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Being in or being out: social exclusion and destructive collective behaviour of disadvantaged groups

Esteves, Carla Sofia de Castro
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
Doctor in Psychology/ Classificação: 3000: Social Psychology; 3020: Group & Interpersonal Processes; A presente tese expõe uma abordagem baseada na identidade social para explicar acções colectivas praticadas por grupos em desvantagem social consideradas pela maioria em vantagem social como mais problemáticas (i.e., destrutivas/danosas/violentas). Propomos que o comportamento destrutivo, e respectivas emoções negativas, não são meras expressões de conflito intergrupal, sendo antes respostas a acções praticadas pela maioria em vantagem percepcionadas pela minoria em desvantagem como transgressões que violam standards mínimos (por comparação a standards máximos), standards esses estabelecidos por categorias supra-ordenadas. Resultados de dois estudos de campo (Estudo 1 com imigrantes em Portugal e Estudo 2 com fumadores) e dois estudos experimentais laboratoriais nos quais se recorreu a um jogo virtual (Estudos 3 e 4) corroboram, em geral, as nossas hipóteses: A percepção de violação de standards mínimos conduz a emoções negativas e a comportamento destrutivo. Os Estudos 3-4 revelam que estas percepções são mais prováveis no caso de exclusão social (em comparação com formas mais benignas de privação...

Rapport des parents aux devoirs à la maison : milieux favorisés et milieux défavorisés

Fecteau, Carole
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.14%
Cette recherche vise à voir s’il existe une différence entre les familles favorisées et celles défavorisées en ce qui concerne le rapport qu’elles entretiennent avec les devoirs à la maison. D’après quelques écrits, la réalisation des devoirs peut être plus difficile en milieu défavorisé (Carvalho, 2009; Cooper, Lindsay et Nye, 2000; Dolle, 2007; Grolnick, Benjet, Kurowski, et Apostoleris, 1997 ; Hoover-Dempsey, Bassler et Brissie, 1992; Kronholz, 1997; Odum, 1994; Scott-Jones, 1984 ; Symeou, 2009), et c’est cette problématique qui est concernée dans ce travail. Les participants sont quatorze parents d’élèves du deuxième cycle du primaire de deux écoles, une dans la région montréalaise (milieu défavorisé) et une dans la région des Laurentides (milieu favorisé). Pour réaliser la comparaison, sept parents de chacun des milieux ont été interviewés à l’aide d’un questionnaire portant sur le processus des devoirs, sur la participation parentale et sur leur sentiment de compétence à aider leur enfant durant les devoirs. Les résultats ont montré que la réalisation des devoirs est plus longue en milieu défavorisé et que les conflits sont plus présents dans ce type de milieu. Aussi, la motivation des enfants à l’égard des devoirs en milieu défavorisé est plus faible...

Exploring teachers’ experience of implementing a whole class vocabulary intervention in disadvantaged secondary schools

Greene, Eimear
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/masterThesis (taught); all_ul_research; ul_theses_dissertations
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.79%
non-peer-reviewed; Background: Collaborative practice between teachers and speech and language therapists (SaLTs) can augment secondary school students’ vocabulary learning through whole class interventions. Research that explores teachers’ experiences of implementing collaborative language interventions is relatively rare. The current study sought to explore teachers’ perceptions of the process and outcomes of a whole class Vocabulary Enrichment Programme (VEP) with first year students attending disadvantaged secondary schools. Aims: To describe teachers’ views on the process and outcomes of implementing a whole class VEP, including their experiences of collaborating with a speech and language therapist (SaLT), the positive and challenging activities within the VEP and possible barriers and facilitators to effectively teaching the VEP. Methodology: Eight teachers from two secondary schools participated in semi-structured interviews within two months of completing the intervention. Eight questions relating to the research aims were used to guide the semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis was performed on the resulting transcribed data. Results: Teachers’ perceived that liaison with the VEP SaLT was an important element of the intervention. Teachers’ highlighted the necessity of vocabulary learning for students and indicated that the multidimensional nature of the learning objectives in the VEP broke down barriers to language learning for students...

