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Relação entre temperamento, caráter e bem-estar subjetivo: estudo em uma amostra de sujeitos saudáveis; Relationship between temperament, character, and subjective well-being: study in a sample of healthy volunteers

Henna, Elaine Aparecida Dacol
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/11/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.86%
Bem-estar subjetivo (BES) é um conceito amplo que representa a satisfação com a vida e inclui a saúde física e mental. O BES é composto por dois componentes: afetivo e cognitivo. A personalidade está entre os fatores responsáveis pela promoção e manutenção de BES e tem sido avaliada por testes que abrangem apenas os aspectos afetivos do BES. Uma avaliação mais completa é representada pelo modelo psicobiológico de Cloninger, que engloba também os fatores de desenvolvimento da personalidade (caráter). Apenas dois estudos utilizaram esse modelo e em ambos caráter foi fortemente associado a bem-estar, porém não está claro se essa associação representa um padrão específico das culturas estudadas. Objetivos: 1) Avaliar quais dimensões de temperamento e caráter estão associadas aos aspectos afetivos e não afetivos do bem-estar subjetivo; 2) Avaliar como fatores sociodemográficos se associam ao bem-estar em nossa amostra; 3) Avaliar se diferenças de personalidade entre os gêneros atuam sobre BES. Método: Estudo transversal realizado em uma amostra de conveniência. Participaram 273 voluntários saudáveis que responderam ao Inventário de Temperamento e Caráter, a subescala de afetos positivos e negativos da Escala de Bem-Estar Subjetivo...

Índice de Bem-Estar Econômico: uma proposta para os estados brasileiros; Index of Economic Well-Being: a proposal for the Brazilian states

Vidigal, Cláudia Bueno Rocha
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/01/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
96%
Amplamente relacionado à forma com que os indivíduos valorizam as temáticas humanas, sociais e econômicas, o bem-estar pode ser vislumbrado sob diferentes aspectos, no entanto, todos intimamente atrelados entre si. Uma das formas de se observar o bem-estar é através da dimensão econômica, cujo enfoque é direcionado aos elementos que proporcionam maior nível de comodidade econômica e satisfação individual ou coletiva. Tendo em vista a importância de indicadores para subsidiar a implementação e monitoramento de políticas públicas, assim como disponibilizar informações transparentes à população, a construção de um índice de bem-estar econômico que busque captar a realidade econômica e regional dos estados brasileiros se justifica. Considerando o exposto, o presente estudo teve por objetivo a construção de um Índice de Bem-Estar Econômico (IBEE) para as unidades da federação brasileira, considerando os anos de 2002 e 2008. Especificamente, buscou-se verificar os níveis de bem-estar econômico e de seus sub-componentes nos anos de 2002 e 2008, além de compará-los entre os estados brasileiros. Ademais, fez-se a proposta de analisar comparativamente os resultados do IBEE em relação aos valores apresentados pelo PIB per capita. Por fim...

Estudo comparativo sobre medidas de bem-estar econômico

Brugnara, Telmo
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.92%
O bem-estar econômico é uma preocupação legítima das pessoas. A fim de se saber o quão bem se está é necessário mensurar. Entretanto, são poucas as medidas para a contabilização do bem-estar econômico, e as que existem são pouco difundidas. Na falta de alternativas mais apropriadas, medidas com funções diversas, como o PIB, foram e são utilizadas como uma aproximação do valor do bem-estar econômico agregado; entretanto, tal situação não é a ideal. Avaliam-se, no presente trabalho, diversos aspectos da realidade econômica ligados ao bem-estar, bem como medidas elaboradas precisamente com o fim de mensurá-lo. Entende-se que as medidas avaliadas não têm a pretensão de lidarem com todos os aspectos do bem-estar econômico, até por se basearem em trabalhos em evolução. A possibilidade de maior padronização na metodologia e na valoração de determinados aspectos do bem-estar pode dar maior impulso a tal área do conhecimento econômico.; Concern for economic welfare is legitimate to people, and its measurement is of great importance to know how well a society is. Despite that fact, few are the measures that deal appropriately with economic welfare, and those that do are rarely known. In spite of the lack of specific indicators...

