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A democracia reduz a desigualdade econômica?; Does Democracy reduce the Economic Inequality?

Fernandes, Ivan Filipe de Almeida Lopes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/09/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
O objetivo primordial deste trabalho é analisar se a democracia é uma instituição política que produz resultados econômicos menos desiguais do que os regimes autoritários. A importância deste tema reside no fato que a própria promoção da democracia na agenda da política internacional tornou-se fundamental por inúmeras razões entre as quais sua suposta propensão em reduzir estas disparidades econômicas. Em primeiro lugar apresentamos no Capítulo 1 um balanço da discussão teórica e empírica a partir da qual constatamos que, a despeito do senso comum de que a democracia está relacionada a uma cidadania mais igualitária, os seus efeitos sobre a desigualdade ainda são discutíveis. Mesmo existindo um razoável consenso teórico de que os regimes democráticos devem, de alguma forma, produzir uma melhor distribuição de bens, os resultados empíricos são inconclusivos e contraditórios. Em seguida, diante de tal impasse empírico, propomos no Capítulo 2 uma reformulação da argumentação na qual entendemos que os efeitos da democracia sobre a desigualdade devem ser reinterpretados. A principal contribuição da tese reside na constatação, tanto teórica quanto empírica, de que estes efeitos são heterogêneos e interagem com o próprio nível de desigualdade...

Redistribuição e reconhecimento: o caso das políticas sociais nos municípios de Natal e Belo horizonte

Morais, Thais de Freitas
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Sociais; Desenvolvimento Regional; Cultura e Representações Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Sociais; Desenvolvimento Regional; Cultura e Representações
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.11%
This research refers to a comparative study of social policies from the cities of Natal (RN) and Belo Horizonte (MG). Understanding that the demands for social justice in contemporary societies require both economic redistribution, and cultural recognition, we set out to investigate, according to Nancy Fraser s formulations (1996, 2005a, 2005b, 2007), how these two municipalities incorporate these dimensions in their social programs.; Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior; Esta pesquisa se refere a um estudo comparativo entre as políticas sociais dos municípios de Natal (RN) e Belo Horizonte (MG). Entendendo que as demandas por justiça social nas sociedades contemporâneas exigem tanto redistribuição econômica, quanto reconhecimento cultural, nos propusemos a investigar, a partir das formulações de Nancy Fraser (1996, 2005a, 2005b, 2007), de que maneira esses dois municípios incorporam tais dimensões em seus programas sociais.

Agricultural Land Redistribution : Toward Greater Consensus

Binswanger-Mkhize, Hans P.; Bourguignon, Camille; Brink, Rogier van den
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
The main focus of this book is land redistribution. To forge greater consensus among practitioners of land reform, and to enable them to make better choices among the many options, the book describes and analyzes alternative broad paths of implementation, using examples and the detailed implementation mechanisms that were used in those examples. The objectives of this book are to review and analyze: a) the growing consensus on the importance of land redistribution; b) the historical origins of land concentration and past attempts to redistribute land; c) ongoing land reform programs, their mechanisms, achievements, and limitations; d) the wide array of objectives, mechanisms, and tools for land redistribution that remain the focus of heated debate; and e) how to develop, implement, and monitor an effective national program of land redistribution.

Do Poorer Countries Have Less Capacity for Redistribution?

Ravallion, Martin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
Development aid and policy discussions often assume that poorer countries have less internal capacity for redistribution in favor of their poorest citizens. The assumption is tested using data for 90 developing countries. The capacity for redistribution is measured by the marginal tax rate on those who are not poor by rich-country standards that is needed to cover the poverty gap or to provide a poverty-level of basic income, judged by developing-country standards. For most (but not all) countries with annual consumption per capita under $2,000 (at 2005 purchasing power parity) the required tax burdens are found to be prohibitive-often calling for marginal tax rates of 100 percent or more. By contrast, the required tax rates are quite low (1 percent on average) among all countries with consumption per capita over $4,000, as well as some poorer countries. Most countries fall into one of two groups: those with little or no realistic prospect of addressing extreme poverty through redistribution from the "rich" and those that would appear to have ample scope for such redistribution. Economic growth tends to move countries from the first group to the second. Thus the appropriate balance between growth and redistribution strategies can be seen to depend on the level economic development.

Do Poorer Countries Have Less Capacity for Redistribution?

Ravallion, Martin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.38%
Development aid and policy discussions often assume that poorer countries have less internal capacity for redistribution in favor of their poorest citizens. The assumption is tested for 90 developing countries. Most countries fall into one of two groups: those with little or no realistic prospect of addressing extreme poverty through redistribution from the "rich" and those that would appear to have ample scope for such redistribution. Economic growth tends to move countries from the first group to the second. Thus the appropriate balance between growth and redistribution strategies can be seen to depend on the level of economic development.