Compensatory Education for Disadvantaged Mexican Students: An Impact Evaluation Using Propensity Score Matching

Shapiro, Joseph; Trevino, Jorge Moreno
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.79%
The authors use propensity score matching to evaluate the effectiveness of CONAFE, a compensatory education program in Mexico, in improving student test scores and lowering repetition and failure rates. They find that CONAFE is most effective in improving primary school math learning and secondary school Spanish learning. Secondary education delivered by way of television to remote communities and bilingual education for indigenous students are both shown to improve student achievement. CONAFE also lowers primary school repetition and failure rates. The authors conclude that this compensatory education program can effectively improve short-term learning results for disadvantaged students, but that improvement varies by the subject of instruction and the demographics of students taught.

Risk factors for placental abruption in a socio-economically disadvantaged region

Budde, M.; DeLange, T.; Dekker, G.; Chan, A.; Nguyen, A.M.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Ltd Publicador: Taylor & Francis Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.79%
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken in order to determine the risk factors for pregnancies complicated by placental abruption in a socio-economically disadvantaged region in metropolitan Adelaide. METHODS: This was a retrospective case-control study including all singleton pregnancies resulting in placental abruption between 2001 and 2005. RESULTS: The overall incidence of placental abruption was 1.0%; the overall perinatal mortality among the births with abruption was 13%. Univariate analyses showed the following significant risk factors for placental abruption: preterm pre-labor rupture of the membranes (PRE-PROM; odds ratio (OR) 4.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.52-15.08), non-compliance with antenatal care (OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.06-8.90), severe intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and elevated homocysteine levels (OR 45.55, 95% CI 7.05-458.93). Severe IUGR was significantly more common in the abruption group compared with the control group (p = 0.032). In the multivariate analysis, PRE-PROM remained a significant independent risk factor for placental abruption. Marijuana use, domestic violence, and mental health problems were more common (borderline significance) in the abruption group. Smoking and preeclampsia were not found to be associated with placental abruption in this study. CONCLUSIONS: In this high-risk population...

Impact of climate change on disadvantaged groups: Issues and interventions

Sevoyan, A.; Hugo, G.; Feist, H.; Tan, G.; McDougall, K.; Tan, Y.; Spoehr, J.
Fonte: National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility; Australia Publicador: National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility; Australia
Tipo: Relatório
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.14%
In the international literature on climate change there is an emerging concern that the negative effects of climate change will be disproportionately experienced by those who are economically and socially disadvantaged, further widening the gap between them and more advantaged population groups. However, the relationship between climate change impact and social disadvantage remains little investigated. This study has sought to contribute to this gap by adding to the small body of empirical knowledge of the vulnerability and adaptive capacity of disadvantaged groups in Australia in the face of impending adverse impacts of climate change. The study provides a discussion of the historical and future climate trends and its implications for the population. However, it goes on to discuss the concept of social vulnerability in the international literature and to show that at the local level population vulnerability to climate change is more likely to be defined by the socio-economic differences in the community, than by environmental impact. Adding to the wide discussion of the concept and operationalization of climate vulnerability this study adapted an approach of developing a measure of social exclusion as a way of measuring social vulnerability and adaptive capacity. The study uses ABS 2011 Population Census data to measure social vulnerability at LGA level. It also uses quantitative data collected from 1800 CATI interviews in three contrasting communities in South Australia (Port Pirie...

The impact of interventions to prevent obesity or improve obesity related behaviours in children (0-5 years) from socioeconomically disadvantaged and/or indigenous families: a systematic review

Laws, R.; Campbell, K.J.; van der Pligt, P.; Russell, G.; Ball, K.; Lynch, J.; Crawford, D.; Taylor, R.; Askew, D.; Denney-Wilson, E.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
BACKGROUND: Children from disadvantaged families including those from low socioeconomic backgrounds and Indigenous families have higher rates of obesity, making early intervention a priority. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to examine the effectiveness of interventions to prevent obesity or improve obesity related behaviours in children 0-5 years from socioeconomically disadvantaged or Indigenous families. METHODS: Searches of major electronic databases identified articles published from 1993-2013 targeting feeding practices, anthropometric, diet, activity or sedentary behaviour outcomes. This was supplemented with snowballing from existing reviews and primary studies. Data extraction was undertaken by one author and cross checked by another. Quality assessments included both internal and external validity. RESULTS: Thirty-two studies were identified, with only two (both low quality) in Indigenous groups. Fourteen studies had a primary aim to prevent obesity. Mean differences between intervention and control groups ranged from -0.29 kg/m(2) to -0.54 kg/m(2) for body mass index (BMI) and -2.9 to -25.6% for the prevalence of overweight/obesity. Interventions initiated in infancy (under two years) had a positive impact on obesity related behaviours (e.g. diet quality) but few measured the longer-term impact on healthy weight gain. Findings amongst pre-schoolers (3-5 years) were mixed...

