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A aprendizagem em educação física : análise de dois modelos de ensino em basquetebol : instrução direta e educação desportiva

Lopes, Maria Filomena Lourenço Rodrigues Lobo da Costa
Fonte: Universidade Aberta de Portugal Publicador: Universidade Aberta de Portugal
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
Dissertação de Mestrado em Supervisão Pedagógica apresentada à Universidade Aberta; O presente estudo, feito numa Escola Secundária, analisou se existiam diferenças na aprendizagem do basquetebol em modelos de ensino diferentes: instrução direta e educação desportiva e estudou as perceções dos alunos e da professora. A pesquisa foi experimental e descritiva e a amostra formada pelos alunos de duas turmas do 10º ano. Aplicou-se em cada turma um modelo diferente e na avaliação testes escritos, testes de AAHPERD, GPAI, questionário e diário de bordo. No tratamento estatístico calculou-se percentagens, médias, desvio padrão, amplitude e coeficiente de variação, usou-se testes t para amostras emparelhadas e para duas amostras independentes. Concluiu-se que houve diferenças significativas nos conhecimentos em instrução direta e no lançamento em educação desportiva. Foi em educação desportiva onde se referiu que se aprendeu mais. Em instrução direta houve menos comportamentos desviantes e melhor desempenho na arbitragem. Em educação desportiva os alunos mostraram desagrado pela extensão do tempo numa mesma modalidade.; The present study, which took place in a Secondary School, analyzed if there were any differences in basketball learning in different teaching models: direct instruction and sport education and studied the students’ and teacher’s perceptions. The research was both experimental and descriptive and the sample was constituted by the students of two 10th grade classes. A different model was applied on each class and evaluation consisted on written tests...

Trissomia 21 : um estudo single-subject sobre aprendizagem funcional da matemática

Machado, Ana Rita Fernandes de Almeida
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 28/11/2008 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
Dissertação de Mestrado em Estudos da Criança (área de Especialização Ensino e Aprendizagem da Matemática); Este trabalho tem por finalidade contribuir para o conhecimento de práticas eficazes de ensino da Matemática junto de alunos com Trissomia 21. Nesse sentido realizou-se este estudo, procurando definir o mais correctamente possível este síndrome congénito e identificar algumas das características físicas, de saúde, cognitivas, comunicativas e de aprendizagem mais comuns, que a investigação comprovou e publicou ao longo dos tempos. Adoptando um modelo de ensino ainda pouco explorado e utilizado em Portugal – o Ensino Directo – desenvolveu-se uma investigação que permitisse avaliar o desempenho académico de três alunos com Trissomia 21 aquando a sua aplicação, comparativamente a uma prática de ensino da matemática. Sob a metodologia investigativa single-subject, os dados foram recolhidos através de provas de monitorização com base no currículo, cuidadosamente elaboradas. As duas práticas de ensino foram aplicadas alternadamente, isto é, utilizou-se um desenho experimental de manipulação da variável independente (ABAB) e o conhecimento adquirido foi sintetizado caso a caso, sob a forma de um gráfico de monitorização. De acordo com os resultados deste estudo...

EFFECTS OF DIRECT INSTRUCTION ON THE ACQUISITION OF PREPOSITIONS BY STUDENTS WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES

Hicks, S. Christy; Bethune, Keri S; Wood, Charles L; Cooke, Nancy L; Mims, Pamela J
Fonte: The Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Publicador: The Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
Some students with intellectual disabilities require explicit instruction of language skills, including preposition use; however, little is known about effective ways to teach preposition use to this population. This study examined direct instruction (DI) to teach students to use and respond to prepositions. Results indicated that DI was an effective way to teach prepositions. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.

A REVIEW OF RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SEQUENCING RECEPTIVE AND EXPRESSIVE LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION

Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg; Carr, James E
Fonte: The Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Publicador: The Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.13%
We review recommendations for sequencing instruction in receptive and expressive language objectives in early and intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) programs. Several books recommend completing receptive protocols before introducing corresponding expressive protocols. However, this recommendation has little empirical support, and some evidence exists that the reverse sequence may be more efficient. Alternative recommendations include teaching receptive and expressive skills simultaneously (M. L. Sundberg & Partington, 1998) and building learning histories that lead to acquisition of receptive and expressive skills without direct instruction (Greer & Ross, 2008). Empirical support for these recommendations also is limited. Future research should assess the relative efficiency of receptive-before-expressive, expressive-before-receptive, and simultaneous training with children who have diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders. In addition, further evaluation is needed of the potential benefits of multiple-exemplar training and other variables that may influence the efficiency of receptive and expressive instruction.

