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Opportunities for Men and Women : Emerging Europe and Central Asia

Sattar, Sarosh
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.29%
The countries of Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia have a long history of striving for gender equality, especially in the public sphere. Not only was this an important goal during the socialist era, but governments continued to pursue gender equality even during the difficult years of transition. The governments in the region allocated substantial resources toward the health and education of both women and men. They also adopted legislation that treated women and men equally in the labor market and they provided child care services. During much of the last century, the region surpassed countries both developing and developed in establishing the equal treatment of women and men. This report reviews changes in gender inequalities in Europe and Central Asia over the last decade, with a particular focus on economic opportunities both in labor markets and in entrepreneurial activity. In addition, given the importance of health and education in opening up opportunities for men and women in the economic sphere...

Emerging Europe and Central Asia - Opportunities for men and women

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.26%
Europe and Central Asia have suffered a setback in economic growth because of the recent global crisis, which revealed fundamental structural weaknesses previously hidden by the prosperity before the crisis. The major weaknesses are the large savings deficits, the lagging reforms in the social sectors, and the deterioration in competitiveness. Policies can address these weaknesses by taking into account the role of the behavior of firms, public spending on health and education, the consequences of demographic pressures, particularly on pension systems, and the bottlenecks created by skilled labor force shortages. This report reviews the performance of women and men during the past decade in three spheres: human capital, labor markets, and entrepreneurship. Similar to World Development Report 2012 (World Bank 2011a), it looks at the dimensions of endowments and economic opportunities. However, it does not cover issues related to agency, that is, the ability of actors to make independent choices and exercise control over their own actions. The data are analyzed to determine whether women and men are performing well compared with each other...

Finance and Economic Opportunity

Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli; Levine, Ross
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.25%
An influential body of theoretical research and an emerging line of empirical work suggest that the operation of the formal financial system affects the degree to which economic opportunities are defined by talent and initiative rather than by parental wealth and social connections. This paper discusses the theory of how financial markets influence economic opportunity and reviews recent empirical work on the relation between formal financial systems and poverty, income inequality, and economic opportunity. The authors consider recent efforts to measure the ability of households and small enterprises to access financial services, the impact of this access, and the mechanisms through which finance affects poverty and inequality. The authors argue that considerably more research is needed to identify which formal financial sector policies enhance the operation of the financial system in ways that expand the economic horizons of the economically disenfranchised.

Indigenous Peoples in Latin America : Economic Opportunities and Social Networks

Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Skoufias, Emmanuel; Lunde, Trine
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
Despite significant changes in poverty overall in Latin America, the proportion of indigenous peoples living in poverty did not change much from the early 1990s to the present. While earlier work focused on human development, much less has been done on the distribution and returns to income-generating assets and the effect these have on income generation strategies. The authors show that low income and low assets are mutually reinforcing. For instance, low education levels translate into low income, resulting in poor health and reduced schooling for future generations. Social networks affect the economic opportunities of individuals through two important channels-information and norms. However, the analysis shows that the networks available to indigenous peoples do not facilitate employment in nontraditional sectors.

Enterprising Women : Expanding Economic Opportunities in Africa

Hallward-Driemeier, Mary
Fonte: Washington, DC: Agence Française de Développement and the World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: Agence Française de Développement and the World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
This book brings together new household and enterprise data from 41 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa to inform policy makers and practitioners on ways to expand women entrepreneurs’ economic opportunities. Sub-Saharan Africa boasts the highest share of women entrepreneurs, but they are disproportionately concentrated among the self-employed rather than employers. Relative to men, women are pursuing lower opportunity activities, with their enterprises more likely to be smaller, informal, and in low value-added lines of business. The challenge in expanding opportunities is not helping more women become entrepreneurs but enabling them to shift to higher return activities. A central question addressed in the book is what explains the gender sorting in the types of enterprises that women and men run? The analysis shows that many Sub-Saharan countries present a challenging environment for women. Four key areas of the agenda for expanding women’s economic opportunities in Africa are analyzed: strengthening women’s property rights and their ability to control assets; improving women’s access to finance; building human capital in business skills and networks; and strengthening women’s voices in business environment reform. These areas are important both because they have wide gender gaps and because they help explain gender differences in entrepreneurial activities. It is particularly striking that while gender gaps in education tend to close with higher incomes...