The role of traditional land use systems in the well-being of rural Timor-Leste

Henriques, Pedro Damião de Sousa; Narciso, Vanda; Branco, Manuel
Fonte: Hawthorn: Swinburne Press Publicador: Hawthorn: Swinburne Press
Tipo: Parte de Livro
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.75%
Natural ecosystems and traditional land use systems have an important role in the life and well being of the rural population of Timor-Leste. Our objectives are: 1) to analyse the different functions that natural ecosystems and land use systems supply to the rural populations of Timor-Leste, identifying the goods and services produced and their economic value; 2) to relate the services produced by land use patterns with Timor-Leste rural population well being; and 3) to discuss the impacts of the present situation and to foresee changes on the well being of rural Timor-Leste. This paper is based on a multidisciplinary approach incorporating contributions from several fields of knowledge, and uses documentary sources, field observations and interviews. The land use patterns identified in Timor-Leste are: natural and semi-natural ecosystems, subsistence agriculture, sacred, housing, basic infrastructures and industries and services. These land use patterns produce a set of goods and which are essential for the survival and well-being of Timor-Leste rural communities. Key-words: Timor-Leste, natural ecosystems, land, well being, development

Happiness, Economic Well-being, Social Capital and the Quality of Institutions

Mota, Gabriel Leite; Pereira, Paulo T.
Fonte: ISEG – Departamento de Economia Publicador: ISEG – Departamento de Economia
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2008 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.82%
Since Jeremy Bentham, utilitarians have argued that happiness, not just income or wealth, is the maximand of individual and social welfare. By contrast, Rawls and followers argue that to share a common perception of living in a just society is the "ultimate good" and that individuals have a moral ability to evaluate just institutions. In this paper we argue that just institutions, apart from their intrinsic value, also have an instrumental value, both in economic performance and in happiness. Thus happiness -- or subjective well being -- is analyzed as being a function of economic well-being, the quality of public institutions and social ties. Cross section individual data from citizens in OECD countries show that income, education and the perceived quality of institutions have the highest impact on life satisfaction, followed by social capital. Country analysis shows a non linear but positive influence of per capita GDP on life satisfaction, but also that unemployment and inflation reduce average happiness, the former effect being stronger. Finally, better quality public institutions and having more social capital also bring more happiness. We conclude with some policy implications.

The Importance of Resilience for Well-Being in Retirement

Nalin,Cristiane Pimentel; França,Lucia Helena de Freitas Pinho
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.74%
The increase in the elderly population has prompted research on retirement. This study investigated the importance of resilience, economic satisfaction, the length of retirement, and planning to well-being during retirement of 270 participants. The majority of this sample were men (64%), and the mean age was 65 years (SD = 5.7). The participants were retired members of 10 public and private organizations in Rio de Janeiro. Factor analysis and hierarchical regression were performed. The results showed that determined resilience (mastery, adaptability, confidence and perseverance) and socioeconomic satisfaction were the main predictors of well-being in retirement and explained 28% of this model. The findings suggest that well-being in retirement is closely related to socioeconomic satisfaction and determined resilience. Additional research should address the importance of resilience for the well-being of retirees who are or not members of retirement associations. Resilience attitudes should be promoted in Retirement Education Programs.

Family Economic Well-Being Following the 1996 Welfare Reform: Trend Data from Five Non-Experimental Panel Studies

Slack, Kristen Shook; Magnuson, Katherine; Berger, Lawrence; Yoo, Joan; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Dunifon, Rachel; Dworsky, Amy; Kalil, Ariel; Knab, Jean; Lohman, Brenda J.; Osborne, Cynthia
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.84%
This analysis summarizes trends in family economic well-being from five non-experimental, longitudinal welfare-to-work studies launched following the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA). The studies include a sizable group of parents and other caregivers who received TANF at the point of sample selection or shortly thereafter, and share a wide range of similar measures of economic well-being. This analysis provides descriptive information on how these families are faring over time. Our results confirm what has been found by previous studies. Many families remain dependent on public benefits, and are either poor or near-poor, despite gains in some indicators of economic well-being. We caution that these aggregate statistics may mask important heterogeneity among families.