A comparison of the Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization Specialists (SADBUS') role at Navy Regional Contracting Center (NRCC) Philadelphia, PA and Navy Regional Contracting Center (NRCC) San Diego, CA Detachment Long Beach

Hennelly, Patrick J.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 119 p.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.79%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; This thesis analyzes the role of the Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization Specialist (SADBUS) at the Navy Regional Contracting Center (NRCC) Philadelphia, PA and NRCC San Diego, CA Detachment Long Beach, CA. The focus of the research was to determine what measures need to be taken to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of these SADBU Specialists. The thesis begins with a brief review of the statutes and regulations which govern the role of the SADBUS in the Department of Defense. Through a comparative analysis of the two NRCCs, the researcher was able to reach certain conclusions about improvements which need to be made to the role of the SADBU Specialist at each NRCC. the researcher concluded that each SADBUD could be more effective in their position, if they increased the amount of market research they performed. Both SADBU Specialist also need to improve the quality of the market research they perform, to identify Small Businesses capable of performing successfully on Government procurement contracts.; http://archive.org/details/comparisonofsmal00henn; Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy

Lost opportunity: the high quality, reduced military force of the 1990s : is there a role for the nation's disadvantaged youth?

Moule, Valerie Ann
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: ix, 107 p.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; The trend toward increased quality of military recruits over the past decade is projected to continue into the 1990s. The effect of this trend, combined with the planned force drawdown, may limit opportunities for the nation's disadvantaged youth to serve in the military. A policy analysis was conducted using five previous studies of Project 100,000 to determine the feasibility of recruiting disadvantaged youth for military service. Project 100, 000 (1966-1971) relaxed the military's entrance standards so that a large number of individuals who would have otherwise been disqualified could serve. The five previous studies were beset by numerous methodological weaknesses and produced conflicting results. Consequently, no definitive conclusion could be drawn regarding the merits of recruiting disadvantaged youth in the years ahead. Alternative approaches for further research are presented.; Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy

Compensatory Education for Disadvantaged Students : Evidence from an Impact Evaluation Study in Mexico; Educacion compensatoria para estudiantes desfavorecidos : pruebas de un estudio de evaluacion de impacto llevado a cabo en Mexico

Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Shapiro, Joseph; Moreno Trevino, Jorge
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.79%
Effectively educating all citizens is difficult in a geographically disperse and culturally heterogeneous country such as Mexico. How should Mexico educate the type of students who speak no Spanish, live in villages inaccessible by roads, or come from families that cannot afford school uniforms? Mexico began to address this challenge as early as 1971 by creating the National Council of Education Promotion (CONAFE), a division of Mexico's Secretariat of Public Education (SEP). CONAFE provides extra resources to schools that enroll disadvantaged students. CONAFE's compensatory education (see Box 1) programs now support more than three million students in pre-primary and primary education, and about one million students in telesecundaria education, or secondary education delivered via satellite television to remote schools. A recent evaluation of the impact of CONAFE's compensatory programs finds that CONAFE is most effective in improving primary school math learning and secondary school Spanish learning. Telesecundaria education and bilingual education for indigenous students are both shown to improve student achievement. CONAFE is also shown to lower primary school repetition and failure rates.

Can Disadvantaged Kids Ever Catch Up with Better-off Peers?

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.79%
The World Bank is focused on developing and supporting programs that help children reach their potential and live lives free of poverty. To help build a body of evidence of what works, the World Bank financed an evaluation of a program in Jamaica that targeted mothers of babies stunted due to malnutrition. The mothers received either support or guidance on how to encourage their babies' development through play and language, or nutritional supplements, or a combination of the two. The children whose mothers had received the extra guidance were doing as well financially as the less disadvantaged (and non-stunted) children. This study is a rare look at the effects of early childhood intervention over the decades, giving policymakers and development experts tangible proof of the potential effects of early childhood development programs. A rare long-term study of the effects of an early childhood development program shows that children's lives can be improved by ensuring that they have the right stimulation and emotional support as babies and toddlers.

