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The Political Economy of Democratic Governance and Economic Development

Branco, Manuel Couret
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.99%
Pure mainstream economics, based on methodological and sociological individualism usually ignores politics; development economics, on the contrary frequently integrates social and political factors in order to explain economic progress. Within this branch of economics, politics can mainly be dealt in two different approaches. The classical and neoclassical approach takes politics essentially as an obstacle to the expression of agents’ rationality, and, therefore considers it a disturbance. A more heterodox approach of development, on the contrary, puts politics at the heart of the process, development being an economic as much as a political process. Those, like A. Sen, that take human rights, both as a means and an end to development do not separate the two processes as well. Be that as it may, and despite the opposed ways in which these approaches take politics, all consider governance, and its democratic or authoritarian character, a key factor in the development process. The main purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of the issue of democratic governance within the development process. In the first part of the paper I will make a review of the main literature concerning the impacts of democracy on economic development and the importance of promoting democracy. In the second part of the paper the analysis will focus on the political economy of democratization...

Funding Economic Development: A Comparative Study of Financial Sector Reform in Vietnam and China

Rosengard, Jay K.; Thế Du, Huỳnh
Fonte: United Nations Development Programme and Fulbright Economics Teaching Program Publicador: United Nations Development Programme and Fulbright Economics Teaching Program
Tipo: Research Paper or Report
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.99%
Although there is considerable debate among economists as to the impact of financial sector development on economic growth, empirical evidence indicates a strong, direct link between the two. A recent comprehensive review of both the theory and research on this link between financial sector policies and economic development had a clear and unambiguous conclusion on the causal relationship between the two: A growing body of empirical research produces a remarkably consistent narrative: The services provided by the financial system exert a first-order impact on long-run economic growth. Building on work by Bagehot (1873), Schumpeter (1912), Gurley and Shaw (1955), Goldsmith (1969), and McKinnon (1973), recent research has employed different econometric methodologies and data sets in producing three core results. First, countries with better-developed financial systems tend to grow faster. Specifically, countries with (i) large, privately-owned banks that funnel credit to private enterprises and (ii) liquid stock exchanges tend to grow faster than countries with corresponding lower levels of financial development. The level of banking development and stock market liquidity each exerts an independent, positive influence on economic growth. Second...

11.437 Financing Economic Development, Fall 2003; Financing Economic Development

Seidman, Karl F.
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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EN-US
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65.99%
Focuses on financing tools and program models to support local economic development. Includes an overview of private capital markets and financing sources to understand capital market imperfections that constrain economic development; business accounting; financial statement analysis; federal economic development programs; and public finance tools. Program models covered include revolving loan funds, guarantee programs, venture capital funds, bank holding companies, community development loan funds and credit unions, micro enterprise funds, and the use of the Community Reinvestment Act to leverage bank financing.

11.967 Special Studies in Urban Studies: Economic Development Planning Skills, January (IAP) 2003; Special Studies in Urban Studies: Economic Development Planning Skills

Seidman, Karl F.
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
EN-US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.03%
Small group study of advanced subjects under staff supervision. For graduate students wishing to pursue further study in advanced areas of urban studies and city and regional planning not covered in regular subjects of instruction. From the course home page: Course Description Economic Development Planning Skills introduces analytical tools that are used to assess local economic development conditions, issues, and opportunities as part of formulating economic development plans. The course is designed to provide MCP students with skills needed for applied economic development planning work in other courses, particularly Economic Development Planning (11.438) and Revitalizing Urban Main Streets (11.439). Consequently, it omits many aspects of economic development planning and does not provide a complete overview or introduction to economic development practice.

11.471 Targeting the Poor: Small Firms, Workers, and Local Economic Development, Fall 2004; Targeting the Poor: Small Firms, Workers, and Local Economic Development

Tendler, Judith
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
EN-US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.03%
Covers conditions under which public-sector policies, programs, and projects succeed in enhancing the economic activities of poorer groups and micro-regions in developing countries. Topics include local economic development; small enterprises; various forms of collective action; labor and worker associations; nongovernment organizations. Links these to literature on poverty, economic development, and reform of government, and to types of projects, tasks, and environments that are conducive to equitable outcomes. From the course home page: Course Description This course treats public-sector policies, programs, and projects that attempt to reduce poverty and unemployment in developing countries, mainly through directly income-generating activities and employment. Topics covered are: * employment and local economic development, particularly as related to the informal sector, small and medium enterprises, and workers; * the political economy of local economic-development initiatives; * lessons from policy and implementation experiences; * workers and labor issues; and * associationalism among small (and often medium) firms, and among workers.