The Double-edged Sword of Pedagogy: Instruction limits spontaneous exploration and discovery

Bonawitz, Elizabeth; Shafto, Patrick; Gweon, Hyowon; Goodman, Noah D.; Spelke, Elizabeth; Schulz, Laura
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
Motivated by computational analyses, we look at how teaching affects exploration and discovery. In Experiment 1, we investigated children’s exploratory play after an adult pedagogically demonstrated a function of a toy, after an interrupted pedagogical demonstration, after a naïve adult demonstrated the function, and at baseline. Preschoolers in the pedagogical condition focused almost exclusively on the target function; by contrast, children in the other conditions explored broadly. In Experiment 2, we show that children restrict their exploration both after direct instruction to themselves and after overhearing direct instruction given to another child; they do not show this constraint after observing direct instruction given to an adult or after observing a non-pedagogical intentional action. We discuss these findings as the result of rational inductive biases. In pedagogical contexts, a teacher’s failure to provide evidence for additional functions provides evidence for their absence; such contexts generalize from child to child (because children are likely to have comparable states of knowledge) but not from adult to child. Thus, pedagogy promotes efficient learning but at a cost: children are less likely to perform potentially irrelevant actions but also less likely to discover novel information.

EMERGENT INTRAVERBAL RESPONSES VIA TACT AND MATCH-TO-SAMPLE INSTRUCTION

Grannan, Leigh; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne
Fonte: The Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Publicador: The Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.07%
The present investigation evaluated the effectiveness of category tact and match-to-sample instruction in facilitating the emergence of intraverbal responses (i.e., naming several items belonging to a specific category) for 2 children with autism. Results demonstrated the emergence of untaught responses, suggesting an effective instructional protocol for establishing intraverbal responses without direct instruction.

A Comparative Study of Students’ Track and Field Technical Performance in Sport Education and in a Direct Instruction Approach

Pereira, José; Hastie, Peter; Araújo, Rui; Farias, Cláudio; Rolim, Ramiro; Mesquita, Isabel
Fonte: Uludag University Publicador: Uludag University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/01/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
This study examined students’ technical performances improvements in three track and field events (hurdles, shot put, and long jump) following either a Sport Education season or a Direct Instruction unit. An experienced Physical Education teacher taught two classes totalling 47 sixth-grade students (25 boys and 22 girls, aged between 10 and 13 years old) in 20, 45-minute lessons over 10 weeks. The students’ technical performances were analysed and evaluated through systematic observation of videos. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare scores at three time points (pre-test, post-test and retention), and the Mann-Whitney U test was used to examine the differences within each instructional model at each assessment moment, as well as by gender and skill level. The impact of each instructional model in student learning was markedly distinct. While in Sport Education students of both genders and skill levels improved significantly in all events, in Direct Instruction, evidence of significant improvements was limited to boys and students of higher skill level.

The Double-Edged Sword of Pedagogy: Instruction Limits Spontaneous Exploration and Discovery

Bonawitz, Elizabeth; Shafto, Patrick; Gweon, Hyowon; Goodman, Noah D.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Schulz, Laura
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
Motivated by computational analyses, we look at how teaching affects exploration and discovery. In Experiment 1, we investigated children’s exploratory play after an adult pedagogically demonstrated a function of a toy, after an interrupted pedagogical demonstration, after a naïve adult demonstrated the function, and at baseline. Preschoolers in the pedagogical condition focused almost exclusively on the target function; by contrast, children in the other conditions explored broadly. In Experiment 2, we show that children restrict their exploration both after direct instruction to themselves and after overhearing direct instruction given to another child; they do not show this constraint after observing direct instruction given to an adult or after observing a non-pedagogical intentional action. We discuss these findings as the result of rational inductive biases. In pedagogical contexts, a teacher’s failure to provide evidence for additional functions provides evidence for their absence; such contexts generalize from child to child (because children are likely to have comparable states of knowledge) but not from adult to child. Thus, pedagogy promotes efficient learning but at a cost: children are less likely to perform potentially irrelevant actions but also less likely to discover novel information.; Psychology

Metaphorical Interpretation: Measuring and Facilitating Growth.

