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Antimicrobial activity of Miconia species (melastomataceae)

RODRIGUES, Juliana; MICHELIN, Danielle Carvalho; RINALDO, Daniel; ZOCOLO, Guilherme Juliao; SANTOS, Lourdes Campaner dos; VILEGAS, Wagner; SALGADO, Herida Regina Nunes
Fonte: MARY ANN LIEBERT INC Publicador: MARY ANN LIEBERT INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.94%
This work evaluated the antimicrobial activity of the methanol and chloroform extracts of the leaves of Miconia cabucu, Miconia rubiginosa, and Miconia stenostachya using the disc-diffusion method. The results obtained showed that the methanol extracts of the leaves of M. rubiginosa and M. stenostachya and the chloroform extract of the leaves of M. cabucu presented antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms.

Comparison of disc diffusion, Etest and broth microdilution for testing susceptibility of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa to polymyxins

van der Heijden, Inneke M; Levin, Anna S; De Pedri, Ewerton H; Fung, Liang ; Rossi, Flavia ; Duboc, Gisele ; Barone, Antonio A; Costa, Silvia F
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
Abstract Background Considering the increasing use of polymyxins to treat infections due to multidrug resistant Gram-negative in many countries, it is important to evaluate different susceptibility testing methods to this class of antibiotic. Methods Susceptibility of 109 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa to polymyxins was tested comparing broth microdilution (reference method), disc diffusion, and Etest using the new interpretative breakpoints of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results Twenty-nine percent of isolates belonged to endemic clone and thus, these strains were excluded of analysis. Among 78 strains evaluated, only one isolate was resistant to polymyxin B by the reference method (MIC: 8.0 μg/mL). Very major and major error rates of 1.2% and 11.5% were detected comparing polymyxin B disc diffusion with the broth microdilution (reference method). Agreement within 1 twofold dilution between Etest and the broth microdilution were 33% for polymyxin B and 79.5% for colistin. One major error and 48.7% minor errors were found comparing polymyxin B Etest with broth microdilution and only 6.4% minor errors with colistin. The concordance between Etest and the broth microdilution (reference method) was respectively 100% for colistin and 90% for polymyxin B. Conclusion Resistance to polymyxins seems to be rare among hospital carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates over a six-year period. Our results showed...

Comparison of disc diffusion, Etest and broth microdilution for testing susceptibility of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa to polymyxins

van der Heijden, Inneke M; Levin, Anna S; De Pedri, Ewerton H; Fung, Liang; Rossi, Flavia; Duboc, Gisele; Barone, Antonio A; Costa, Silvia F
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
Abstract Background Considering the increasing use of polymyxins to treat infections due to multidrug resistant Gram-negative in many countries, it is important to evaluate different susceptibility testing methods to this class of antibiotic. Methods Susceptibility of 109 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa to polymyxins was tested comparing broth microdilution (reference method), disc diffusion, and Etest using the new interpretative breakpoints of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results Twenty-nine percent of isolates belonged to endemic clone and thus, these strains were excluded of analysis. Among 78 strains evaluated, only one isolate was resistant to polymyxin B by the reference method (MIC: 8.0 μg/mL). Very major and major error rates of 1.2% and 11.5% were detected comparing polymyxin B disc diffusion with the broth microdilution (reference method). Agreement within 1 twofold dilution between Etest and the broth microdilution were 33% for polymyxin B and 79.5% for colistin. One major error and 48.7% minor errors were found comparing polymyxin B Etest with broth microdilution and only 6.4% minor errors with colistin. The concordance between Etest and the broth microdilution (reference method) was respectively 100% for colistin and 90% for polymyxin B. Conclusion Resistance to polymyxins seems to be rare among hospital carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates over a six-year period. Our results showed...