Fiscal Redistribution and Income Inequality in Latin America

Goñi, Edwin; López, J. Humberto; Servén, Luis
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.36%
Income inequality in Latin America ranks among the highest in the world. It can be traced back to the unequal distribution of assets (especially land and education) in the region. But the extent to which asset inequality translates into income inequality depends on the redistributive capacity of the state. This paper documents the performance of Latin American fiscal systems from the perspective of income redistribution using newly-available information on the incidence of taxes and transfers across the region. The findings indicate that: (i) the differences in income inequality before taxes and transfers between Latin America and Western Europe are much more modest than those after taxes and transfers; (ii) the key reason is that, in contrast with industrial countries, in most Latin American countries the fiscal system is of little help in reducing income inequality; and (iii) in countries where fiscal redistribution is significant, it is achieved mostly through transfers rather than taxes. These facts stress the need for fiscal reforms across the region to further the goal of social equity. However...

Land Reforms, Poverty Reduction, and Economic Growth : Evidence from India

Deininger, Klaus; Jin, Songqing; Nagarajan, Hari K.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.43%
Recognition of the importance of institutions that provide security of property rights and relatively equal access to economic resources to a broad cross-section of society has renewed interest in the potential of asset redistribution, including land reforms. Empirical analysis of the impact of such policies is, however, scant and often contradictory. This paper uses panel household data from India, together with state-level variation in the implementation of land reform, to address some of the deficiencies of earlier studies. The results suggest that land reform had a significant and positive impact on income growth and accumulation of human and physical capital. The paper draws policy implications, especially from the fact that the observed impact of land reform seems to have declined over time.

Decomposing Changes in Income Inequality into Vertical and Horizontal Redistribution and Reranking, with Applications to China and Vietnam

Wagstaff, Adam
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
It is acknowledged that the lack of any systematic link between growth and income inequality does not necessarily mean that economic growth is not accompanied by major changes in the underlying income distribution. The author uses a method devised to decompose the redistributive effect of a tax to analyze the extent to which vertical redistribution associated with changing incomes over time is offset or reinforced by horizontal redistribution and re-ranking. He uses panel data from China and Vietnam over a period when both countries grew spectacularly as they transitioned from planned to market economies, and yet experienced smaller annual percentage increases in income inequality. The results suggest that substantial amounts of horizontal redistribution and re-ranking in both China-and to a lesser extent Vietnam-more than offset pro-poor vertical redistribution. Without the horizontal redistribution and re-ranking, the Gini coefficient for China might have fallen between 1989 and 1997-substantially so.

An Ex-Ante Evaluation of the Impact of Social Insurance Policies on Labor Supply in Brazil : The Case for Explicit Over Implicit Redistribution

Robalino, David A.; Zylberstajn, Eduardo; Zylberstajn, Helio; Afonso, Luis Eduardo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.22%
This paper solves and estimates a stochastic model of optimal inter-temporal behavior to assess how changes in the design of the income protection and pension systems in Brazil could affect savings rates, the share of time that individuals spend outside of the formal sector, and retirement decisions. Dynamics depend on five main parameters: preferences regarding consumption and leisure, preferences regarding formal Vs. informal work, attitudes towards risks, the rate of time preference, and the distributions of two exogenous shocks that affect movements in and out of the social security system (independently of individual decisions). The yearly household survey is used to create a pseudo panel by age-cohorts and estimate the joint distribution of model parameters based on a generalized version of the Gibbs sampler. The model does a good job in replicating the distribution of the members of the cohort across states (in or out of them social security / active or retired). Because the parameters are related to individual preferences or exogenous shocks...

Party Age and Party Color : New Results on the Political Economy of Redistribution and Inequality

Keefer, Philip; Milanovic, Branko
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
This paper advances research on inequality with unique, new data on income distribution in 61 countries, including 20 Latin American countries, to explore the effects of political parties on redistribution. First, consistent with a central -- but still contested -- assumption of the political economy literature, left-wing governments redistribute more. In addition, consistent with recent research on the importance of party organization and the organizational differences between younger and older parties, older left-wing parties are more likely to internalize the long-run costs of redistribution and to be more credible in their commitment to redistribution, leading them to redistribute less. With entirely different data, the paper also provides evidence on mechanisms: left-wing governments not only redistribute more, they tax more; older left-wing parties, though, tax less than younger ones.

