Página 1 dos resultados de 1459 itens digitais encontrados em 0.030 segundos

HIV/AIDS, Climate Change and Disaster Management : Challenges for Institutions in Malawi

Suarez, Pablo; Givah, Precious; Storey, Kelvin; Lotsch, Alexander
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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66.6%
Southern African institutions involved in disaster management face two major new threats: the HIV/AIDS pandemic (eroding organizational capacity and increasing vulnerability of the population), and climate change (higher risk of extreme events and disasters). Analyzing the combined effects of these two threats on six disaster-related institutions in Malawi, the authors find evidence of a growing gap between demand for their services and capacity to satisfy that demand. HIV/AIDS leads to staff attrition, high vacancy rates, absenteeism, increased workload and other negative effects enhanced by human resources policies and financial limitations. Many necessary tasks cannot be carried out adequately with constraints such as the 42 percent vacancy rate in the Department of Poverty and Disaster Management Affairs, or the reduction of rainfall stations operated by the Meteorological Service from over 800 in 1988 to just 135 in 2006. The authors highlight implications of declining organizational capacity for climate change adaptation...

Disaster Risk Reduction

Trohanis, Zoe; Dastur, Arish; Xu, Ting; Cira, Dean
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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56.61%
In order to address the impact of the Wenchuan earthquake, which occurred on 12 May 2008 and registered 8.0 on the Richter scale, the Government of China will implement an effective, comprehensive, and sustainable recovery program. At the same time, it is important that the government consider how the recovery process can contribute to disaster risk reduction (DRR), the objective being to make communities and assets significantly more resilient to the impact of future disasters. A primary aim of recovery management is to use the opportunity to build or strengthen resilience in society that is, its citizens, livelihoods, buildings, critical facilities, government administration, and the natural environment. To establish an effective DRR framework, key institutional actors and stakeholders need to work together and be aware of their respective roles and responsibilities. These include the national, provincial, and local government levels, the relevant government ministries and agencies, and local communities. An effective disaster management system covers the following five aspects: (i) risk identification; (ii) emergency preparedness; (iii) institutional capacity building; (iv) risk mitigation; and (v) catastrophe risk financing.

Understanding Risk in an Evolving World : Emerging Best Practices in Natural Disaster Risk Assessment

Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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56.55%
The 10-year-long Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) set out to substantially reduce impacts from natural disasters by 2015. Despite efforts toward this goal, economic losses from natural disasters are rising from US$50 billion each year in the 1980s, to just under $200 billion each year in the last decade (World Bank and GFDRR 2013). The economic losses sustained by lower- and middle-income countries alone over the last 30 years represent a full third of all total development assistance in the same time period, offsetting tremendous efforts by governments, multilateral organizations, and other actors. As the HFA period ends against a backdrop of challenging disaster risk trends, and consultations toward a post-2015 framework move forward, it is important to reflect on the role of disaster risk assessments in achieving disaster and climate resilience, and on the contributions risk assessments have made over the last 10 years. Understanding Risk in an Evolving World: Emerging Best Practices in Natural Disaster Risk Assessment...

Fiscal Disaster Risk Assessment Options for Consideration

World Bank Group; Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
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Pakistan is vulnerable to a number of adverse natural events and has experienced a wide range of disasters over the past 40 years, including floods, earthquakes, droughts, cyclones, and tsunamis. The World Bank is supporting the Government of Pakistan (GoP) in building capacity in the area of disaster risk management (DRM) in order to build resilience from both humanitarian and fiscal shocks associated with natural disasters. The World Bank is providing technical assistance to the GoP for the development of a national disaster risk financing strategy. This non-lending technical assistance aims to: (i) assess the fiscal exposure of the GoP to natural disasters; (ii) present options for the development of a national strategy to improve financial response capacity for natural disasters; and (iii) promote property catastrophe risk insurance for both public and private dwellings. Disaster risk financing and insurance (DRFI) is one of the five pillars in the proactive and strategic framework for DRM promoted by the World Bank. The World Bank has been promoting a proactive and strategic framework for DRM based on five pillars: (i) risk identification; (ii) risk reduction; (iii) preparedness; (iv) financial protection; and (v) resilient recovery. Chapter one is introduction. Chapter two presents an overview of the budget processes for the financing of natural disaster losses during each of the three post-disaster phases. Chapter three provides a preliminary financial disaster risk assessment for Pakistan...