Comparison of disc diffusion, Etest and broth microdilution for testing susceptibility of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa to polymyxins

van der Heijden, Inneke M; Levin, Anna S; De Pedri, Ewerton H; Fung, Liang; Rossi, Flavia; Duboc, Gisele; Barone, Antonio A; Costa, Silvia F
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
Abstract Background Considering the increasing use of polymyxins to treat infections due to multidrug resistant Gram-negative in many countries, it is important to evaluate different susceptibility testing methods to this class of antibiotic. Methods Susceptibility of 109 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa to polymyxins was tested comparing broth microdilution (reference method), disc diffusion, and Etest using the new interpretative breakpoints of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results Twenty-nine percent of isolates belonged to endemic clone and thus, these strains were excluded of analysis. Among 78 strains evaluated, only one isolate was resistant to polymyxin B by the reference method (MIC: 8.0 μg/mL). Very major and major error rates of 1.2% and 11.5% were detected comparing polymyxin B disc diffusion with the broth microdilution (reference method). Agreement within 1 twofold dilution between Etest and the broth microdilution were 33% for polymyxin B and 79.5% for colistin. One major error and 48.7% minor errors were found comparing polymyxin B Etest with broth microdilution and only 6.4% minor errors with colistin. The concordance between Etest and the broth microdilution (reference method) was respectively 100% for colistin and 90% for polymyxin B. Conclusion Resistance to polymyxins seems to be rare among hospital carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates over a six-year period. Our results showed...

Antimicrobial activity of Miconia species (melastomataceae)

Rodrigues, Juliana; Michelin, Danielle Carvalho; Rinaldo, Daniel; Zocolo, Guilherme Juliao; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; Vilegas, Wagner; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 120-126
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.94%
This work evaluated the antimicrobial activity of the methanol and chloroform extracts of the leaves of Miconia cabucu, Miconia rubiginosa, and Miconia stenostachya using the disc-diffusion method. The results obtained showed that the methanol extracts of the leaves of M. rubiginosa and M. stenostachya and the chloroform extract of the leaves of M. cabucu presented antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms.

Screening methods to determine antibacterial activity of natural products

Valgas,Cleidson; Souza,Simone Machado de; Smânia,Elza F A; Smânia Jr.,Artur
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
The emergence of new infectious diseases, the resurgence of several infections that appeared to have been controlled and the increase in bacterial resistance have created the necessity for studies directed towards the development of new antimicrobials. Considering the failure to acquire new molecules with antimicrobial properties from microorganisms, the optimization for screening methods used for the identification of antimicrobials from other natural sources is of great importance. The objective of this study was to evaluate technical variants used in screening methods to determine antibacterial activity of natural products. Thus, a varied range of natural products of plant, fungi and lichen origin were tested against two bacterial species, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, by two variants of the agar diffusion method (well and disc), two variants of the bioautographic method (direct and indirect) and by microdilution assay. We concluded that the well-variant of the diffusion method was more sensitive than the disc-variant, whilst the direct-variant of the bioautographic method exhibited a greater sensitivity if compared to indirect-variant. Bioautographic and diffusion techniques were found to have similar sensitivity; however the latter technique provided more suitable conditions for the microbial growth. In this study...

AmpC beta lactamases among Gram negative clinical isolates from a tertiary hospital, South India

Mohamudha,Parveen R.; Harish,B.N.; Parija,S.C.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.01%
AmpC β-lactamases are cephalosporinases that hydrolyze cephamycins as well as other extended-spectrum cephalosporins and are poorly inhibited by clavulanic acid. Although reported with increasing frequency, the true rate of occurrence of AmpC β-lactamases in different organisms, including members of Enterobacteriaceae, remains unknown. The present study was designed to determine the occurrence of AmpC enzyme-harbouring Gram-negative clinical isolates in a tertiary care hospital in Pondicherry state, South India. A total of 235 Gram negative clinical isolates were tested for resistance to cefoxitin, third generation cephalosporin (3GC) antibiotics, ampicillin, amikacin, co-trimoxazole, gentamicin, meropenem and tetracycline by disc diffusion method. Isolates found resistant to 3GC and cefoxitin were tested for the production of AmpC β -lactamases by three dimensional extraction method and AmpC disc method. Isolates found to sensitive to 3GC were subjected to disc antagonism test for inducible AmpC production. One hundred and thirty four (57%) strains were resistant to 3GC, among which 63(47%) were positive for plasmid-mediated AmpC beta lactamases production. Among the 101 strains sensitive to 3GC, 23 (22.7%) revealed the presence of inducible AmpC beta lactamases by disc approximation test. A total of 80.9% (51/63) of screen positive isolates were detected by Amp C disc test and 93.6% (59/63) by three dimensional extraction method. Out of the 86 AmpC producers...

