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Spoken word recognition by Latino children learning Spanish as their first language*

HURTADO, NEREYDA; MARCHMAN, VIRGINIA A.; FERNALD, ANNE
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.12%
Research on the development of efficiency in spoken language understanding has focused largely on middle-class children learning English. Here we extend this research to Spanish-learning children (n=49; M=2;0; range=1;3–3;1) living in the USA in Latino families from primarily low socioeconomic backgrounds. Children looked at pictures of familiar objects while listening to speech naming one of the objects. Analyses of eye movements revealed developmental increases in the efficiency of speech processing. Older children and children with larger vocabularies were more efficient at processing spoken language as it unfolds in real time, as previously documented with English learners. Children whose mothers had less education tended to be slower and less accurate than children of comparable age and vocabulary size whose mothers had more schooling, consistent with previous findings of slower rates of language learning in children from disadvantaged backgrounds. These results add to the cross-linguistic literature on the development of spoken word recognition and to the study of the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) factors on early language development.

Engagement in community music classes sparks neuroplasticity and language development in children from disadvantaged backgrounds

Kraus, Nina; Hornickel, Jane; Strait, Dana L.; Slater, Jessica; Thompson, Elaine
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.56%
Children from disadvantaged backgrounds often face impoverished auditory environments, such as greater exposure to ambient noise and fewer opportunities to participate in complex language interactions during development. These circumstances increase their risk for academic failure and dropout. Given the academic and neural benefits associated with musicianship, music training may be one method for providing auditory enrichment to children from disadvantaged backgrounds. We followed a group of primary-school students from gang reduction zones in Los Angeles, CA, USA for 2 years as they participated in Harmony Project. By providing free community music instruction for disadvantaged children, Harmony Project promotes the healthy development of children as learners, the development of children as ambassadors of peace and understanding, and the development of stronger communities. Children who were more engaged in the music program—as defined by better attendance and classroom participation—developed stronger brain encoding of speech after 2 years than their less-engaged peers in the program. Additionally, children who were more engaged in the program showed increases in reading scores, while those less engaged did not show improvements. The neural gains accompanying music engagement were seen in the very measures of neural speech processing that are weaker in children from disadvantaged backgrounds. Our results suggest that community music programs such as Harmony Project provide a form of auditory enrichment that counteracts some of the biological adversities of growing up in poverty...

Factors Influencing Whether Children Walk to School

Su, Jason G.; Jerrett, Michael; Mcconnell, Rob; Berhane, Kiros; Dunton, Genevieve; Shankardass, Ketan; Reynolds, Kim; Chang, Roger; Wolch, Jennifer
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.12%
Few studies have evaluated multiple levels of influence simultaneously on whether children walk to school. A large cohort of 4,338 subjects from ten communities was used to identify the determinants of walking through (1) a one-level logistic regression model for individual-level variables and (2) a two-level mixed regression model for individual and school-level variables. Walking rates were positively associated with home-to-school proximity, greater age, and living in neighborhoods characterized by lower traffic density. Greater land use mix around the home was, however, associated with lower rates of walking. Rates of walking to school were also higher amongst recipients of the Free and Reduced Price Meals Program and attendees of schools with higher percentage of English language learners. Designing schools in the same neighborhood as residential districts should be an essential urban planning strategy to reduce walking distance to school. Policy interventions are needed to encourage children from higher socioeconomic status families to participate in active travel to school and to develop walking infrastructures and other measures that protect disadvantaged children.