Economic Development and Multilateral Trade Cooperation

Evenett, Simon J.; Hoekman, Bernard M.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.99%
How can international trade agreements promote development and how can rules be designed to benefit poor countries? Can multilateral trade cooperation in the World Trade Organization (WTO) help developing countries create and strengthen institutions and regulatory regimes that will enhance the gains from trade and integration into the global economy? And should this even be done? These are questions that confront policy makers and citizens in both rich and poor countries, and they are the subject of this publication. It analyzes how the trading system could be made more supportive of economic development, without eroding the core WTO functions.

Decentralization, Economic Development, and Growth in Turkish Provinces

Tosun, Mehmet Serkan; Yilmaz, Serdar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.99%
There have been important developments in the decentralization of the government structure in Turkey since the early 1980s. This paper examines economic development and growth in Turkish provinces. Although there is a rich literature on the economic effects of government decentralization from both developed and developing countries, these effects have not been examined widely in the context of Turkish local governments. The authors first describe changes since the early 1980s and recent reform efforts. They then provide an empirical analysis of the effects of decentralization in Turkish provinces using cross-sectional and panel data approaches. The panel dataset consists of 67 provinces from 1976 to 2001. The analysis examines whether variations in local decentralization across these provinces and across time have had a significant impact on economic development and growth in those provinces. The findings suggest a weak negative economic effect of decentralization through a number of municipalities per capita. However...

Analysis, Assessment for Potential Development of the Central Regional Clusters to Prepare Master Planning of Socio-economic Development in the Context of Economic Integration

Dong, Hoang Sy; Lan, Nguyen Thi Thu; Vinh, Nguyen Quang
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.02%
This report provides an analysis of the land and water resources, as required by the World Bank, and focuses particularly on sea ports and potential tourism. The analysis identifies shortcomings, challenges, opportunities and advantages in competitive operations, that would make the best use of internal resources. The report also looks at Issues in industrialization and modernization. At present, the Prime Minister assigned the Ministry of Planning and Investment (MPI) to prepare the regional development planning until 2020 for 6 main regions. Therefore, the report revisits the socio-economic development plan for the north-central region and south-central coast until 2010, as an necessary objective to ensure quality improvement and feasiblity of the plans.

Caribbean Economic Overview 2002 : Macroeconomic Volatility, Household Vulnerability, and Institutional and Policy Responses

Caribbean Group for Cooperation in Economic Development
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.01%
This report uses an analytical framework that take into account the effect of natural disasters as well as country size in measuring the serious implications macroeconomic or aggregate volatility (marked period-to-period variations in measures of macroeconomic performance, such as GDP growth) has for individuals and households in Caribbean countries. The report is organized as follows: Chapter 1 reviews the recent economic and social development of the Caribbean. Chapter 2 begins by characterizing volatility of aggregate income and consumption growth and by employing regression analysis to assess the relative importance of the different factors that would be expected to determine macroeconomic volatility in the Caribbean. The chapter also examines factors that might be expected to influence the extent to which macroeconomic volatility is absorbed or amplified-that is, the extent of financial market development, the behavior of remittances, and the size and volatility of external capital flows. Chapter 3 addresses the broad question of how macroeconomic volatility in the Caribbean affects households and their income and consumption...

Economic Development As Opportunity Equalization

Roemer, John E.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.02%
Economic development should be conceived of as the degree to which an economy has implemented an efficient and just distribution of economic resources. The ubiquitous measure of GDP per capita reflects a utilitarian conception of justice, where individual utility is defined as personal income, and social welfare is the average of utilities in a population. A more attractive conception of justice is opportunity-equalization. Here, a two-dimensional measure of economic development is proposed, based upon viewing individuals incomes as a consequence of circumstances, effort, and policy. The first dimension is the average income level of those in the society with the most disadvantaged circumstances, and the second dimension is the degree to which total income inequality is due to differential effort, as opposed to differential circumstances. This pair of numbers is computed for a set of 22 European countries. No country dominates all others on both dimensions. The two-dimensional measure induces a partial ordering of countries with respect to development.

An Analysis of the Factors that Influence Regional Economic Development Cooperation

Murphy, Terence G
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.01%
This dissertation is a comparative case study of regional cooperation in the field of economic development. In the 21st century global economy, proponents of regionalism have put forth fresh arguments for collective action. A regional approach to economic development activity presents a classic social dilemma: How can local officials collectively improve the economic prospects of a region, and remain autonomous to act in the best interest of the local community? This research examines the role of social capital in overcoming this social dilemma. Three (3) comparable Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) form the empirical basis of this research. The Houston MSA, the Atlanta MSA and the Miami MSA present distinct variations of regionalized economic development activity. This dissertation seeks to explain this disparity in the dependent variable. The hypothesis is that accrued social capital is crucial to obtaining economic development cooperative agreements. This qualitative research utilized secondary demographic and economic databases, survey instruments, interviews, field observations, and a review of legislative and administrative decisions to formulate a clear understanding of the factors influencing the current state of regional economic development cooperation within each region. The study concludes that the legislative and executive decisions of state government exert inordinate influence on the capacity of local officials to cooperate regionally for economic development purposes.