Detection of Fluconazole-Resistant Candida Strains by a Disc Diffusion Screening Test

Sandven, Per
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
A commercial disc diffusion test has been evaluated as a screening method for the detection of Candida species with decreased susceptibility to fluconazole. A total of 1,407 Candida strains of different species were tested, and the results were compared with the MIC results. The recently published National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards breakpoint criteria have been used. Isolates were classified as susceptible if the MIC for the isolates was ≤8 μg/ml, susceptible-dose dependent (S-DD) if the MIC was 16 to 32 μg/ml, and resistant if the MIC was ≥64 μg/ml. All 77 resistant strains and 121 of 122 S-DD strains had fluconazole zone diameters of ≤21 mm, and most of the strains (91%) had zone diameters of ≤15 mm. It was not possible to distinguish between resistant and S-DD strains by the disc test. Among a total of 1,208 strains found to be susceptible by the microdilution method, 49 (4.1%) yielded fluconazole zone sizes of ≤21 mm and would have been misclassified as resistant or S-DD strains on the basis of the disc test. For the majority (86%) of these 49 strains the fluconazole MIC was 8 μg/ml. The fluconazole disc test is recommended as a simple and reliable screening test for the detection of Candida strains with decreased susceptibility to fluconazole. Fluconazole MICs should be determined for strains found to be resistant by the disc test. The reason for confirmatory testing is twofold: to determine if isolates are resistant or S-DD...

Rapid detection of oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in blood cultures by an impedance method.

Wu, J J; Huang, A H; Dai, J H; Chang, T C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1997 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.79%
The feasibility of using an impedance method for direct detection of oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA) in blood cultures was evaluated. An aliquot (0.1 ml) of the positive blood culture, which showed growth of gram-positive cocci and demonstrated thermonuclease activity, was inoculated into the module well of a Bactometer incubator (bioMerieux Vitek, Hazelwood, Mo.) containing 0.6 ml of Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with oxacillin (2 microg/ml). The modules were incubated at 37 degrees C, and the change in impedance in each well was continuously monitored by the instrument at 6-min intervals for 24 h. ORSA strains from blood cultures could multiply in the oxacillin-containing medium, and a time point (detection time [DT]) at which an accelerating change of impedance occurred in the medium was obtained, with an average of 5.5 h. The growth of oxacillin-sensitive S. aureus (OSSA) strains was largely inhibited, and no DT was obtained for these strains within an incubation period of 24 h. For 96 positive blood cultures (38 ORSA and 58 OSSA) tested, 36 and 57 were found to be oxacillin resistant and oxacillin sensitive, respectively, by the impedance method. The impedance method had a sensitivity and specificity of 94.7 and 98.3%...

Susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Gentamicin Sulfate In Vitro: Lack of Correlation Between Disc Diffusion and Broth Dilution Sensitivity Data

Traub, Walter H.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1970 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.94%
Seventy-eight of 420 clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa yielded zones of inhibition of less than 12 mm in diameter around 10-μg discs of gentamicin sulfate when tested by the standardized Bauer-Kirby disc diffusion method. Of 153 strains chosen from these isolates, one strain (0.65%) required 25 μg of gentamicin per ml for inhibition; the remainder (99.35%) were inhibited by 6 μg/ml or less of the antibiotic. It is recommended that those isolates of P. aeruginosa that yield zones of inhibition less than 12 mm in diameter be disc susceptibility-tested once more; those isolates that give zones of inhibition of less than 12 mm upon repeated examination should then be subjected to the broth dilution test before they are designated as sensitive or resistant to gentamicin.