Teenage Pregnancy and Opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean : On Teenage Fertility Decisions, Poverty and Economic Achievement

Azevedo, Joao Pedro; Favara, Marta; Haddock, Sarah E.; Lopez-Calva, Luis F.; Muller, Miriam; Perova, Elizaveta
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.28%
The pregnancy project sought to expose the existence, and challenge the validity, of stereotypes about Hispanic women. The charade explored the underlying motivations of the many who responded with a wide range of reactions. The specific objectives of this regional study are: to establish a thorough description of the magnitude of the issue and its potential implications for social advancement; to advance the understanding of the risk factors, motivations and impacts at the household level-as a determinant of poverty and a cause of intra-and intergenerational poverty traps; to illuminate the coping mechanisms and their individual and social implications; to highlight the gender-related issues that have historically provoked asymmetric costs to boys and girls; and to provide elements that support specific policies on this matter. In the last decade, Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have been moving in the right direction and the region has experienced important gains in gender equality of endowments (assets) and economic opportunities. In most LAC countries...

Tajikistan - Autonomous Adaptation to Climate Change : Economic Opportunities and Institutional Constraints for Farming Households

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.08%
Climate change presents significant threats to sustainable poverty reduction in Tajikistan. The primary impacts on rural livelihoods are expected to stem from reduced water quantity and quality (affecting agriculture), and increased frequency and severity of disasters. Options for farming households to autonomously adapt (and thereby move from climate vulnerability to resilience) include adoption of on-farm and off-farm measures. Farmland restructuring and the promotion of innovative rural production and land management measures have the potential to incentivize productivity and sustainable practices and reduce vulnerability, but achieving these objectives will rest on the behavioral responses of beneficiaries. In this context, assessing existing practices, as well as understanding institutional constraints to adaptation is crucial to improving economic opportunities for Tajik households and reducing vulnerability through well-designed interventions. This note examines the role of institutional factors (land tenure...

Enhancing Youth Skills and Economic Opportunities to Reduce Teenage Pregnancy in Colombia

Gimenez, Lea; Van Wie, Sara Hause; Muller, Miriam; Schutte, Rebecca; Rounseville, Megan Zella; Viveros Mendoza, Martha Celmira
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.28%
The Government of Colombia (GoC) has identified teenage pregnancy as a priority issue. The current strategic framework to address teenage pregnancy in Colombia is outlined in the CONPES 147, effective from February 2012 until March 2014. The CONPES 147 establishes a multi-sectoral framework that aims to address the determining factors of teenage pregnancy within Colombia (Box 1). The national strategy outlined in the CONPES 147 was piloted in 192 municipalities for youth ages 10 through 19. Building on this strategy, the Commission for the Guarantee of Sexual and Reproductive Rights is developing a new framework to guide the government’s policy and activities to address this important policy issue in the coming years. Parallel to its work on teenage pregnancy, the GoC released a national strategic framework to generate opportunities for Colombian youth in July 2014. The note includes an overview of the WDR 2012 gender equality framework and World Bank regional study on teenage pregnancy; outlines the Colombian country context with regard to gender equality and youth labor market outcomes; reviews interventions that develop life skills; and highlights how these interventions might be relevant to the GoC policies and programs related to teenage pregnancy prevention (CONPES 147) and youth labor (CONPES 173).

In Search of Opportunities : How a More Mobile Workforce Can Propel Ukraine’s Prosperity (Vol. 1 of 2) : Summary Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.39%
Ukrainians do not move often, and when they do move, they don't necessarily go to areas with good jobs and high wages. Internal mobility is about half of what is expected when comparing Ukraine with other countries. The lack of mobility is remarkable, given the availability of more jobs and better wages in several Ukrainian cities. Too few people are taking advantage of economic opportunities, and as a result, Ukraine's structural transformation has stalled. This is a sharp contrast to many other countries in Eastern Europe, where the transition to a market economy has been accompanied by a shift from widely-dispersed industries to a concentration of capital and production in a few areas, and from low- to higher-productivity sectors. Labor has largely mirrored the movement of capital and production. In Ukraine, however, labor is not flowing as smoothly to areas of high production. This report examines the mobility of workers inside Ukraine and their willingness to physically relocate from one area or region to another in search of better economic opportunities. The report explores the patterns and trends of labor mobility in Ukraine as well as the drivers and constraints of that mobility...

In Search of Opportunities : How a More Mobile Workforce Can Propel Ukraine’s Prosperity (Vol. 2 of 2) : Technical Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.32%
Ukrainians do not move often, and when they do move, they don't necessarily go to areas with good jobs and high wages. Internal mobility is about half of what is expected when comparing Ukraine with other countries. The lack of mobility is remarkable, given the availability of more jobs and better wages in several Ukrainian cities. Too few people are taking advantage of economic opportunities, and as a result, Ukraine's structural transformation has stalled. This is a sharp contrast to many other countries in Eastern Europe, where the transition to a market economy has been accompanied by a shift from widely-dispersed industries to a concentration of capital and production in a few areas, and from low- to higher-productivity sectors. Labor has largely mirrored the movement of capital and production. In Ukraine, however, labor is not flowing as smoothly to areas of high production. This report examines the mobility of workers inside Ukraine and their willingness to physically relocate from one area or region to another in search of better economic opportunities. The report explores the patterns and trends of labor mobility in Ukraine as well as the drivers and constraints of that mobility...