Men on the margins masculinities in disadvantaged areas in Limerick city

Kelleher, Patricia; O'Connor, Pat
Fonte: Cork University Press Publicador: Cork University Press
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bookPart; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.79%
peer-reviewed; Large numbers of men benefit materially, socially and politically from patriarchy, but the advantages described as the 'patriarchal dividend' are not spread equally among men.' In other words, not all men are equally privileged. In this context, a key issue is how do men negotiate their identities as men within disadvantaged areas? This raises questions about the social and economic structures in which they live as well as about their cultural definitions of masculinities. Connell suggested that, 'Masculinities are constructed, over time, in young people's encounters with a system of gender relations," Thus gender 'is something people do' and it varies across time and place.'

Jamaica; Jamaica - ¿Es posible que los niños desfavorecidos alcancen alguna vez a sus pares más privilegiados? Jamaique - Les enfants défavorisés peuvent-ils rattraper leurs pairs qui sont mieux lotis?; Can Disadvantaged Kids Ever Catch Up with Better-Off Peers?

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.79%
The World Bank is focused on developing and supporting programs that help children reach their potential and live lives free of poverty. To help build a body of evidence of what works, the World Bank financed an evaluation of a program in Jamaica that targeted mothers of babies stunted due to malnutrition. The mothers received either support or guidance on how to encourage their babies development through play and language, or nutritional supplements, or a combination of the two. The children whose mothers had received the extra guidance were doing as well financially as the less disadvantaged (and non-stunted) children. This study is a rare look at the effects of early childhood intervention over the decades, giving policymakers and development experts tangible proof of the potential effects of early childhood development programs. A rare long-term study of the effects of an early childhood development program shows that childrens lives can be improved by ensuring that they have the right stimulation and emotional support as babies and toddlers. This Evidence to Policy note was jointly produced by the World Bank Group...

Exploration of dentists’ characteristics associated with caring for disadvantaged patients using a mixed-methods approach.

Gardner, Suzanne Patricia
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.26%
Disparities in access to dental services have been reported for particular groups of Australians. Consequently, these groups suffer a greater burden of oral disease when compared with the general population. The reasons why dentists do not undertake and/or sustain working with disadvantaged patients are well known but not so well known is what drives those who do. This project aims to better understand the characteristics of dentists whose practice orientation is focused on care for disadvantaged groups. This will supplement existing knowledge of dentists’ career decision making, allow more targeted recruitment of dental applicants, and inform admissions committees and dental educators about how best to prepare students with the skills, attributes and experiences necessary to serve all Australians. The aim of this research project was to explore the characteristics, values, beliefs, and motivations of dentists who work with disadvantaged patients and compare the findings with those who treat mainly general patients. A sequential mixed-method study design was undertaken. Dentists who worked with underserved groups were purposefully recruited using the ‘snowballing’ technique and interviewed. Thematic analysis of the transcripts followed; the findings of which formed the basis of the questionnaire sent to a random sample of registered dentists in Australia. Univariate...

Intelligence development of socio-economically disadvantaged pre-school children

Bulut,Sefa
Fonte: Anales de Psicología Publicador: Anales de Psicología
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.79%
The intellectual development of socioeconomically disadvantaged preschool children is influenced by several factors. The development of intelligence is a multidimensional concept that is determined by biological, social, and environmental factors. In this literature review, however, only the social and environmental factors are discussed. Some of the factors that have profound effect on children's cognitive development are as follows: environmental stimulation, parental attitudes, maternal age, and education. Successful intervention and prevention programs aimed at enhancing children's cognitive development are also exemplified. It appears that early intervention programs in the second and third year of an infant's life have fundamental effects on the cognitive development of disadvan-taged children. It is clear that learning starts with birth. Longitudinal studies revealed that the most effective period for intervention is early childhood. Those who received early day-care and preschool intervention programs have sustained these gains in adolescence and adulthood. Those benefits include higher IQ scores, better achievement test scores, better reading and math skills, more educational attainment, more college degrees, and fewer psychosocial and mental health problems. Therefore...