Identification of Cephalosporin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus with the Disc Diffusion Method

Hallander, Hans O.; Laurell, Gunnar
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1972 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.02%
Methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, in total 84, representing 16 laboratories in 8 different countries were all resistant to 32 μg of cephalothin per ml with the same typical heteroresistant pattern. With the disc diffusion method, they were easily detected when cephalexin discs were used. With cephalothin discs, on the other hand, 26 to 49% would have been falsely categorized as Group I or II after 24 hr. It is recommended that susceptibility testing of S. aureus to cephalosporins by using the paper disc method be performed with 30-μg cephalexin discs on Mueller-Hinton agar without blood. With an inoculum of 106 bacteria/ml, an incubation temperature of 30 C, and an incubation time of 24 hr, a zone of less than 10 mm indicates presumptive heteroresistance. This corresponds to the international recommendation with a minimal inhibitory concentration of 32 μg/ml as the upper limit of Group II.

Effects of culture media on detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci by disc diffusion methods.

Milne, L M; Crow, M R; Emptage, A G; Selkon, J B
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1993 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.05%
AIMS--To test 10 culture media for their ability to detect resistance and sensitivity of staphylococci to methicillin by disc diffusion. METHODS--Fifty strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 135 strains of coagulase negative staphylococci were tested using Columbia, Diagnostic Sensitivity Test, Mueller Hinton, Sensitest and Iso-sensitest agars with and without 5% added sodium chloride. Cultures were examined after 18 and 40 hours of incubation. The diameter of the zone and its characteristics were recorded and these media were assessed for their ability to produce clear, readable zones of inhibition. Changes in the variables which determined resistance were investigated. Results were analysed allowing a zone diameter reduction of 8 mm and 10 mm compared with the control in addition to the standard 6 mm. RESULTS--Columbia agar with added sodium chloride supported the growth of all strains, detected the highest number of resistant strains, and was the easiest to read. Resistance was detected after 18 hours in most resistant strains, but some required 40 hours of incubation. There was poor agreement, however, on this medium (63-94%) between disc diffusion and the reference MIC method for sensitive strains. Allowing a greater reduction in zone size resulted in more agreement with sensitive strains but with consequently lowered detection of resistant strains. The other media showed some growth failures and more zones that were difficult to read. More resistance was detected when incubation was prolonged to 40 hours but this was consistently less than on Columbia agar with added salt. CONCLUSIONS--None of the media detected all of the resistant strains. Columbia agar with added salt was the most satisfactory medium in this respect...

Pharmacological enhancement of disc diffusion and differentiation of healthy, ageing and degenerated discs: Results from in-vivo serial post-contrast MRI studies in 365 human lumbar discs

Rajasekaran, S.; Venkatadass, K.; Naresh Babu, J. ; Ganesh, K.; Shetty, Ajoy P.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.07%
Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is still a poorly understood phenomenon because of the lack of availability of precise definition of healthy, ageing and degenerated discs. Decreased nutrition is the final common pathway for DDD and the status of the endplate (EP) plays a crucial role in controlling the extent of diffusion, which is the only source of nutrition. The vascular channels in the subchondral plate have muscarinic receptors but the possibility of enhancing diffusion pharmacologically by dilation of these vessels has not been probed. Although it is well accepted that EP damage will affect diffusion and thereby nutrition, there is no described method to quantify the extent of EP damage. Precise definitions with an objective method of differentiating healthy, ageing and degenerated discs on the basis of anatomical integrity of the disc and physiological basis of altered nutrition will be useful. This information is an urgent necessity for better understanding of DDD and also strategizing prevention and treatment.