Wealth, Welfare, and Well-being: Essays on Indebtedness and Normative Analysis

Robert, Christopher LeBaron
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.74%
Broad swaths of humanity have become richer, healthier, and better educated. More of the world’s poorest have access to affordable credit, enabling them to invest in a better future. But what are the consequences? Does greater wealth or greater access to credit make people happier or more fulfilled? This dissertation presents essays on the relationship between wealth and well-being, the welfare effects of both debt and debt relief, and the kinds of normative analysis that help to inform good public policy. The first essay, The Methodology of Normative Policy Analysis (joint with Richard Zeckhauser), concerns disagreements in policy analysis and discourse. It provides a simple taxonomy of disagreement, identifying distinct categories within both the positive and values domains of normative policy analysis. Using disagreements in climate policy to illustrate, it demonstrates how illuminating the structure of disagreement helps to clarify the way forward. It concludes by suggesting a structure for policy analysis that can facilitate assessment, comparison, and debate by laying bare the most likely sources of disagreement. The second essay, Wealth and Well-being, tests a fundamental prediction of economic theory: that greater wealth causes greater well-being. It uses a natural experiment to estimate the causal effect of income on subjective well-being. Among a population of indebted farmers in rural India...

Stability and Vulnerability of the Latin American Middle Class

Torche, Florencia; Lopez-Calva, Luis F.
Fonte: Taylor and Francis Publicador: Taylor and Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.74%
Using panel data-sets from Mexico and Chile for the first years of the 21st century, the authors examine the determinants of middle-class intra-generational mobility. The middle class is defined by means of a latent index of economic well-being that is less sensitive to short-term fluctuation and measurement error than standard measures of income. The authors find high rates of both upward and downward mobility in Mexico and Chile, indicating that the middle class has opportunities to move to higher levels of well-being but is also vulnerable to falling into poverty. In both countries, labour-market resources (education and occupational status of the household head and number of members in the labour market) are much stronger determinants of mobility than demographic factors, suggesting the importance of policies that foster human capital and protect workers from shocks. Rural middle-class households are substantially more vulnerable to falling into poverty and have little chance of advancing to upper classes than their urban counterparts.

Women and Development in Senegal: Microcredit and Household Well Being

Kane, Safietou
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.78%
The challenging living conditions of many Senegalese families, and the absence of a providing spouse, have led women to covet new economic opportunities, such as microcredit loans. These loans offer Senegalese women the possibility to financially support their households and become active participants in their economies by starting or sustaining their micro businesses. The study takes place in Grand-Yoff, an overpopulated peri-urban area of the Senegalese capital city Dakar, where most people face daily survival issues. This research examines the impact of microcredit activities in the household of Senegalese female loan recipients in Grand-Yoff by examining socio-economic indicators, in particular outcomes of health, education and nutrition. The research total sample is constituted of 166 female participants who engage in microcredit activities. The research combines both qualitative and quantitative methods. Data for the study were gathered through interviews, surveys, participant observation, focus-groups with the study participants and some of their household members, and document analysis. While some women in the study make steady profits from their business activities, others struggle to make ends meet from their businesses’ meager or unreliable profits. Some study participants who are impoverished have no choice but to invest their loans directly into their households’ dire needs...

The economic well -being of low -income immigrants in the U.S.: An examination of the impact of the 1996 welfare reform on immigrants

Song, Rui
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.91%
The 1996 welfare reform, for the first time in U.S. history, set a five-year residence requirement for immigrants to be eligible for federal welfare benefits. This dissertation assessed the impact of the 1996 welfare reform, specifically the immigrant provisions, on the economic well-being of low-income immigrants. This dissertation also explored the roles that migration selection theory and social capital theory play in the economic well-being of low-income immigrants. ^ This dissertation was based on an analysis of the March 1995, March 2002, and March 2006 Annual Demographic Supplement Files of the Current Population Survey (CPS). Both logistic regression and multiple regression were used to analyze economic well-being, comparing low-income immigrants with low-income citizens. Economic well-being was measured in the current survey year and the year before on the following variables: employment status, full-time status (35 or more hours per week), the number of weeks worked, and the total annual wage or salary.^ The major findings reported in this dissertation were that low-income immigrants had advantages over low-income citizens in the labor market. This may be due to immigrants' stronger motivation to obtain success, consistent with migration selection theory. Also...