A Gender (R)evolution in the Making? Expanding Women's Economic Opportunities in Central America : A Decade in Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.27%
A Gender Revolution in the Making was produced by the World Bank as a special report on the dichotomy of the economic participation of women in Central America from 1997-2007. Central America made considerable progress during 1997-2006: stronger economic and political stability, overall positive albeit modest economic growth and improvements in socio-economic outcomes. Nonetheless, the panorama for women in the region, and in particular their ability to work and generate income is mixed. Labor force participation of women in Central America remained unchanged over the decade, with one in every two women of working age still not participating economically. This is lower than the rest of Latin America, a region with the lowest labor force participation in the world, although it has improved significantly in recent years. And yet, women in the region have made major advances in closing the gender earnings gaps and increasing their ability to earn income. Women's contribution to overall income generation in Central America rose significantly over the decade. This report aims to identify the factors behind these three trends. However...

Jordan Now : New Work Opportunities for Women

Vishwanath, Tara; Krishnan, Nandini
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.24%
Improving women's access to economic opportunities remains an important development challenge for the Middle East and North Africa region (MENA). Although impressive strides have been made region-wide in improving women's educational and health outcomes, the region's low female labor force participation rates are not commensurate with these achievements. The youth, especially young women, are very vulnerable, facing significantly higher rates of unemployment. Productive use of this increasingly well educated portion of the labor force promises faster and more sustained economic growth for the region as a whole. In this context, MENA countries are looking at various policies and programs to change this situation. This quick note looks at a pilot program in Jordan which is attempting to tackle this challenge.

Empowering Women : Legal Rights and Economic Opportunities in Africa

Hallward-Driemeier, Mary; Hasan, Tazeen
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.24%
This book looks at the effect of legal and economic rights on women's economic opportunities. It focuses on entrepreneurship because women in Africa are active entrepreneurs, and the links between property rights and the ability to enter contracts in one's own name affect entrepreneurial activities. The laws that are the focus of this book are not business laws and regulations, which are generally gender blind and presuppose that individuals can own property or enter into contracts. Instead, the book examines family, inheritance, and land laws, which oft en restrict these rights in ways that hurt women. This book surveys constitutions and statutes in all 47 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa to document where gender gaps in these laws impinge on women's legal capacity, property rights, or both. The book also looks at some labor law issues, such as restrictions on the types of industries or hours of work in which women may engage and provisions for equal pay for work of equal value. These laws affect women as employees and influence the attractiveness of wage employment versus entrepreneurship. They were also selected because they affect the choice of enterprise women may run. The equal pay for work of equal value provisions are also of interest as an indicator of the recognition of women's broader economic rights. This book provides a series of indicators that show whether a country does or does not provide particular legal provisions. Several points are worth emphasizing in interpreting these indicators. First...

Kyrgyz Republic : Gender Disparities in Endowments and Access to Economic Opportunities

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Gender Assessment (CGA); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.22%
The paper aims to provide an overview of the gender disparities in three major domains-human capital, labor market and entrepreneurship. In doing so, it builds on the framework of the World Bank's regional gender report opportunities for men and women: emerging Europe and Central Asia (World Bank, 2011) and the world development report on gender and development (World Bank, 2011). This joint gender assessment work has the objectives of analyzing the gender dimensions of development of the country and proposing a conceptual framework which will assist in explaining gender inequality and recommending public actions for consideration by policy makers and civil society. This report is an input into the larger country gender assessment. In agreement with the other partners, the scope of this report is limited to quantitative analysis of the gender aspects of the human capital development, labor market disparities, entrepreneurship, career advancement and wage differentials, using nationally representative household survey data. The rest of this paper is organized as follows: section one provides an analysis of gender disparities in human capital focusing on education and health outcomes...

Engaging Youth through Community-Driven Development Objectives : Experiences, Findings, and Opportunities

Adam, Sarah G.; Kaori Oshima
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.34%
Community-driven development (CDD) is an approach emphasizing local control over planning and an investment resource offers important advantages for engaging young people. The World Bank's portfolio of CDD projects provides a rich repository of experiences of how this approach is being adapted to enhance the inclusion of young people. This paper synthesizes the findings of a global stocktaking on CDD and youth. The study draws from a universe of over 60 active, planned, or recently closed CDD youth projects across all regions in which the Bank operates. Significant diversity exists among these projects in terms of the extent of youth focus; size, scale, and scope; contexts and conditions to which they respond; and objectives and desired outcomes. Youth engagement is examined through three interlinked dimensions of youth development: (1) endowments or the accumulation of human capital assets; (2) employment and economic opportunities; and (3) empowerment, encompassing the concepts of participation, voice...