Observations on Carbapenem Resistance by Minimum Inhibitory Concentration in Nosocomial Isolates of Acinetobacter species: An Experience at a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India

Gaur, A.; Garg, A.; Prakash, P.; Anupurba, S.; Mohapatra, T.M.
Fonte: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh Publicador: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.04%
Acinetobacter species are emerging as an important nosocomial pathogen. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp. has limited the option for effective treatment. Although carbapenems are effective for the treatment of such infections, resistance to this drug has recently been reported. This study was undertaken to assess resistance to carbapenem in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp. from hospitalized patients by both disc-diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods. All clinical samples from suspected cases of nosocomial infections were processed, and 265 isolates were identified as Acinetobacter species. These isolates were tested for antibiotic resistance by the disc-diffusion method with 14 antimicrobials, including meropenem and imipenem. Thereafter, all Acinetobacter species were subjected to MIC for meropenem. More than 80% resistance to second- and third-generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, and quinolones was recorded. Thirty percent of the strains were resistant to cefoperazone/sulbactam. Resistance to meropenem was observed in 6.4% of Acinetobacter spp. while 8.3% of the isolates showed intermediate resistance detected by MIC. All carbapenem-resistant/intermediate strains were also resistant to other (>10) antibiotics tested by the disc-diffusion method. The rising trend of resistance to carbapenem poses an alarming threat to the treatment for such infections. Regular monitoring...

Synthesis and characterization of silver/montmorillonite/chitosan bionanocomposites by chemical reduction method and their antibacterial activity

Shameli, Kamyar; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Zargar, Mohsen; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Shabanzadeh, Parvaneh; Moghaddam, Mansour Ghaffari
Fonte: Dove Medical Press Publicador: Dove Medical Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.76%
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of a small size were successfully synthesized using the wet chemical reduction method into the lamellar space layer of montmorillonite/chitosan (MMT/Cts) as an organomodified mineral solid support in the absence of any heat treatment. AgNO3, MMT, Cts, and NaBH4 were used as the silver precursor, the solid support, the natural polymeric stabilizer, and the chemical reduction agent, respectively. MMT was suspended in aqueous AgNO3/Cts solution. The interlamellar space limits were changed (d-spacing = 1.24–1.54 nm); therefore, AgNPs formed on the interlayer and external surface of MMT/Cts with d-average = 6.28–9.84 nm diameter. Characterizations were done using different methods, ie, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Silver/montmorillonite/chitosan bionanocomposite (Ag/MMT/Cts BNC) systems were examined. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs in MMT/Cts was investigated against Gram-positive bacteria, ie, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Gram-negative bacteria, ie, Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7...

Comparative Evaluation of Disc Diffusion and E-test with Broth Micro-dilution in Susceptibility testing of Amphotericin B, Voriconazole and Caspofungin against Clinical Aspergillus isolates

Gupta, Prashant; Khare, Vineeta; Kumar, Deepak; Ahmad, Abrar; Banerjee, Gopa; Singh, Mastan
Fonte: JCDR Research and Publications (P) Limited Publicador: JCDR Research and Publications (P) Limited
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
Background: Clinical importance of Aspergillus has increased over the past few decades because of rise in immunosuppressive drugs and immune-modulating diseases. Antifungal susceptibility of Aspergillus is rarely performed by clinical laboratories because of lack of easier method. This study has investigated and compared susceptibility pattern of Aspergillus isolates by disc diffusion, E-test and broth micro-dilution for amphotericin B, voriconazole and caspofungin.

Comparative Drug Resistance of Mycobacterium abscessus and M. chelonae Isolates from Patients with and without Cystic Fibrosis in the United Kingdom

Broda, Agnieszka; Jebbari, Heather; Beaton, Kate; Mitchell, Sarah; Drobniewski, Francis
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
The isolation of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM), particularly Mycobacterium abscessus, from individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with poor clinical outcome due to broad drug resistance and the difficulty of eradicating the organisms. Susceptibility testing is recommended to guide therapy. A disc diffusion method is used in the United Kingdom, whereas in the United States, the CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) recommends the broth dilution method. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the two methods produced comparable drug resistance profiles and to test the hypotheses that the disc diffusion method overscores resistance and that isolates of M. abscessus/M. chelonae from CF patients are more likely than those from non-CF patients to show drug resistance, as a result of CF patients' greater exposure to antibiotic therapy. A total of 82 isolates (58 M. abscessus and 24 M. chelonae isolates) were tested blindly against 15 antimicrobials by broth dilution and the disc diffusion method. Isolates tested by the broth microdilution showed high levels of resistance; susceptibility to amikacin, clarithromycin, tobramycin (only in M. chelonae), and cefoxitin (only in M. abscessus) was shown. Tigecycline results varied widely depending on which breakpoint was used. Agreement between methods for a few drugs (e.g....