Inser??o e/ou exclus?o do discente negro dos cursos da sa?de da Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri ? UFVJM ? campi Diamantina/MG

Oliveira, Ludmila Zaira Farnezi de
Fonte: UFVJM Publicador: UFVJM
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.12%
?rea de concentra??o: Interdisciplinar.; Linha de Pesquisa: Educa??o, Sa?de e Cultura.; ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to analyze the process of inclusion and/or exclusion of the black students in UFVJM, Campus Diamantina/ MG, the courses of health, according to the perspective of students themselves in study, by means of his concepts, experiences and social representations, with the aim to better understand this process. In view of the foregoing, the underlying problem that presents itself lacking in discussions, can be synthesized in the following issues: once that did not have a system of racial quotas - which occurs only in the year of 2013 - the UFVJM managed to ensure the inclusion of educational black descending and socially disadvantaged? Although: in cases of inclusion to this ethnic group, the institution proved to be concerned to pay attention to the permanence of the learners blacks students in courses, through opportunities and scholarships which are expressed in higher chances of inclusion? To answer these questions, it was necessary to analyze of the interviews directed at students who are studying the last two semesters of school courses health, aiming to cover a course academics in tracks to be realized. The specific objectives of this study are: to perform a theoretical about Brazilian slavery past and ideologies to point the roots of racial discrimination and prejudice...

Education for All : Including Children with Disabilities

Peters, Susan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.34%
An estimated 40 million of the 115 million children out of school have disabilities. The vast majority of these children have moderate impairments that are often not visible or easily diagnosed. Disabled children include those with learning difficulties, speech difficulties, physical, cognitive, sensory and emotional difficulties. Children with disabilities are likely to have never attended school. A 1991 report by the UN Rapporteur on Human Rights and Disabilities found that at least one in ten persons in the majority of countries has a physical, cognitive, or sensory (deaf/blind) impairment. Fewer than 5 percent are believed to reach the "Education For All" goal of primary school completion. This number may be growing due to global conditions of increasing poverty, armed conflict, child labor practices, violence and abuse, and HIV/AIDS. Because these children are part of a family unit, it is estimated that at least 25 percent of the world population is directly affected by the presence of disability.

Republic of Madagascar : Mitigating the Impact of the Crisis on Education

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.34%
This report reviews the tools and mechanisms which could contribute to offsetting the negative effects of the current crisis on primary school outcomes in Madagascar. In a context of rapid deterioration of key education indicators, including enrollment and survival, key education stakeholders are faced with the challenging task of identifying tools and mechanisms that may contribute to rapidly restoring access to education. While a variety of programs have been implemented in the past, limited evidence exists on their potential impact on key factors influencing school outcomes. In addition, given the limited domestic and international resources at the disposal of policy-makers, priorities need to be established that will focus on the most urgent and important aspects of the current situation. This report aims at providing key stakeholders in the sector with information on existing tools and mechanisms that could potentially be used to put a halt to the rapid decline of the sectors. The analysis also identifies interventions with a strong potential to offset the effects of the crisis over the short and medium term.

Uganda : Teachers

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.34%
There is increasing interest across the globe in attracting, retaining, developing, and motivating great teachers. Student achievement has been found to correlate with economic and social progress (Hanushek and Woessmann 2007, 2009; Pritchett and Viarengo 2009; Campante and Glaeser 2009), and teachers are key: recent studies have shown that teacher quality is the main school-based predictor of student achievement and that several consecutive years of outstanding teaching can offset the learning deficits of disadvantaged students (Hanushek & Rivkin 2010; Rivkin, et al. 2005; Nye et al. 2004; Rockoff 2004; Park and Hannum 2001; Sanders and Rivers 1996). However, achieving the right teacher policies to ensure that every classroom has a motivated, supported, and competent teacher remains a challenge, because evidence on the impacts of many teacher policies remains insufficient and scattered, the impact of many reforms depends on specific design features, and teacher policies can have very different impacts depending on the context and other education policies in place.