A Study on Uncertain Dynamic Disaster Management Tasks, Knowledge Sharing, and Task Performance

Rocha, Jose
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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Each disaster presents itself with a unique set of characteristics that are hard to determine a priori. Thus disaster management tasks are inherently uncertain, requiring knowledge sharing and quick decision making that involves coordination across different levels and collaborators. While there has been an increasing interest among both researchers and practitioners in utilizing knowledge management to improve disaster management, little research has been reported about how to assess the dynamic nature of disaster management tasks, and what kinds of knowledge sharing are appropriate for different dimensions of task uncertainty characteristics. Using combinations of qualitative and quantitative methods, this research study developed the dimensions and their corresponding measures of the uncertain dynamic characteristics of disaster management tasks and tested the relationships between the various dimensions of uncertain dynamic disaster management tasks and task performance through the moderating and mediating effects of knowledge sharing. Furthermore, this research work conceptualized and assessed task uncertainty along three dimensions: novelty, unanalyzability, and significance; knowledge sharing along two dimensions: knowledge sharing purposes and knowledge sharing mechanisms; and task performance along two dimensions: task effectiveness and task efficiency. Analysis results of survey data collected from Miami-Dade County emergency managers suggested that knowledge sharing purposes and knowledge sharing mechanisms moderate and mediate uncertain dynamic disaster management task and task performance. Implications for research and practice as well directions for future research are discussed.

The Indian Ocean tsunami: economic impact, disaster management and lessons

Athukorala, Prema-Chandra; Resosudarmo, Budy P
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 732546 bytes; 360 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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66.42%
The purpose of this paper is to document and analyze the immediate economic impact of the Indian Ocean tsunami generated by the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of 26 December 2004 and the disaster management process in the immediate aftermath of the disaster with a focus on the two worst affected countries – Indonesia (Aceh province) and Sri Lanka. The 26 December Tsunami is unique among large disasters in recorded human history, not only because of the sheer number of causalities and massive displacement of people, but also because of the unprecedented international donor response and the logistic challenges faced by international organizations and aid agencies in organizing and coordinating relief efforts. Our preliminary findings points to the importance of educating the public about simple precautions in the event of a disaster and enforcement of coastal environmental regulations as disaster prevention policies. The findings also makes a strong case for designing policies and programs, as an integral part of national development strategy, for mitigating the impact of natural disasters on the poor and highlights the need for combining international aid commitments with innovative approaches to redressing problems of limited aid absorptive capacity in disaster affected countries.; no

Disaster Risk Management Programs for Priority Countries

Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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56.64%
In GFDRR ’s track two, mainstreaming disaster risk reduction in development, this lead to a prioritization of operations in 20 core countries, including Burkina Faso, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Ghana, Haiti, Indonesia, Kyrgyz Republic, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mozambique, Nepal, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Senegal, Solomon Islands, Togo, Vietnam, and Republic of Yemen. The countries were selected due to their high vulnerability to natural hazards and low economic resilience to cope with disaster impacts including anticipated climate change and variability. Two thirds of the countries are least developed countries and twelve are highly indebted poor countries. Nine are from Africa and several others are Small Island States at high risk. These 20 core countries will receive 80 percent of available funds while 20 percent will be made available for flexible, innovative, high impact grants, such as those that catalyze increased investment programs and integration of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in development in any disaster prone country. A multi-stakeholder planning process lays the foundation for the comprehensive national programs for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. The process ensures the facilitation of ownership by governments for their risk. The presented programs are indicative and further dialogue with the Governments and other partners will refine the agendas as the detailed planning and implementation phases start. At the sixth meeting of the GFDRR Consultative Group in Geneva...