Does who wins matter more or less? An analysis of major party candidate views on some aspects of economic policy, 1987-1996

Taft, Peter
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 234364 bytes; 2130 bytes; 2233 bytes; 2237 bytes; 2144 bytes; 2396 bytes; 3124 bytes; 11349 bytes; 10184 bytes; 9933 bytes; 10541 bytes; 2167 bytes; 159 bytes; 3420 bytes; text/html; image/gif; image/gif; image/gif; image/gif; image/gif; image/gif; image/
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
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As Australia becomes increasingly absorbed into the global economy, the intensity in the debate over the desirability of the trend towards free market policies has been growing. Under particular scrutiny has been the redistribution of income and wealth via both direct means (such as welfare spending) and indirect means (for example, labour market regulation). In this paper, data collected by the Social Science Data Archives (SSDA) at the Australian National University (ANU) are used to show that the views of Coalition (that is, Liberal and National Party) and Australian Labor Party (ALP) candidates on some of these economic issues have converged over the past decade. As a group, ALP candidates have become more inclined to support free market policy prescriptions, and Coalition candidates less so. However, Coalition candidates are still substantially more likely to support free market prescriptions than are ALP candidates. By developing a regression model based on some personal characteristics of the surveyed candidates, it is shown that these characteristics have little relationship with the holding of free market views by candidates, disputing suggestions made elsewhere that such individual characteristics are significant determinants of views on the economic issues considered here. The conclusions are: * the convergence between the parties in the overall view can be explained by an increasing acceptance by candidates of both parties in redistribution via employment opportunities rather than by the direct funding of services; that is...

Economic development and income inequality: the role of political institutions and directed technological change in modern economies.

Sochirca, Elena
Fonte: Universidade Portucalense Publicador: Universidade Portucalense
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
Supervised by Óscar João Atanásio Afonso and Sandra Maria Tavares da Silva; The process of economic growth and its distributional e ects have major welfare consequences, creating advanced and developing economies. Modern growth theory highlights the role of capital ac- cumulation, human capital and technology in explaining cross-country economic and income variations. Forefront research exploring these questions emphasizes the primary importance of the institutional factor in determining technological progress and leading to di erent economic growth outcomes. This thesis aims at bringing its feasible contribution to the on-going research on income inequality and eco- nomic growth by considering the fundamental causes of structural, technological and political features of economic organisation. The rst part of the thesis investigates how institutions and policies, as important determinants of economic incentives, may condition economic growth and income inequality. Based on a comprehensive critical assessment of related literature, we rst develop a conceptual discussion on how institutional quality may in uence the e ciency of redistribution policy speci cally associated with human capital accumulation. We identify political rivalry as the main factor negatively a ecting the decisive role of political institutions and consequently distorting e cient redistribution policy. Given these theoretical insights...

Preferences for Regional Redistribution in Multi-Tiered Politics: The Role of Information and Survey Evidence

Balcells, Laia; Fernández-Albertos, José; Kuo, Alexander
Fonte: Instituto Carlos III - Juan March de Ciencias Sociales (IC3JM) Publicador: Instituto Carlos III - Juan March de Ciencias Sociales (IC3JM)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/draft; info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper
Publicado em 20/02/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.19%
What explains individual support for redistribution among regions within a country? Building on extant models, we hypothesize that such preferences are affected by regional income, conditioned by individual income and political ideology. We test hypotheses with an experiment embedded in a nationally representative survey in Spain, where we randomly inform some citizens of the true relative income of their region. The effect of this information is therefore akin to changes in relative regional income. We find that citizens' learning about a region's relative position affects preferences for redistribution; specifically, low-income respondents in relatively well-off regions become particularly against inter-regional redistribution. The effects of regional income are moderated by political ideology and priming of "out group" regions. The findings have implications for debates about the applicability of economic models to explaining support for regional arrangements, and about the role of second-dimensional "identity" politics.; This project has been funded by the Càtedra Pasqual Maragall d’Economia i Territori (University of Barcelona), and by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) (project number: 200910I070). For comments on previous versions of this paper...

Four Critiques of the Redistribution Hypothesis : An Assessment

Milanovic, Branko
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
This paper discusses and assesses critiques of the aurhor's reformulation of the median voter hypothesis and its testing. The author rephrases and redefines more correctly the redistribution hypothesis and clarifies its relationship with the median voter hypothesis. He also reviews four types of critiques leveled at his approach.

Global Redistribution of Income

Bourguignon, François; Levin, Victoria; Rosenblatt, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.38%
The actual distribution of world income across countries is extremely unequal, much higher than the within country inequality faced by most countries. The question studied in this paper is: How do international policies on aid, trade, and factor movements affect the international distribution of income? To begin to answer this question, the authors calculate the impact by decile of the actual level of aid flows and the effect on potential income of merchandise trade restrictions by high-income countries. They find that aid's distributional impact is equality enhancing. While it is extremely small in terms of changes in standard inequality measures, it is of some importance for the lowest decile of the world's income distribution. The authors also find that some of this impact is counteracted by lost potential income in the lower deciles from merchandise trade barriers imposed by high-income countries. In brief, there is a contradiction in international policies where aid's equality-enhancing effect is somewhat offset by protectionism. They also discuss some of the analytical difficulties with extending this analysis of redistribution to other forms of international factor flows-more specifically, migrant worker and profit remittances. The analysis presented is partial and static and ignores within country distribution. As such...