The Role of Nongovernmental Organizations in Primary Education : A Study of Six NGOs in India

Jagannathan, Shanti
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.12%
Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) extend education to underprivileged children in India, and develop innovations that improve the quality of primary education. In this study of six NGOs working with school-age children in India, the author shows the potential benefits of a government-NGO alliance to achieve universal primary education. The author emphasizes several areas in which collaboration can be particularly fruitful. 1) Targeting under-served children: The Government could support the efforts of NGOs to bring out-of-school children into schools, through timely supply of teachers, classroom space, and other resources. Targeted action is needed to reach different types of out-of-school children - those who work, those who live in slums, those on the street, those who are members of tribes, or of migrant families, and those who live in places without schools. To encourage young, first-generation learners to stay in school, requires a supportive, and nurturing environment. To help make learning interesting...

Addressing Gender Inequalities in Curriculum and Education : Review of Literature and Promising Practices to Inform Education Reform Initiatives in Thailand

Levtov, Ruti
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.34%
In Thailand and worldwide, despite increases in educational enrollment, rigid gender norms dictating appropriate roles and behaviors contribute to the persistence of the gender inequalities. Since education systems are embedded in the broader social context, they reflect the inequalities that exist in society. The structure and content of schooling, textbooks, curricular choices, sex distribution of teachers and administrators, teacher attitudes and behaviors, classroom and discipline practices, and the presence of violence, reflect discriminatory and harmful social norms about the appropriate roles and opportunities for boys and girls (Connell, 1996, 2000, 2010). At the same time, schools have enormous potential to effect social change, transform gender relations, expanding the range of possibilities for both boys and girls (UNGEI, 2012a). This report provides a brief review of the literature and of interventions to promote gender equity through education in several specific areas: textbooks and curriculum; teacher distribution...

The Nuts and Bolts of Designing and Implementing Training Programs in Developing Countries

Honorati, Maddalena; McArdle, Thomas P.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.33%
Training programs mainly address market failures related to lack of skills (technical, cognitive, non-cognitive). This paper conducts a comprehensive review of training programs effectiveness in developing countries. Based on relevant international experiences, the paper highlights key design features associated with program success as well as implementation challenges and discusses their policy implication. Success of training programs is deeply related with the content of the skills provided and how well they serve the local labor demand (demand-driven design) and with the presence of a sound governance structure for training providers and beneficiaries. In particular, the effectiveness of training programs for youth tends to be higher when a 'comprehensive' approach is taken by combining different types of training with complementary support services. The ultimate goal is to inform new program design and improve the performance of current training programs.

Eritrea - Health and Education Sectors : Public Expenditure Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.54%
Eritrea is one of the poorest countries in the world, with an average annual per capita income of US$ 200 in 2006, and ranks 157th out of 177 countries in the 2005 human development index. Rain-fed agriculture, the predominant economic activity for more than half the population, is a very risky enterprise and food security remains one of the government's main concerns. Given the security situation the government is concerned about fiscal transparency for national security reasons, but has provided access to fiscal data for a review of the education and health sectors. There have been significant improvements in access to education since independence, and improving the skills of the labor force remains critical for Eritrea's long term development. Eritrea's public resource allocation to education has increased rapidly and at 6.7 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2005 is slightly higher than many countries in the Africa Region. There has been a rapid expansion in tertiary education following investments in 2005 to provide an additional five colleges. The general health status of Eritrea has greatly improved since independence.

Secondary Education in India : Universalizing Opportunity

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.12%
The dramatic growth in Indian elementary education enrollment and improvements in retention and transition rates over the past ten years, particularly among more disadvantaged groups, are increasing pressure on the secondary level to absorb new entrants. Given ongoing center and state investments in Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (education for all), this trend will continue for the next 10 years. At the same time, India's impressive, sustained economic growth has increased household and labor market demand for secondary and higher education. Secondary education's contribution to economic growth, demonstrated high social benefits (particularly for girls), and support of democratic citizenship reinforce the need for increased public support at this level, particularly in light of the very large inequalities in access to secondary education, by income, gender, social group and geography. The challenge is to dramatically improve access, equity and quality of secondary education simultaneously. Small-scale learning achievement studies and parental preference for private schools suggest that the quality of public secondary education is alarmingly low. Efforts to improve the quality of secondary education are thus urgent...