Smart practices in building interorganizational collaborative capacity to strengthen the Florida Comprehensive Disaster Management enterprise

Hall, Richard D.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xviii, 113 p. ; 28 cm.
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CHDS State/Local; This research demonstrates how the building of Interorganizational Collaborative Capacity served as an enabler for effective change efforts in Florida and constructs a narrative describing smart practices that may be leveraged by other professionals to enhance their own interorganizational collaborative capacity and efficiency efforts. Florida is viewed by many professionals as one of the best-prepared states in the field of emergency management. It built a credible reputation over the past 20 years through increasingly effective responses to catastrophic hurricanes, floods, tornados, wildfires, tropical storms and environmental threats. In particular, the Florida State Emergency Response Team evolved during this time as a result of many change efforts following the initial response to Hurricane Andrew in 1992, an event viewed by many as the initial starting point for the creation of the modern Florida emergency management era. This research examines Florida's Comprehensive Disaster Management evolution from 1992 to 2004 using after-action reports for major emergency events utilizing Hocevar, Thomas and Jansen's model of Inter-organizational Collaborative Capacity and focuses on the factors that served as catalysts for increased interagency cooperation and efficiency.; Florida National Guard author

Natural Disaster Risk Management in the Philippines : Reducing Vulnerability

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Rural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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56.62%
The Philippines is one of the most natural hazard-prone countries in the world. The social and economic cost of natural disasters in the country is increasing due to population growth, change in land-use patterns, migration, unplanned urbanization, environmental degradation and global climate change. Reducing the risk of disasters will be key to achieving the development goals in the Philippines. The World Bank with assistance from the Philippines Government conducted an informal study on natural disaster risk management in the Philippines. The objectives of the first study were to: document the impacts of natural disasters on social and economic development of the Philippines; assess the country's current capacity to reduce and manage disaster risk; and identify options for more effective management of that risk. This follow-on study is intended to support the first study and examine in more detail some of the specific areas under the above themes and provide directions for necessary actions. This paper contains the following headings: introduction, overview of natural disasters and capacity of disaster management in the Philippines; study on floods, sediment and typhoon disaster; study on earthquake disaster; study on volcanic disaster; direction for improving disaster management data...

Natural Disaster Risk Management in the Philippines : Enhancing Poverty Alleviation Through Disaster Reduction

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Rural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.66%
The Philippines by virtue of its geographic circumstances is highly prone to natural disasters, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tropical cyclones and floods, making it one of the most disaster prone countries in the world. This report seeks to document the impacts of natural disasters on the social and economic development of the Philippines; assess the country's current capacity to reduce and manage disaster risk; and identify options for more effective management of that risk. The Philippine institutional arrangements and disaster management systems tend to rely on a response, or reactive approach, in contrast to a more effective proactive approach, in which disasters are avoided, by appropriate land-use planning, construction and other pre-event measures which avoid the creation of disaster-prone conditions. To evolve to a more proactive role, it is important that a national framework for comprehensive disaster risk management be prepared and implemented. The framework should incorporate the essential steps of integrated risk management, which include risk identification, risk reduction, and risk sharing/financing. The study identified some specific areas under these key themes that would need to be addressed to improve the current system...

Cost Benefit Studies on Disaster Risk Reduction in Developing Countries

KC, Shyam
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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56.58%
The focus of development actors working in the area of disaster management has shifted substantially from disaster recovery to disaster risk reduction over the past decade, coinciding with the decade of the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) 2005-2015. Amidst this strategic shift, there is now the need to work towards ensuring that investments made to reduce disaster risks are cost-effective and that the benefits reach all members of the population including the poor and vulnerable, who are often 'affected disproportionately' (Global Assessment Report 2009, The Sendai Report 2012). The losses from natural disasters to mankind are undoubtedly massive-on average, globally every year over 100,000 people were killed and some 246 million people affected by natural disasters during the period 2002-2011 and the estimated average economic loss was US$131 billion per year. The purpose of this note is to briefly survey existing evidence in developing countries with regard to the benefits and costs of various disaster risk reduction interventions so as to provide some general lessons for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) practitioners on the strengths and limitations of such existing work. In doing so...