The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools: new light on an old issue

Maforah,T P; Schulze,S
Fonte: South African Journal of Education Publicador: South African Journal of Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.79%
The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North- West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixed-methods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with which these principals struggled. Thirty principals of secondary schools located in the rural villages and townships in the province were purposefully selected. A structured questionnaire was used during the quantitative phase. The items in the questionnaire determined the principals' views on intrinsic and contextual factors related to their working environment. These items were followed by open-ended questions. Additional qualitative data were obtained through interviews with eight principals selected from the same group. Although the principals enjoyed intrinsic aspects of their work and positive interpersonal relations at their schools, the results were significant in determining how the principals struggled with other issues (e.g. policies and practices of the Department of Basic Education). Underpinning factors were unrealistic expectations and negative perceptions that influenced their professionalism. A key factor that emerged was power versus powerlessness.

Mothers' experiences of caring for a child with severe brain injury in a disadvantaged community in the Cape Flats

du Toit,Christine; Coetzee,Zelda; Beeton,Hilary
Fonte: South African Journal of Occupational Therapy Publicador: South African Journal of Occupational Therapy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.79%
Health professionals have a limited understanding of the experiences of mothers caring for a child with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in a context of disadvantage. This may be due to the dearth of qualitative research on this topic in the South Africa. This phenomenological study aimed to explore and describe the lived experiences of four mothers caring for their children with severe TBI in disadvantaged communities in the Cape Flats. Their lived experiences were described in terms of lived space, lived body, lived social relationships and lived time. Two in-depth interviews were done with each of the four mothers. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed inductively. The three themes which emerged from the analysis were: "personal burden of care", "living a different life with a different child" and "holding onto faith and hope". The findings highlighted that caring for a child with TBI changed the mothers' circumstances in such a way that they had no time for themselves, because caring for and worrying about their children consumed their whole day. They also experienced an increased financial burden as they resigned from their employment to care for their children fulltime. They had to change their parenting styles as the children had different needs than before the TBI. The mothers also identified many needs of their own...

Mentoring to develop research self-efficacy, with particular reference to previously disadvantaged individuals

Schulze,S.
Fonte: Koers Publicador: Koers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.79%
The development of inexperienced researchers is crucial. In response to the lack of research self-efficacy of many previously disadvantaged individuals, the article examines how mentoring can enhance the research self-efficacy of mentees. The study is grounded in the self-efficacy theory (SET) - an aspect of the social cognitive theory (SCT). Insights were gained from an in-depth study of SCT, SET and mentoring, and from a completed mentoring project. This led to the formulation of three basic principles. Firstly, institutions need to provide supportive environmental conditions that facilitate research self-efficacy. This implies a supportive and efficient collective system. The possible effects of performance ratings and reward systems at the institution also need to be considered. Secondly, mentoring needs to create opportunities for young researchers to experience successful learning as a result of appropriate action. To this end, mentees need to be involved in actual research projects in small groups. At the same time the mentor needs to facilitate skills development by coaching and encouragement. Thirdly, mentors need to encourage mentees to believe in their ability to successfully complete research projects. This implies encouraging positive emotional states...

Educators' motivation on integration of ICTs into pedagogy: case of disadvantaged areas

Chigona,Agnes; Chigona,Wallace; Davids,Zane
Fonte: South African Journal of Education Publicador: South African Journal of Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
This paper investigates factors that motivate educators to use Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) in schools in disadvantaged areas. The study employed Herzberg' Motivation-Hygiene theory to guide the process of understanding the factors that motivate or demotivate educators when using the technology for teaching and learning. Qualitative research approach was used to gather and analyse information from educators from randomly sampled schools located in disadvantaged areas in the Western Cape. The study has shown that educators' motivation to use technology for curriculum delivery could be impacted by satisfaction derived from using the ICTs, individual expectations, responsibility and a sense of achievement experienced when using the technologies.

A more subtle set of information in corporate annual reports for disadvantaged stakeholderds

Cronjé,Christo J
Fonte: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences Publicador: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
The traditional corporate annual report consists of two types of disclosures, that is, mandatory and contextual disclosures. The research problem focuses on the issue whether full disclosure in corporate annual reports could entail mandatory and contextual disclosures as well as a more subtle set of information for disadvantaged stakeholders. To solve the research problem, use was mainly made of a literature review dealing with certain aspects of decision-useful financial reporting. The literature review was complemented by exploratory empirical research. It was found that full disclosure in corporate annual reports could consist of mandatory and contextual disclosures as well as a more subtle set of information for disadvantaged stakeholders.