Secondary Education in India : Universalizing Opportunity

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.34%
The dramatic growth in Indian elementary education enrollment and improvements in retention and transition rates over the past ten years, particularly among more disadvantaged groups, are increasing pressure on the secondary level to absorb new entrants. Given ongoing center and state investments in Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (education for all), this trend will continue for the next 10 years. At the same time, India's impressive, sustained economic growth has increased household and labor market demand for secondary and higher education. Secondary education's contribution to economic growth, demonstrated high social benefits (particularly for girls), and support of democratic citizenship reinforce the need for increased public support at this level, particularly in light of the very large inequalities in access to secondary education, by income, gender, social group and geography. The challenge is to dramatically improve access, equity and quality of secondary education simultaneously. Small-scale learning achievement studies and parental preference for private schools suggest that the quality of public secondary education is alarmingly low. Efforts to improve the quality of secondary education are thus urgent...

Mexico : Determinants of Learning Policy Note

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Education Sector Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.34%
This report aims to identify the determinants of learning in Mexico, focusing on equity, cross-country comparisons and national studies. The present report provides new analytical work on the determinants of learning using international and national assessments, as well as new work on the returns to quality of education and an assessment of media coverage of international assessments. The report is organized as follows: Chapter 1 reviews the existing international and Mexican literature on education quality and the determinants of learning. Chapter 2 presents an overview of the state of education in Mexico. Chapter 3 discusses the analysis of the National Assessments (Estandures Nacionales) from 1998 to 2000 and the results of the analysis of PISA 2000 and PISA 2003 data. Finally, Chapter 4 concludes the main report with an agenda for action, which responds to the education situation in Mexico. The report's main message is that Mexico needs to increase secondary school enrollment rates. The country continues to do well at maintaining equity in terms of the impact of family background on scores and the very low dispersion between top and bottom achievers, which is unusual for a Latin American country participating in international achievement tests. To improve quality...

Strategic Reform Road-map for the Technical and Vocational Education and Training Sector in West Bengal

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.34%
This report focuses on one of the key pillars of economic growth - namely, human development, and in particular, on skills development in West Bengal. It examines the current status of skills development, and potential ways forward for making the production of skills in the state more aligned to its economic growth needs. More specifically, the report investigates the characteristics of the technical and vocational education and training system that produces skills, how these skills match up in quantity and quality with what is in demand from employers in the organized and informal sectors, governance and quality assurance systems, emerging partnerships between the government and private providers of skills, and the availability of financial resources for skills development. Based on the findings from primary surveys, secondary data analysis, in-depth consultations with stakeholders, and declared policy priorities, the report provides a strategic framework and a time-based implementation road-map for reforming and reorienting technical and vocational education and training in West Bengal. This task was undertaken at the specific request of the new Government of West Bengal (GOWB) who took office in 2011. The GOWB wanted to know how to improve the quality of vocational and technical education and training in the state...

Introducing problem-based learning (PBL) into a foundation programme to develop self-directed learning skills

Malan,Sharon B; Ndlovu,Mdutshekelwa; Engelbrecht,Petra
Fonte: South African Journal of Education Publicador: South African Journal of Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.33%
This article reports on the qualitative aspects of a study that examined whether introducing a Problem-based Learning (PBL) approach in a one-year foundation programme can create conditions for learners to develop and sustain self-directed learning skills. This interpretive-constructivist case study was located in evaluation research. Data were collected by means of classroom observations and interviews with 35 students and 14 former students. Findings indicated that introducing students to a PBL approach did promote more meaningful learning patterns, typified by processing the subject matter critically and self-regulating learning processes. The sustainability ofthe meaning-directed learning skills was questionable ifstudent beliefs in the approach did not support the activities employed. Introducing PBL into a foundation programme can develop self-directed learning skills in students and set in motion a process of growth towards lifelong learning.