Disaster Management Plans

Ikeda, Makoto
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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66.53%
Following its devastating experience with recent disasters, Japan has been strengthening or drawing up new disaster management plans at the national and local levels. The Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) revealed a number of weaknesses in planning for complex and extraordinary disasters. Central and local governments have been revising their plans to reflect what they learned from the GEJE. Japan's disaster management system addresses all phases of disaster prevention, mitigation and preparedness, and emergency response, as well as recovery and rehabilitation. It specifies the roles and responsibilities of national and local governments, and enlists the cooperation of relevant stakeholders in both the public and private sectors. Following the GEJE, assessments have been made of the capacity of existing disaster risk management (DRM) planning systems to prepare for and react to large-scale disasters. This report gives findings; lessons; and recommendations for developing countries. Revisions have been proposed...

Managing Disaster Risk in Emerging Economies

Kreimer, Alcira; Arnold, Margaret
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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56.62%
This book presents papers on several events organized by the World Bank's Disaster Management Fund (DMF). The DMF's objectives are to help the Bank provide a more strategic and rapid response to disaster emergencies and to integrate disaster prevention and mitigation measures in all Bank activities. Part I of this book on risk identification contains chapters on the economic impacts on natural disasters in developing countries, including flooding, with the example of Buenos Aires; and time scales of climate and disaster. Part II explores aspects of reducing disaster risk, such as the relationship of infrastructure, natural disasters, and poverty; flooding issues in the United States, incentives for risk management and mitigation concerning cultural heritage; issues related to single-family housing, women, and children; and climate change from a development perspective. Part III looks at strategies for developing countries to more effectively share and transfer disaster risk from the angles of risk and insurance by the poor in developing countries; financing disaster mitigation for the poor; moral dimensions of risk transfer and reduction strategies; incentives for mitigation investment and risk management to encourage public-private partnerships; and linking catastrophe insurance and mitigating disaster losses.

IT enabled crowds: leveraging the geomobile revolution for disaster management

Poblet, Marta; García-Cuesta, Esteban; Casanovas, Pompeu
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 ENG
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66.25%
This paper offers an exploratory approach to crowdsourcing methods, tools, and roles based on different levels of involvement of users, skills re-quired, and types of data being processed (from raw data to highly structured dada). The paper also aims at refining different crowdsourcing categories and opening up a theoretical discussion on the advantages and limits of using crowdsourcing methods and technologies in disaster management activities

Community Disaster Management Resources: A Case Study of the Farm Community in Sussex County, Delaware

Rademacher, Yvonne
Fonte: Disaster Research Center Publicador: Disaster Research Center
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.56%
While the expansion of government institutions and programs over the past fifty years has resulted in government taking primary responsibility for emergency management, there is a growing recognition that government cannot do it all alone. This has, among others, led to a quest for a better understanding of societal capital that makes contributions to disaster management, such as the private sector, partnerships with volunteer organizations but also local communities and individual citizens themselves, as is currently pursued through the FEMA’s Ready campaign and Whole Community approach. However, before devising strategies of how to better engage and support communities in disaster management as active participants, the nature of their disaster management resources needs to be better understood. Therefore, this case study examined the disaster management assets of one community group, namely the farming community in Sussex County, Delaware, and the process of how the resources of this particular group have contributed to local disaster management. The conceptual framework for this study was based on the concept of community assets that currently recognizes eight types of community capital and comprises of “active”...

Governmental Systems for Disaster Management

Dynes, Russell R.
Fonte: Disaster Research Center Publicador: Disaster Research Center
Tipo: Outros Formato: 466947 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
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While the focus here will be on the development of governmental systems for disaster management, it is appropriate to provide some initial remarks about the rather confusing concepts of “disaster.” It has many different meanings in popular discourse. A number of years ago, (Dynes, 1974), I noted at least four different meanings: (a) the designation of a disaster agent, such as a flood or an earthquake; (b) the indicator of physical damage, such as a hundred houses destroyed; (c) an indicator of social damage, the uprooting of family living or the destruction of family relationships and (d) an indicator of a negative evaluation, such as a failed culinary effort or a troublesome friend. Unfortunately, these different meanings have little consistent relationship among them. Even considerable physical damage does not automatically translate into social damage. This can be illustrated by the 1988 earthquake in Armenia. That earthquake, 6.9 on the Richter Scale, killed approximately 25,000, injured more than 3 1,000 and left 514,000 homeless. The next year, an earthquake of greater magnitude (7.1) occurred in the United States; the Lorna Prieta earthquake killed 62, injured 3,757 and left more than 12,000 homeless. Floods and earthquakes have social consequences only as a result of the actions of human beings and societies. In effect...