Beyond the creative quick fix : towards an understanding of creativity’s place in South Australia’s economic development agenda.

Andrew, Jane Elizabeth
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.99%
Perspectives on the concept of creativity are widely varied. The word is used so often by so many people in so many contexts it has become a fuzzy concept. This thesis examines how conceptual contestation surrounding notions of the economic contribution of creativity through arts and cultural activity, and the increasing recognition of the contribution of creativity to regional innovation and economic development strategies, are played out in an Australian context. It examines historical antecedents surrounding notions of value and status between the applied and liberal arts on the one hand and the arts and sciences on the other and the influence this has had on contemporary academic discourse considering creativity’s role in a region’s economic development. In addition to the academic discourse stemming from economic development and innovation theory, and cultural economics, the arts, design, and cultural sectors have all undertaken advocacy based research and produced reports that seek to demonstrate their form of applied creativity’s contribution to the mainstream economy, hoping to justify government investment in the development of their industry sectors. The diversity of approaches to legitimising and understanding how and how much creativity and the creative industries contribute to economic development has resulted in a tangle of policy perspectives...

Europeanization and urban policy networks : the impact of EU programmes on cooperation around economic development in Kraków and Glasgow

SOBCZAK, Anna
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66%
This PhD thesis is the outcome of a research project that has analysed how EU programmes influence cooperation among local economic development actors in European cities. The focus of the research is particularly on the impact of the Europeanization process on urban policy networks. The study is based on a comparative analysis of two European cities, Krakow and Glasgow. In particular, the thesis looks into the impact of EU funds on local actor relations around economic development by analysing the management of EU programmes, participation in EU projects and international city cooperation. The theoretical framework provided is based on analysing five dimensions of the Europeanization process, categorised as institutional, financial, cognitive, rhetoric and symbolic. The study builds on an extensive literature review and involved a range of sources, including a large number of interviews in both cities. The structure of the thesis is based on six main chapters. The first chapter introduces a research problem, puts forward preliminary hypotheses and sets a research design based on the five dimensions of the Europeanization process. In the second chapter we find a literature review, looking at actor relations around economic development in cities...

Policy Note : Environmental Management for a Sustainable Economic Development Strategy for Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.04%
This policy note, Environmental Management for a Sustainable Economic Development Strategy for Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, investigates six environmental management topics which will affect the capacity of the province to develop the economy and need to be underpinned by strong environmental and natural resource management. The six topics cover: agriculture, forestry, fisheries, land and water, environmental law and regulations, and spatial planning. Each topic provides the context for and some background on the sector, key issues facing the management of the sector, potential sustainable development opportunities and initiatives and recommendations on actions to improve the development and management of the sector. The policy note includes a framework to develop nine elements of an enabling environment that would support the development of the province's natural resources, as well as a set of specific recommendations and initiatives.

Indigenous and Colonial Origins of Comparative Economic Development : The Case of Colonial India and Africa

Bayly, C. A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.02%
This paper concerns the institutional origins of economic development, emphasizing the cases of nineteenth-century India and Africa. Colonial institutions-the law, western style property rights, newspapers and statistical analysis-played an important part in the emergence of Indian public and commercial life in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. These institutions existed in the context of a state that was extractive and yet dependent on indigenous cooperation in many areas, especially in the case of the business class. In such conditions, Indian elites were critical in creating informal systems of peer-group education, enhancing aspiration through the use of historicist and religious themes and in creating a "benign sociology" of India as a prelude to development. Indigenous ideologies and practices were as significant in this slow enhancement of Indian capabilities as transplanted colonial ones. Contemporary development specialists would do well to consider the merits of indigenous forms of association and public debate...

Financial Structure and Economic Development : Firm, Industry, and Country Evidence

Beck, Thorsten; Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Levine, Ross; Maksimovic, Vojislav
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.01%
The authors explore the relationship between financial structure - the degree to which a financial system is market- or bank-based - and economic development. They use three methodologies: 1) The cross-country approach uses cross-country data to assess whether economies grow faster with market- or bank-based systems. 2) The industry approach uses a country-industry panel to assess whether industries that depend heavily on external financing grow faster in market- or ban-based financial systems, and whether financial structure influences the rate at which new firms are created. 3) The firm-level approach uses firm-level data across a broad selection of countries to test whether firms are more likely to grow beyond the rate predicted by internal resources, and short-term borrowings in market- or bank-based financial systems. The cross-country regressions, the industry panel estimations, and the firm-level analyses, provide remarkably consistent conclusions: a) Financial structure is not an analytically useful way to distinguish financial systems. b) Financial structure does not help us understand economic growth...