Demand for Redistribution in the Age of Inequality

Cavaille, Charlotte
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.4%
This dissertation investigates the dynamics of mass attitudes toward redistributive social policies in post-industrial democracies: How have these attitudes changed over time? What factors and mechanisms drive these changes? According to workhorse models in political economy, as inequality increases, support for redistributive social policies should also increase, especially among those most likely to benefit from them. Yet, despite a sharp growth in income inequality in the United States and the United Kingdom since the 1970's, there is no evidence that attitudinal trends match these predictions. Drawing from findings in the behavioral sciences on mental processes of attitude formation and on the role of other-oriented concerns, I argue that political economy's workhorse models perform well only under specific scope conditions. Once these conditions are accounted for, observed trends become less puzzling. First, workhorse models only capture one component of demand for redistribution, namely support for redistribution conceived as taking from the "rich" (redistribution from), and ignore a separate component, support for redistribution conceived as giving to the "poor" (redistribution to). These two facets of redistribution, I argue...

Context and Preference Formation: The Social and Political Origins of Support for Redistribution

Freeze, Kent
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.27%

When do individuals feel that economic inequality needs to be corrected through redistributive government policy, such as progressive taxes or social spending? Using a cross-national data set of public opinion across both developing and developed countries, this dissertation finds that political context plays a key role in determining how individuals view economic inequality and their support for redistributive social policy. An overarching theme throughout the dissertation is that political elites are key in making inequality a prominent issue for the public. This is done by framing individual attributes such as income, ethnic identity or geographic local (urban vs. rural) in a way that will either maximize or minimize support for redistribution. When political elites lack incentives to mobilize public opinion on the issue, it becomes unlikely that individual attributes such as income or ethnicity will predict support for redistribution.

; Dissertation

European identity and redistributive preferences

Costa-i-Font, Joan; Cowell, Frank
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /07/2015 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%
How important is spatial identity in shifting preferences for redistribution? This paper takes advantage of withincountry variability in the adoption of a single currency as an instrument to examine the impact of the rescaling of spatial identity in Europe. We draw upon data from the last three decades of waves of the European Values Survey and we examine the impact of joining the single currency on preferences for re-distribution. Our instrumentation strategy relies on using the exogenous effect of joining a common currency, alongside a battery of robustness checks and alternative instruments. Our findings suggest that joining the euro has a boosting effect on European identity; an opposite and comparable effect is found for national pride. We find that European identity increases preferences for redistribution, and that national pride exerts an equivalent reduction in preferences for redistribution.

Diversity and redistribution

Fernández, Raquel; Levy, Gilat
Fonte: National Bureau of Economic Research Publicador: National Bureau of Economic Research
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /08/2005 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
This paper examines how preference heterogeneity affects the ability of the poor to extract resources from the rich. We study the equilibrium of a game in which coalitions of individuals form parties, parties propose platforms, and all individuals vote, with the winning policy chosen by plurality. Political parties are restricted to offering platforms that are credible (in that they belong to the Pareto set of their members). The platforms specify the values of two policy tools: a general redistributive tax which is lump-sum rebated and a series of taxes whose revenue is used to fund specific (targeted) goods. We show that taste conflict first dilutes but later reinforces class interests. When the degree of taste diversity is low, the equilibrium policy is characterized by some amount of general income redistribution and some targeted transfers. As taste diversity increases in society, the set of equilibrium policies becomes more and more tilted towards special interest groups and against general redistribution. As diversity increases further, however, only general redistribution survives.

Intergenerational persistence of poverty in the UK: empirical analysis of economic outcomes for people born from the 1950s to the 1980s

Uzuki, Yuka
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.27%
Further income redistribution is an obvious way of alleviating child poverty. However, whether this effectively improves life chances of children growing up in poverty is debated, and there might be less expensive ways of doing so. Drawing on competing models explaining intergenerational persistence of poverty, this thesis investigates some of the links between childhood poverty and later economic outcomes in the UK. Aiming to identify policy areas where intervention would be helpful, it examines continuities and changes over time in these links and mechanisms that create them, analysing longitudinal data from people born in 1958, 1970 and the 1980s. This thesis shows that a negative effect of childhood poverty on adult earnings remains for the 1970 cohort (although not for the 1958 cohort), even after controlling for educational attainment in particular, and for other individual and family characteristics. This appears to be a reason that intergenerational persistence of poverty is stronger for the younger cohort. Teenage occupational aspirations do not seem to explain this residual effect, but unemployment in early working life contributes to it. An original contribution is the investigation of different effects of childhood poverty on later onset of and exit from unemployment...