Kennerly, Catharine Ann
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
Abstract A total of 378 grade 9 students participated in this study to address the problem that although metaphorical literacy and thought are expected and necessary for success in junior and senior high school and beyond, metaphorical concepts and thought are not required to be explicitly taught to these students. The students were from 20 different classes from 4 levels: English language learners (ELL), school to work (SSTW), applied, and academic. All were from 7 secondary schools within a board in southern Ontario. Nine classes made up the control group and 11 classes made up the treatment group. All classes were given 3 pretests and the posttest. The treatment group was given Socratic lessons and direct instruction on metaphorical thought and expressions during 1 semester and in conjunction with their other classroom material. The pretest scores (TOLD, Peabody, preproverbs concrete, and preproverbs abstract) did not reveal any effect of gender, but the academic students had higher scores than the applied students. The SSTW student results are more variable: (a) for the TOLD test, SSTW scores were between those of the academic and applied students; (b) for Peabody scores, SSTW students’ scores are the same as academic and are greater than applied; (c) for preproverbs concrete and preproverbs abstract...

Literacy for All in 100 Days? A Research-based Strategy for Fast Progress in Low-income Countries

Abadzi, Helen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.25%
In low-income countries many students are marginalized very early and remain illiterate. In grades 1-3 they attend rarely, though they may officially drop out in grade 4. Many others graduate from primary school without having learned letter values. The worrisome outcomes, despite much donor investment in low-income countries, have prompted scrutiny of the methods, and textbooks used to make students literate. This document offers insights from cognitive neuroscience and evidence suggesting that students can be taught basic literacy within the first semester of grade 1, if taught in consistently spelled languages. Teaching students at risk of dropout to read as early as possible enhances equity. However, the reading methods used in many countries are complex and hard for teachers to execute. They pertain to high-income countries and to certain western European languages. English but also French, Portuguese, and Dutch have complex spelling systems. English in particular requires three years of learning time. (French requires about two). Reading instruction for English is expensive and complex. Lists of whole words must be learned...

The effect of direct instruction in story grammar using deep processing on the reading and writing achievement of second-graders

Fine, Joyce Caplan
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.28%
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of direct instruction in story grammar on the reading and writing achievement of second graders. Three aspects of story grammar (character, setting, and plot) were taught with direct instruction using the concept development technique of deep processing. Deep processing which included (a) visualization (the drawing of pictures), (b) verbalization (the writing of sentences), (c) the attachment of physical sensations, and (d) the attachment of emotions to concepts was used to help students make mental connections necessary for recall and application of character, setting, and plot when constructing meaning in reading and writing.^ Four existing classrooms consisting of seventy-seven second-grade students were randomly assigned to two treatments, experimental and comparison. Both groups were pretested and posttested for reading achievement using the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests. Pretest and posttest writing samples were collected and evaluated. Writing achievement was measured using (a) a primary trait scoring scale (an adapted version of the Glazer Narrative Composition Scale) and (b) an holistic scoring scale by R. J. Pritchard. ANCOVAs were performed on the posttests adjusted for the pretests to determine whether or not the methods differed. There was no significant improvement in reading after the eleven-day experimental period for either group; nor did the two groups differ. There was significant improvement in writing for the experimental group over the comparison group. Pretreatment and posttreatment interviews were selectively collected to evaluate qualitatively if the students were able to identify and manipulate elements of story grammar and to determine patterns in metacognitive processing. Interviews provided evidence that most students in the experimental group gained while most students in the comparison group did not gain in their ability to manipulate...

The Effect of Mobile Technology as an Active Student Response System on the Acquisition of U.S. History Content of Secondary Students with Specific Learning Disabilities

Monem, Ruba
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
Students with specific learning disabilities (SLD) typically learn less history content than their peers without disabilities and show fewer learning gains. Even when they are provided with the same instructional strategies, many students with SLD struggle to grasp complex historical concepts and content area vocabulary. Many strategies involving technology have been used in the past to enhance learning for students with SLD in history classrooms. However, very few studies have explored the effectiveness of emerging mobile technology in K-12 history classrooms. This study investigated the effects of mobile devices (iPads) as an active student response (ASR) system on the acquisition of U.S. history content of middle school students with SLD. An alternating treatments single subject design was used to compare the effects of two interventions. There were two conditions and a series of pretest probesin this study. The conditions were: (a) direct instruction and studying from handwritten notes using the interactive notebook strategy and (b) direct instruction and studying using the Quizlet App on the iPad. There were three dependent variables in this study: (a) percent correct on tests, (b) rate of correct responses per minute, and (c) rate of errors per minute. A comparative analysis suggested that both interventions (studying from interactive notes and studying using Quizlet on the iPad) had varying degrees of effectiveness in increasing the learning gains of students with SLD. In most cases...