Reliability of the Kirby-Bauer Disc Diffusion Method for Detecting Methicillin-Resistant Strains of Staphylococcus aureus

Drew, W. Lawrence; Barry, A. L.; O'Toole, Richard; Sherris, John C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1972 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.73%
The resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to methicillin and related drugs can be reliably determined by using the Kirby-Bauer method of susceptibility testing if the incubation temperature is 35 C or below, but resistance may be missed at 37 C. The 1-μg discs of oxacillin and nafcillin or the 5-μg discs of methicillin may be used for this purpose but not the 1-μg discs of cloxacillin. The latter fail to discriminate between sensitive and resistant staphylococci by zone measurement; some resistant strains of staphylococci may show larger zones of inhibition than sensitive strains. Stability of these antibiotic-containing discs was studied under conditions of temperature and humidity variation that might be encountered in a clinical laboratory refrigerator. Oxacillin discs were the most stable and are to be preferred for susceptibility testing. Nafcillin discs were less stable, and methicillin discs lose their potency rapidly unless carefully stored in a refrigerator with a desiccant.

Cefoxitin resistance as a surrogte marker for the detection of methiciliin-resistanct staphylococcus aureus

Fernandes, Clarence J; Fernandes, Lorna A; Collignon, Peter
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
Objectives: To evaluate the usefulness of cefoxitin when used as a surrogate marker for the detection of methicillin resistance. Patients and methods: Eight hundred and seventy-one strains of Staphylococcus aureus, collected from eight tertiary referral centres serving diverse socio-economic populations, were included in the study using NCCLS disc diffusion and the agar dilution methods. Results: Using cefoxitin and NCCLS criteria for disc diffusion, the sensitivity and specificity for recognizing methicillin resistance were both 100%. Similar results were obtained when the strains were tested by the agar dilution method. The cefoxitin MICs for methicillin-susceptible strains were ≤ 4 mg/L. Conclusions: Testing with cefoxitin as a surrogate marker for the detection of methicillin resistance was very accurate with both disc diffusion and agar dilution methods. Such testing clearly distinguished methicillin-resistant strains of S. aureus from methicillin-susceptible strains.

Screening antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Urtica dioica

Modarresi-Chahardehi,Amir; Ibrahim,Darah; Fariza-Sulaiman,Shaida; Mousavi,Leila
Fonte: Revista de Biología Tropical Publicador: Revista de Biología Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.13%
Urtica dioica or stinging nettle is traditionally used as an herbal medicine in Western Asia. The current study represents the investigation of antimicrobial activity of U. dioica from nine crude extracts that were prepared using different organic solvents, obtained from two extraction methods: the Soxhlet extractor (Method I), which included the use of four solvents with ethyl acetate and hexane, or the sequential partitions (Method II) with a five solvent system (butanol). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude extracts were tested against 28 bacteria, three yeast strains and seven fungal isolates by the disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Amoxicillin was used as positive control for bacteria strains, vancomycin for Streptococcus sp., miconazole nitrate (30µg/mL) as positive control for fungi and yeast, and pure methanol (v/v) as negative control. The disc diffusion assay was used to determine the sensitivity of the samples, whilst the broth dilution method was used for the determination of the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC). The ethyl acetate and hexane extract from extraction method I (EA I and HE I) exhibited highest inhibition against some pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, MRSA and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A selection of extracts that showed some activity was further tested for the MIC and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC). MIC values of Bacillus subtilis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using butanol extract of extraction method II (BE II) were 8.33 and 16.33mg/mL...