Economic Opportunities for Indigenous Peoples in Latin America : Conference Edition

Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Skoufias, Emmanuel
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
Indigenous peoples make up less than 5 percent of the world's population, yet comprise 15 percent of the world's poor. The indigenous population of Latin America is estimated at 28 million. Despite significant changes in poverty overall, the proportion of indigenous peoples in the region living in poverty - at almost 80 percent - did not change much from the early 1990s to the early 2000s. Economic Opportunities for Indigenous Peoples in Latin America moves beyond earlier work which focused primarily on human development, and looks at the distribution and returns to income generating assets - physical and human capital, public assets and social capital - and the affect these have on income generation strategies. Low income and low assets are mutually reinforcing. Low education levels translate into low income, resulting in poor health and reduced schooling of future generations. Low assets not only reduce the ability to generate income, they also hinder the capacity to insure against shocks, thus increasing vulnerability. This is especially true when coupled with missing credit and insurance markets. There are significant complementarities across assets...

FYR Macedonia Gender Diagnostic : Gaps in Endowments, Access to Economic Opportunities and Agency

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Gender Assessment (CGA); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.4%
Former Yugoslav Republic (FYR) of Macedonia has closed several gaps in gender inequalities, particularly in education and health, but key disparities persist in access to economic opportunities and agency, particularly among certain ethnic groups. This report provides an overview of gender disparities in several outcomes related to human and physical endowments, access to economic opportunities, and agency. In addition, it offers potential explanations of these gaps and, in the process, identifies knowledge gaps to be addressed in future research. On average, FYR Macedonia has achieved gender equality in health and in education; however, gender disparities persist for certain population subgroups. However, women are more likely than men to choose general programs or social sciences as their primary field of education. Both men and women are unlikely to undertake additional training following their initial education, but each for different reasons: women are more likely than men to cite family obligations as a key factor in this decision (19 percent of women compared to 1.5 percent of men) as women devote a much larger percentage of their time to domestic activities. In addition...

Economic Opportunities for Women in the East Asia and Pacific region

Ellis, Amanda; Kirkwood, Daniel; Malhotra, Dhruv
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.38%
East Asia and the Pacific is a region of dynamic growth. Women have contributed significantly to this growth and have benefited from it through active participation in the labor market. However, women are still disproportionately represented in the informal sector and in low paid work. Efforts to identify barriers to women's business and entrepreneurial activities in the region are critical not only to facilitate inclusive growth in a national context but also to counter the increasing trend of female migratory flows in the region. This report highlights' both the challenges and the economic opportunities for businesswomen in the region offers some useful potential pointers for reform.

Strengthening Economic Rights and Women's Occupational Choice : The Impact of Reforming Ethiopia's Family Law

Hallward-Driemeier, Mary; Gajigo, Ousman
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.38%
This paper evaluates the impact of strengthening legal rights on the types of economic opportunities that are pursued. Ethiopia changed its family law, requiring both spouses' consent in the administration of marital property, removing the ability of a spouse to deny permission for the other to work outside the home, and raising women's minimum age of marriage. Thus both access to resources and the removal of restrictions on employment served to strengthen women's bargaining position within the household and their ability to pursue economic opportunities. Although this reform now applies nationally, it was initially rolled out in the two chartered cities and three of Ethiopia's nine regions. Using nationally representative household surveys from just prior to the reform and five years later allows for a difference-in-difference estimation of the reform's impact. The analysis finds that women were relatively more likely to work in occupations that require work outside the home, employ more educated workers...

Moldova : Gender Disparities in Endowments and Access to Economic Opportunities

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Gender Assessment (CGA); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.38%
This assessment provides a broad picture of gender disparities in Moldova in agency, education, health, and access to economic opportunities. The gender gap in education is small, yet it is greatest at higher levels of education. Moldova's health indicators are significantly underperforming compared to other Europe and Central Asia (ECA) countries, and male mortality is of greatest concern. Violence against women is one of the most frequent forms of human rights violations and is widely accepted by both women and men. Male and female labor force participation rates are low, and the gender gap is small. Moldova has one of the highest rates of human trafficking among neighboring countries and is primarily a source country. This paper is structured as follows: chapter one discusses factors which may shape the process of how men and women use their endowments and utilize economic opportunities. Chapter two covers human development disaggregated by gender, focusing on education and health. Chapter three examines the gender gap in employment and opportunities...