservation decisions, we also determined land use change and forest type change in The Land Trusts’ counties of operation on non-protected lands. Through geospatial analysis, we were able to quantify these select ecosystem services, which will aid in making these abstract ecosystem services more tangible. Our non-monetary quantification of 3 ecosystem services from already protected lands will help The LandTrust describe the benefits of land for a range of different interest groups. With our land use and forest changes results, The Land Trust can further focus conservation efforts on areas that are likely to be impacted from development and land use change. This ecosystem service analysis also lays a framework for future ecosystem service studies...

Ecosystem Services and Corporate Sustainability: In Theory and Practice

O'Shea, Tara
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 25/04/2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.85%
Ecosystem services are the flows of natural capital from the environment that benefit economies and societies. They are essential for human health and well-being, and include provisioning (food and genetic resources); regulating (pollination and climate control); supporting (water and nutrient cycles); and cultural (heritage and recreation) services. Despite their importance, ecosystem services have been undervalued in traditional economic approaches, resulting in their unsustainable use and degradation. Emerging research is changing this paradigm by quantifying the values of ecosystem service flows, with the implications becoming especially relevant for corporations. The complex interdependencies between ecosystems and business are beginning to be more fully understood and managed, and members of the corporate sustainability community are therefore recognizing the need to incorporate ecosystem service flows into sustainability assessments and standards. This Master’s Project contributes to a better understanding of why and how ecosystem services are increasingly considered in corporate sustainability, both in theory and in practice. The results of a comprehensive literature review, analysis of ecosystem services tools, and a survey of over eighty outdoor industry companies suggest that ecosystem services theory is ahead of corporate sustainability practice. Nonetheless...

Law, the laws of nature and ecosystem energy services: a case of wilful blindness

Hodas,DR
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.86%
Ecosystems services include the collection, concentration, and storage of solar energy as fossil fuels (e.g., coal, petroleum, and natural gas). These concentrated forms of energy were produced by ancient ecosystem services. However, our legal and economic systems fail to recognise the value of the ecosystem service subsidies embedded in fossil fuels. This ecosystem services price subsidy causes overuse and waste of fossil fuels in the free market: fossil fuels are consumed more quickly than they can be replaced by ecosystem services and in far larger quantities than they would be if the price of fossil fuels included the cost of solar energy collection, concentration and manufacturing of raw fossil fuels. Moreover, burning fossil fuels produces enormous environmental, human health and welfare costs and damage. Virtually no legal literature on ecosystem services, sustainable development, or sustainable energy, considers fossil fuels in this context. Without understanding stored energy as an ecosystem service, we cannot reasonably expect to manage our fossil fuel energy resources sustainably. International and domestic energy law and policy systems generally ignore this feature of fossil fuel energy, a blind spot that explains why reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels is fundamentally a political challenge. This paper will use new understandings emerging from the field of complex systems to critique existing legal decision-making models that do not adequately account for energy ecosystem services in policy design...

Ecosystem approaches to human health

Nielsen,N. Ole
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.83%
The promotion of human health must be embedded in the wider pursuit of ecosystem health. Interventions will be impaired if ecosystem-linked determinants of health are not taken into account. In the extreme case, if ecosystems lose their capacity for renewal, society will lose life support services. Essential features of ecosystem health are the capacity to maintain integrity and to achieve reasonable and sustainable human goals. An ecosystem approach to research and management must be transdisciplinary and assure participation of stakeholders. These requisites provide a means for science to better deal with the complexity of ecosystems, and for policy-makers and managers to establish and achieve reasonable societal goals. The ecosystem approach can determine links between human health and activities or events which disturb ecosystem state and function. Examples are: landscape disturbance in agriculture, mining, forestry, urbanization, and natural disasters. An understanding of these links can provide guidance for management interventions and policy options that promote human health. An ecosystem approach to management must be adaptive because of irreducible uncertainty in ecosystem function.