The Impact of Instruction-Level Parallelism on Multiprocessor Performance and Simulation Methodology

Pai, Vijay S.; Pai, Vijay S.
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.13%
Masters Thesis; Current microprocessors exploit high levels of instruction-level parallelism (ILP). This theis presents the first detailed analysis of the impact of such processors on shared-memory multiprocessors. We find that ILP techniques substantially reduce CPU time in multiprocessors, but are less effective in reducing meory stall time for our applications. Consequently, despite the latency-tolerating techniques incorporated in ILP processors, memory stall time becomes a large component of execution time and parallel efficiencies are generally poorer in our ILP-based multiprocessor than in an otherwise equivalent previous-generation multiprocessor. We identify clustering independent read misses together in the processor instruction window as a key optimization to exploit the ILP features of current processors. We also use the above analysis to examine the validity of direct-execution simulators with previous-generation processor models to approximate ILP-based multiprocessors. We find that, with appropriate approximations, such simulators can reasonably characterize the behavior of applications with poor overlap of read misses. However, they can be highly inaccurate for applications with high overlap of read misses.

The effectiveness of direct -instruction and student -centered teaching methods on students' functional understanding of plagiarism

Moniz, Richard J.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.22%
In an attempt to improve students' functional understanding of plagiarism a variety of approaches were tried within the context of a more comprehensive information literacy program. Sessions were taught as a one hour "module" inside a required communications skills class at a small private university. Approaches taken included control sessions (a straightforward PowerPoint presentation of the material), direct instruction sessions (featuring mostly direct lecture but with some seatwork as well), and student-centered sessions (utilizing role playing and group exercises). Students were taught basic content and definitions regarding plagiarism, what circumstances or instances constitute plagiarism, where to go for help in avoiding plagiarism, and what constitutes appropriate paraphrasing and citation. Pre-test and post-test scores determined students' functional understanding primarily by their ability to recognize properly and improperly paraphrased text, content understanding by their combined total score on a multiple choice quiz, and their attitude and conceptual understanding by their ability to recognize circumstances which would constitute plagiarism. While students improved across all methods the study was unable to identify one that performed significantly better than the others. The results supported the need for more education with regard to plagiarism and suggested a need for perhaps more time on task and/or a mixed approach towards conveying the content.^

A study of teachers' espoused instructional beliefs

Gach, Lauren Sherrill
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' espoused instructional beliefs and whether they differed in relation to schools' socioeconomic status, extent of teachers' educational background, or extent of teachers' classroom experience. The study comprised a total of 242 Miami-Dade County public school educators who responded to a thirty-nine question Likert scale, Literacy Instructional Practices Questionnaire. Eighteen schools, three from each of the six regions, were purposively selected based on the socioeconomic status of students. Nine participants were interviewed using semi-standardized interview procedures and open-ended questioning techniques. ^ Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) results revealed that teachers' espoused beliefs concerning the instruction of literacy and forces and influences affecting instruction do not significantly differ depending on schools' socioeconomic status, extent of teachers' educational background, or extent of teachers' classroom experience. The majority of teachers appear to follow a top-down generated direct instruction model. Generally, students are taught as a whole class and ability grouped for specific skill instruction utilizing commercially produced reading and language arts texts. ^ There was no evidence of a relationship between teachers' espoused beliefs concerning the model of instruction that they practice or teachers' espoused beliefs concerning research and its application to practice and the three independent variables. Interview data corroborated much of the information garnered through the questionnaire. However...