Incorporating the indigenous game of morabaraba in the learning of mathematics

Nkopodi,Nkopodi; Mosimege,Mogege
Fonte: South African Journal of Education Publicador: South African Journal of Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.51%
For many years, education in South Africa has been based mainly on western values. This has contributed to the fact that many learners from disadvantaged backgrounds cannot see the connection between the education they receive at school and their everyday experiences. This may well have contributed to the high failure rate amongst mathematics learners as well as the perceived diffi­culty of mathematics. It is believed that indigenous knowledge, in general, can be used to promote the teaching of mathema­tics in multicultural classes. We report on an enquiry into the use of the indigenous game of morabaraba in the mathematics class. Various mathematical concepts have been identified from the game. It was found that learners enjoy playing the game, and that it can be used in the mathematics classroom to promote the learning of mathematics. It was also found that the use of this game promotes spontaneous interaction amongst learners as they communicate their activities to fellow participants. The enjoyment of the game was found not to be restricted to a specific cultural group, which suggests that it can be used in a multicultural setting.

Bridging the gap between advantaged and disadvantaged children: Why should we be concerned with executive functions in the South African context?

Fitzpatrick,Caroline
Fonte: South African Journal of Childhood Education Publicador: South African Journal of Childhood Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.34%
Reducing the economic and social burden associated with poor academic achievement represents an urgent concern in South Africa. Increasingly research suggests that child characteristics in kindergarten play an important role in charting courses towards academic success and educational attainment by early adulthood. Although math and reading skills are important predictors of later achievement, executive function skills which underlie children's ability to focus attention and become autonomous, selfdirected learners also play a key role in later adjustment to school. Disadvantaged children perform more poorly on tests of achievement and executive functions. Furthermore, executive functions have been found to partially account for the relationship between socioeconomic status and later achievement. It is possible to target executive functions in at-risk children using specific interventions. These programs are generally cost-effective. It is proposed that increasing efforts towards promoting executive functions in preschool-aged children represents a promising strategy for reducing economically based disparities in the education and eventual life chances of individuals.

University-school partnerships for social justice in mathematics and science education: the case of the SMILES project at IMSTUS

Ndlovu,Mdutshekelwa C
Fonte: South African Journal of Education Publicador: South African Journal of Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.34%
My purpose in this paper is to situate a university-school mathematics and science education partnership within a social justice perspective in education. The focus of the systemic intervention endeavour was school-based teacher professional development in which university-based facilitators embarked on class visits with the aim of identifying teacher needs, co-teaching and offering professional support over a three-year period. This was in contrast to evaluation (inspection visits) often undertaken by the subject advisors under the auspices of the Department of Education which, for historical reasons, tend to be viewed with suspicion by teachers and teacher unions. Five historically disadvantaged secondary schools and their 10 feeder primary schools were involved in this study with a view to providing equal opportunities to learners from marginalized communities in the Cape Winelands district of the Western Cape. Initial results suggest that an intervention programme that is responsive to local needs can go a long way in bringing about collaborative teacher professional development that leads to reflective practice in professional learning communities and can add value to the quality of student achievement in the gateway subjects of mathematics and science.

Learners' perceptions as to what contributes to their school success: a case study

Moloi,K.C.; Dzvimbo,K.P.; Potgieter,F.J.; Wolhuter,C.C.; van der Walt,J.L.
Fonte: South African Journal of Education Publicador: South African Journal of Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.33%
Some historically black schools manage to do quite well despite their circumstances, such as dire poverty. We aim at explicating some of the causal factors regarding the effectiveness of three schools in deep rural Mpumalanga, South Africa by tapping the perceptions of their learners. Data were collected from learner samples (four girls and four boys from each school, all of them black) by means of semi-structured focus group interviews. The results lead to the conclusion that the perceptions of disadvantaged black learners in this area, with respect to what contributes to their educational effectiveness, may also be understood in terms of hierarchical insights and awarenesses, the ontological basis of which seems to be successful pedagogical dialogue, with mutual acceptance as its fountainhead.