Disaster Crisis Management

Quarantelli, E. L.
Fonte: Disaster Research Center Publicador: Disaster Research Center
Tipo: Outros Formato: 89006 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.53%
The crisis management of disasters does not follow automatically from disaster planning. Research has shown that successful disaster management results primarily from the activities of emergency organizations. In particular, there are management problems with respect to the communication process, the exercise of authority, and the development of coordination. There are at least five different areas of difficulties in the communication process, namely in intra-organizational behaviors, between organizations, from organizations to the public, from the public to organizations, and with systems of organizations. Exercise of authority difficulties stem from losses of higher echelon personnel because of overwork, conflict regarding authority over new disaster tasks, clashes over organizational jurisdictional differences. Coordination difficulties come from lack of consensus among organizations working on common but new disaster related tasks, and difficulties in achieving overall coordination in any community disaster that is of any magnitude. Prior planning can limit these management difficulties but cannot completely eliminate all of them.

Converting Disaster Scholarship into Effective Disaster Management

Quarantelli, E. L.
Fonte: Disaster Research Center Publicador: Disaster Research Center
Tipo: Outros Formato: 461288 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
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A partly edited transcription of a talk given during the Social Science and Disaster Mangement Seminar at the Australian Counter Disaster College.

What disaster? the legal and practical implications of Japan’s Secrecy Act on disaster management and safety; Que desastre? as implicações legais e práticas da Lei de Sigilo do Japão na gestão e segurança de desastre

Tabios, Anna Leah; Ludwig-Maximilians-University
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/12/2013 ENG
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7976.2013v20n30p90The Fukushima accident transpired more than three years ago, but the risks that surround the stricken TEPCO nuclear reactors are far from being finally settled. As the Japanese Government, along with the nuclear operator, continues with crisis management and combined efforts to stabilize the nuclear situation in Fukushima, people, both in Japan and in other parts of the globe, are left awaiting reports on safety issues. The article explores the public nature and significant role that information and journalistic reports play, following the occurrence of a disaster, in particular the Fukushima nuclear disaster. How States deal with regaining control over and establishing order in the national situation, more often than not, affects the sovereign people and has repercussions on the natural environment. Thus, notwithstanding the complexities of post-disaster management, people’s rights to a healthy environment and to public information regarding events that affect them and their way of life should be upheld.; http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7976.2013v20n30p90O acidente de Fukushima aconteceu há mais de três anos, mas os riscos que cercam os reatores nucleares TEPCO estão longe de ser finalmente resolvidos. Como o Governo Japonês...

A Simulation Study for Emergency/Disaster Management by Applying Complex Networks Theory

Jin,Li; Jiong,Wang; Yang,Dai; Huaping,Wu; Wei,Dong
Fonte: UNAM, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico Publicador: UNAM, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
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66.49%
Earthquakes, hurricanes, flooding and terrorist attacks pose a severe threat to our society. What's more, when such a disaster happens, it can spread in a wide range with ubiquitous presence of a large-scale networked system. Therefore, the emergency/disaster management faces new challenges that the decision-makers have extra difficulties in perceiving the disaster dynamic spreading processes under this networked environment. This study tries to use the complex networks theory to tackle this complexity and the result shows the theory is a promising approach to support disaster/emergency management by focusing on simulation experiments of small world networks and scale free networks. The theory can be used to capture and describe the evolution mechanism, evolution discipline and overall behavior of a networked system. In particular, the complex networks theory is very strong at analyzing the complexity and dynamical changes of a networked system, which can improve the situation awareness after a disaster has occurred and help perceive its dynamic process, which is very important for high-quality decision making. In addition, this study also shows the use of the complex networks theory can build a visualized process to track the dynamic spreading of a disaster in a networked system.