Removing Impediments to Sustainable Economic Development : The Case of Corruption

López Claros, Augusto
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66%
This paper examines causes and consequences of corruption within the process of economic development. It starts by reviewing some of the factors that, over the past couple of decades, have transformed corruption from a subject on the sidelines of economic research to a central preoccupation of policy makers and donors in many countries. Drawing on a vast treasure trove of experiences and insights accumulated during the postwar period and reflected in a growing body of academic research, the paper analyzes many of the institutional mechanisms that sustain corruption and the impact of corruption on development. This paper argues that many forms of corruption stem from the distributional attributes of the state in its role as the economy's central agent of resource allocation. What is the impact of corruption on public finances and on the characteristics and performance of the private sector? What distortions does corruption introduce in the allocation of resources and in the relationships among economic agents in the marketplace? The paper also addresses the question of what can be done about corruption and discusses the role of economic policies in developing the right sorts of incentives and institutions to reduce the incidence of corruption. Particular attention is paid to business regulation...

Economic Development under Alternative Trade Regimes

CASTRO, Rui
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 417280 bytes; application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
66%
How does openness affect economic development? This question is answered in the context of a dynamic general equilibrium model of the world economy, where countries have technological differences that are both sector-neutral and specific to the investment goods sector. Relative to a benchmark case of trade in credit markets only, consider (i) a complete restriction of trade, and (ii) a full liberalization of trade. The first change decreases the cross-sectional dispersion of incomes only slightly, and produces a relatively small welfare loss. The second change, instead, decreases dispersion by a significant amount, and produces a very large welfare gain.

Estrategias de politica industrial e desenvolvimento economico : ideias e ideais de Fernando Fajnzylber para a America Latina; Strategies for industrial policy and economic development : Fernando Fajnzylber's ideas

Suzana Cristina Fernandes de Paiva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/07/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66%
Esta tese estuda a trajetória intelectual de Fernando Fajnzylber com o propósito de recuperar, sistematizar e apresentar uma leitura critica das suas idéias e de seus ideais relacionados a uma estratégia de política industrial e desenvolvimento econômico para a América Latina. Fernando Fajnzylber foi um teórico do desenvolvimento latino-americano e o responsável pela construção do novo enfoque teórico da CEP AL para a década de 1990, que deu origem ao projeto cepalino de "transfonnação produtiva com eqüidade". O elo condutor de sua obra sempre foi a busca pela superação dos entraves ao desenvolvimento econômico e da perene exclusão social na América Latina, isto é, a construção de um modelo de desenvolvimento menos dependente e menos excludente, que conciliasse crescimento com equidade. Sua proposta apresentava-se como alternativa ao projeto neoliberal para a América Latina, contrapondo-se aos teóricos e líderes latino-americanos que aceitaram a inevitabilidade objetiva do neoliberalismo e aderiram intelectualmente ao "pensamento hegemônico". Desta forma, seu legado intelectual nos conduz a refletir não somente sobre crescimento econômico, incorporação de progresso técnico, eficiência nos investimentos...

Surviving On Their Own: How Leaders In Appalachia’s Remote Rural Communities Make Economic Development Policy

Feldman, Stefanie
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Formato: 1081165 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em 04/12/2009 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.03%
There is growing support for metropolitan-focused economic development policy in the United States. Defenders of this metropolitan agenda push aside concerns regarding whether rural communities are left out of this framework by pointing out that over half of rural residents live within metropolitan areas. Additional rural areas that are outside of metropolitan boundaries are still interconnected with metropolitan areas through the exchange of goods and people. Hence, the argument goes, when metropolitan economies grow, benefits spill into rural communities. But arguments that rural and metropolitan areas are not so different leave the most remote rural areas out of economic development discussions. Historical disadvantages created persistent poverty in remote areas: a lack of access to urban markets, poor infrastructure and underinvestment, and policies that have pulled human capital out of the rural communities and into distant urban centers. Unfortunately, there is no clear strategy for how to help these communities thrive and there is a void in academic literature that assesses development from the perspective of remoteness. This thesis offers analysis of economic opportunities for the most remote rural communities in the United States. Given that there has been so little focus on economic development opportunities in remote rural areas...