Exploring Psychosocial Well-being and Social Connectedness in Northern Uganda

Horn, Rebecca
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.81%
This paper describes research conducted as the first stage in the process of developing a structured interview schedule to assess psychological distress, empowerment, social connectedness, economic well-being, and other variables among women in the Acholi region of Uganda. An interview schedule was developed following a review of the literature, individual interviews with women in northern Uganda, and group discussions with community members, members of women's groups, and community leaders. Following initial testing of the entire interview schedule, the reliability and validity of two sections-measures of psychological distress and social connectedness, were explored in more detail. Initial analysis suggests that both are potentially useful with this population. However, the measure of psychological distress did not distinguish clearly between a group of women identified by a local community-based organization (CBO) as showing signs of psychological distress and a group of women showing no such signs. Additional work is required to confirm the validity of the psychological distress scale used. It was found that psychological well-being was more closely associated with the amount of social support a woman receives than with how many social activities or groups she is involved with. Involvement in groups may not...

Economic Shocks and Subjective Well-Being; Evidence from a Quasi-Experiment

Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens K.
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.86%
This article examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, the article examines how this monetary shock affects individuals' evaluations of well-being. This is done by using microlevel survey data, which—incidentally—were collected in the days surrounding the devaluation. The chance occurrence of the devaluation during the time of the survey enables us to use pretreatment respondents, surveyed before the devaluation, as approximate counterfactuals for post-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals' evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short-term costs in the form of reductions in people's sense of well-being.

No Man is an Island: the Inter-personal Determinants of Regional Well-Being in Europe

Aslam, Aquib; Corrado, Luisa
Fonte: Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge, UK Publicador: Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge, UK
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.75%
There is a strong need to complement the analysis of social well-being at the European regional level to supplement existing, predominantly economic analysis. This work extends the measurement of well-being across the EU-15 regions in several ways. First, we assess the determinants of well-being using a multilevel modelling approach using data at the national, regional and individual levels. Second, we have extended the model to account for the effects of social interactions within each group, as well as intrinsic socio-demographic indicators and higher-level exogenous contextual factors. Empirical findings support the idea that well-being is strongly dependent both on these general forms of social interactions and on more specific individual characteristics. We find that there is some evidence of greater regional effects relative to national effects, but individual well-being continues to be affected most by micro-level phenomena.

Household Debt Across the Life Course: An Analysis of the Late Baby Boomers

Tippett, Rebecca Marie
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 1178336 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //2010 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.79%

As an aggregate, American households have shown rising debt levels over the past few decades, yet we do not understand how debt varies within households over time and what factors influence this variation in a meaningful way. To date, household debt appears predominantly as a component of measures of net worth, obscuring heterogeneity in the meaning of debt within a household. Moreover, most studies focusing specifically on indebtedness rely on cross-sectional data. In addition, no cohesive theoretical model exists to account for changing patterns of debt. This dissertation seeks to fill these gaps. Utilizing a variety of methodological approaches and drawing on longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, it adds sociological explanation to a social process that has been previously ignored and under-theorized.

First, drawing from literature in economics and sociology, I propose a dynamic, life course model of indebtedness that specifies three mechanisms driving differentiation in household indebtedness: institutional context (period), social heterogeneity, and patterned disadvantage, or structural risk. Second, I use multilevel logistic regressions to explore the association between the hypothesized mechanisms and the likelihood of holding non-collateralized debt. While experiencing negative life course risks increases the likelihood of holding debt...

The asymmetric experience of positive and negative economic growth: global evidence using subjective well-being data

De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Ward, George W.; de Keulenaer, Femke; van Landeghem, Bert; Kavetsos, Georgios; Norton, Michael I.
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, LSE Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, LSE
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/2014 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.81%
Are individuals more sensitive to losses than gains in macroeconomic growth? Using subjective well-being measures across three large data sets, we observe an asymmetry in the way positive and negative economic growth are experienced, with losses having more than twice as much impact on individual happiness as compared to equivalent gains. We use Gallup World Poll data drawn from 151 countries, BRFSS data taken from a representative sample of 2.5 million US respondents, and Eurobarometer data that cover multiple business cycles over four decades. This research provides a new perspective on the welfare cost of business cycles with implications for growth policy and our understanding of the long-run relationship between GDP and subjective well-being.

Money, well-being and loss aversion: does an income loss have a greater effect on well-being than an equivalent income gain?