Ensino direto da matemática funcional: estudo de caso

Cardoso, Ana Cristina Oliveira Novais
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico do Porto Publicador: Instituto Politécnico do Porto
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /06/2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
Neste estudo, focado na aprendizagem do manuseio do dinheiro, pretendeu-se que os alunos adquirissem competências que os habilitasse a um maior grau de independência e participação na vida em sociedade, desempenhando tarefas de cariz financeiro de forma mais independente, por exemplo, compra de produtos, pagamento de serviços e gestão do dinheiro. Para alcançar o pretendido, utilizou-se a metodologia do ensino direto, com tarefas estruturadas. Numa fase inicial o investigador prestava apoio constante aos alunos, que foi diminuindo gradualmente à medida que atingiam as competências relacionadas com o dinheiro. Na fase final, os alunos realizaram as tarefas propostas de forma autónoma. Construído como um estudo de caso, os dados foram recolhidos através de observação direta e de provas de monitorização. Os alunos começaram por realizar uma avaliação inicial para delinear a linha de base da intervenção. Posteriormente, foi realizada a intervenção baseada no ensino direto, com recurso ao computador, à calculadora, a provas de monitorização e ao manuseio de dinheiro. O computador foi utilizado na intervenção como tecnologia de apoio à aprendizagem, permitindo a realização de jogos interativos e consulta de materiais. No final da intervenção os alunos revelaram autonomia na resolução das tarefas...

High school driver education using peer tutors, direct instruction, and precision teaching.

Bell, K E; Young, K R; Salzberg, C L; West, R P
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1991 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
The authors investigated the combined effects of direct instruction and precision teaching by peer tutors in a high school driver education curriculum. Learners (N = 4) included students with intellectual and learning disabilities and students without disabilities. Peer tutoring was associated with immediate increases in correct responding and a simultaneous and rapid deceleration of errors. Three learners passed the written tests in the driver education classroom, obtained driver's licenses, and produced similar or better driving records than students who did not require assistance. This program is being continued and expanded by school personnel without assistance from the authors.

Effects of invented spelling and direct instruction on spelling performance of second-grade boys.

Gettinger, M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1993 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
Four second-grade boys, 2 rated by their classroom teacher as below average and 2 as above average in basic language skills, participated in a 16-week spelling investigation. The participants alternately received, in counterbalanced order, 5 weeks of an invented spelling approach that incorporated 15-min creative writing periods and 5 weeks of direct instruction that involved 15-min periods of guided practice on spelling word lists. At the end of 10 weeks, each condition was replicated for 3 additional weeks. Although direct instruction resulted in more targeted words spelled correctly, invented spelling resulted in more nontargeted words spelled correctly, higher preference ratings by children, and higher teacher ratings of the quality of 3 of the children's writing samples.

Expanding Access to Early Childhood Development Using Interactive Audio Instruction; Guidelines for Program Design and Reportback on Prototyping in the Democratic Republic of Congo

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
A large body of solid evidence demonstrates the significant effects of early childhood education and development (ECED) interventions on children’s success in school, long-term social integration, and improved life chances. Interactive audio instruction (IAI) provides one solution to the challenge of providing high quality ECE at scale and at reasonable costs. The IAI medium allows for the development and delivery of both teacher and caregiver training and direct instruction, using best practices in ECE, and has demonstrated powerful results in contexts as diverse as Honduras, Nepal, El Salvador, Indonesia, Zanzibar, Malawi, and Paraguay. The document outlines a general approach to high-quality IAI production for ECD, and uses the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) case study to detail the development process. It also provides technical recommendations for how to scale-up production and delivery in the DRC and considerations for program adaptation in other similar contexts, including an outline of necessary steps and components...

The Sciences of Learning, Instruction, and Assessment as Underpinnings of the Morningside Model of Generative Instruction

Street,Elizabeth M.; Johnson,Kent
Fonte: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Psicología Publicador: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Psicología
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.32%
This paper focuses on a subset of the practices that have created the powerful learning technology developed and disseminated by Morningside Academy in Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. We briefly describe this technology, known as the Morningside Model of Generative Instruction, and tell how it builds on the selectionist approach of B. F. Skinner and the pragmatic approach of John Dewey. We also describe the critical role Precision Teaching plays at Morningside Academy and its dependence on findings from the science of learning and the science of instruction, including placement of learners, task analysis, content analysis, instructional protocols, and principles of instructional design. Last, we acknowledge the symbiotic relation between effective Direct Instruction programs that teach skills to accuracy levels and Precision Teaching, which takes these accurate repertoires and systematically turns them into high frequency performances that take on the character of fluent repertoires. Over time, using Precision Teaching across multiple and successive repertoires also creates more agile learners.