Boyce, Christopher J.; Wood, Alex M.; Banks, James; Clark, Andrew E.; Brown, Gordon D.A.
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science, Center of Economic Performance Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science, Center of Economic Performance
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /01/2014 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.85%
Higher income is associated with greater well-being, but do income gains and losses impact on well-being differently? Loss aversion, whereby losses loom larger than gains, is typically examined with relation to decisions about anticipated outcomes. Here, using subjective well-being data from Germany (N = 28,723) and the UK (N = 20,570), we find that experienced falls in income have a larger impact on well-being than equivalent income gains. The effect is not explained by the diminishing returns to well-being of income. Our findings show that loss aversion applies to experienced losses, counteracting suggestions that loss aversion is only an affective forecasting error. Longitudinal studies of the income/well-being relationship may, by failing to take account of loss aversion, have overestimated the positive effect of income for well-being. Moreover, societal well-being may be best served by small and stable income increases even if such stability impairs long-term growth.

Employee well-being, intention to leave and perceived employability: A psychological contract approach

van der Vaart,Leoni; Linde,Bennie; de Beer,Leon; Cockeran,Marike
Fonte: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences Publicador: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.75%
Employability emerged as a "new psychological contract" that may have beneficial effects on both individual and organisational outcomes. The study set out to investigate the relationship between perceived employability and employee well-being on the one hand and perceived employability and employees' intention to leave on the other. The role of the state of the psychological contract, in terms of retaining employable employees while improving their well-being, was also investigated. Cross-sectional data were obtained from employees representing various organisations (N = 246). Contrary to expectations, structural equation modelling (SEM) indicated no significant relationship between perceived employability and well-being. Perceived employability was a significant predictor of employees' intention to leave the organisation. Results also indicated that the state of the psychological contract does not moderate the relationship between perceived employability and employee well-being and their intention to leave, respectively. The study stresses the importance of fulfilling promises made to employees ensuring that promises are fair and continuing to fulfil promises. The importance of interventions on individual-level, to enhance well-being in the workplace...

Influences on happiness and subjective well-being of entrepreneurs and labour: KwaZulu-Natal case study

Mahadea,Darma; Ramroop,Shaun
Fonte: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences Publicador: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.74%
Globally, individuals seek happiness, but not everybody is happy. Economic reasoning suggests that rising incomes with expansions in GDP enhance the quality of life and subjective well-being. This paper examines the influences on individual happiness, using ordinal logistic regression and chi-square analyses. Based on the findings of a small case study, the chi-square test indicated that a significant relationship exists between gender, education, ethnicity, children, marital status, employment relations, income and self-reported happiness. The study also found that, on average, happier people tended to be educated, married with children, and treated fairly at work. But having too many children produced a decrement in individual happiness. The ordinal regression results indicate that an individual's education, gender, age distribution and work environment are influential in producing higher levels of happiness. Entrepreneurs were found to have a significantly higher mean level of happiness than employees. In the workplace, individuals who experienced personal growth and were able to contribute their ideas tended to be happier, relative to others who perceived themselves to be 'restricted'.

Subjective well-being of adults with homozygous sickle cell disease in Jamaica

Thomas,JA; Lipps,GE
Fonte: West Indian Medical Journal Publicador: West Indian Medical Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.83%
OBJECTIVES: This study compared the subjective well-being of adults with homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease to a matched group of healthy adult peers. The differential influence of sociodemographic factors on the subjective well-being of Sickle Cell patients was also examined. METHODS: The Ferran and Powers Quality of Life Index and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule were used to assess subjective well-being. Seventy-five homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease patients and sixty-seven matched controls (adults with normal haemoglobin: AA) from the Sickle Cell Disease Cohort Study in Jamaica were interviewed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine differences between the groups. RESULT: Patients with Sickle cell (SS) disease were less satisfied than matched controls with their lives overall, their health and functioning, social and economic situation and psychological functioning. Sickle cell disease patients reported lower levels of positive affect but similar levels of negative affect as controls. Unemployed sickle cell disease patients were less satisfied than all other adults with their lives overall, health and functioning, psychological functioning and social and economic situation. Sickle cell disease patients with lower occupational status were less satisfied with their family life than all other adults. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that subjective well-being is compromised in patients with homozygous sickle cell disease. These patients may benefit from interventions designed to improve their subjective well-being.