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Evaluating business innovation policies in developing countries: the case of Mexico

Martínez-Covarrubias, Juan Luis
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/book; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
peer-reviewed; Developing countries have recently been emulating innovation policies implemented by developed countries with the firm conviction that it will improve their economic development prospects. Nevertheless, the specificities and conditions of the former group differ from the latter. Technological as well as absorptive and innovation capacities are key factors determining these differences. According to the literature on evaluating innovation policy, these key issues have been overlooked by current evaluation practices in developing countries. Another literature, dealing with global value chains, claims that upgrading firms functionally and inter-sectorally may allow developing countries to escape the negative effects of globalisation highlighted by dependency theory and the law of uneven development. However, there is a gap between these two literatures. To date, no empirical evaluation framework for the evaluation of innovation policies in developing countries explicitly considers either the importance of technological and absorptive capacity building, or the likelihood of firms to upgrade functionally and inter-sectorally in global value chains. This thesis fills that gap by developing and validating an evaluation framework of innovation policies in developing countries which explicitly considers these important factors. Evaluation of business innovation policies implemented in Mexico from 2006 to 2009 served as a laboratory to test this methodological framework. A unique dataset...

Global Development Finance 2012 : External Debt of Developing Countries

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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66.29%
The data and analysis presented in this edition of global development finance are based on actual flows and debt related transactions for 2010 reported to the World Bank Debtor Reporting System (DRS) by 129 developing countries. The reports confirm that in 2010 international capital flows to developing countries surpassed preliminary estimates and returned to their pre-crisis level of $1.1 trillion, an increase of 68 percent over the comparable figure for 2009. Private capital flows surged in 2010 driven by a massive jump in short-term debt, a strong rebound in bonds and more moderate rise in equity flows. Debt related inflows jumped almost 200 percent compared to a 25 percent increase in net equity flows. The rebound in capital flows was concentrated in a small group of 10 middle income countries where net capital inflows rose by an average of nearly 80 percent in 2010, almost double the rate of increase (44 percent) recorded by other developing countries. These 10 countries accounted for 73 percent of developing countries gross national income (GNI)...

From Flying Geese to Leading Dragons : New Opportunities and Strategies for Structural Transformation in Developing Countries

Lin, Justin Yifu
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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66.28%
Economic development is a process of continuous industrial and technological upgrading in which any country, regardless of its level of development, can succeed if it develops industries that are consistent with its comparative advantage, determined by its endowment structure. The secret winning formula for developing countries is to exploit the latecomer advantage by building up industries that are growing dynamically in more advanced fast growing countries that have endowment structures similar to theirs. By following carefully selected lead countries, latecomers can emulate the leader-follower, flying-geese pattern that has served well successfully catching-up economies since the 18th century. The emergence of large middle-income countries such as China, India, and Brazil as new growth poles in the world, and their dynamic growth and climbing of the industrial ladder, offer an unprecedented opportunity to all developing economies with income levels currently below theirs --including those in Sub-Saharan Africa. Having itself been a "follower goose...

Fiscal Competition in Developing Countries : A Survey of the Theoretical and Empirical Literature

Madies, Thierry; Dethier, Jean-Jacques
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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66.29%
The last two decades have witnessed a sharp increase in foreign direct investment (FDI) flows and increased competition among developing countries to attract FDI, resulting in higher investment incentives offered by host governments and removal of restrictions on operations of foreign firms in their countries. Fiscal competition between governments can take the form of business tax rebates, productivity-enhancing public infrastructure or investment incentives such as tax holidays, accelerated depreciation allowances or loss carry-forward for income tax purposes. It can take place between governments of different countries or between local governments within the same country. This paper surveys the recent theoretical and empirical economic literature on decentralization which attempts to answer three questions. First, does theoretical literature on fiscal competition and "bidding races" contribute to a better understanding of such phenomenon in developing countries? Second, are FDI inflows in developing countries sensitive to fiscal incentives and is there empirical evidence of strategic behavior from the part of developing countries in order to attract FDI? Third...

Motor Third-Party Liability Insurance in Developing Countries : Raising Awareness and Improving Safety

Gönülal, Serap O.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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66.26%
This study focusses on motor insurance, possibly the most important type of insurance sold in developing countries. In most countries, motor third-party liability (MTPL) insurance is compulsory in order to protect the public. World Bank studies in Africa, Central Asia, and Europe have shown that motor insurance premiums represent at least 30 percent of all non-life premium income. MTPL insurance has been introduced in the formerly centrally planned economies only in the past decade, and it is poorly understood. Motorists are inclined to view it as a form of tax that they are at liberty to evade, rather than as a protection against their personal liability, a concept that is not familiar to the general public. This report discusses the high motor accident casualty rate in developing countries, and predicts that it will increase dramatically by 2020. It focuses specific aspects of MTPL systems, with reference to the experiences gained in both developed and developing markets. The report examines existing practices, and discusses some aspects of the MTPL system...

What Factors Appear to Drive Private Capital Flows to Developing Countries? And How Does Official Lending Respond?

Dasgupta, Dipak; Ratha, Dilip
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
The authors study what drives private capital flows to developing countries, as well as the apparent response of official lending for the years 1978-97. Econometric results reveal that non-foreign direct investment portfolio flows to a country tended to rise in response to: 1) An increase in the current account deficit. 2) A rise in foreign direct investment flows. 3) Higher per capita income. 4) Growth performance. Once those variables were accounted for, private flows did not seem to be influenced by location, and regional factors. In addition, private capital flows (whether foreign direct investment or not) seem to respond positively (with a one-year lag) to World Bank lending commitments. By far the most important determinant of official lending to a developing country, seems to be the external current account balance, or a change in international reserves in the country. Official flows - including World Bank lending - appear to have played a stabilizing (or counter-cyclical) role in response to the volatility of private capital flows...

Krueger/Schiff/Valdes Revisited : Agricultural Price and Trade Policy Reform in Developing Countries since 1960

Anderson, Kym
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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66.26%
A study of distortions to agricultural incentives in 18 developing countries during 1960-84, by Krueger, Schiff and Valdes (1988; 1991), found that policies in most of those developing countries were directly or indirectly harming their farmers. Since the mid-1980s there has been a substantial amount of policy reform and opening up of many developing countries, and indicators of that progress have been made available recently by a new study that has compiled estimates for a much larger sample of developing countries and for as many years as possible since 1955. The new study also covers Europe s transition economies and comparable estimates for high-income countries, thereby covering more than 90 percent of world agricultural output and employment. This paper summarizes the methodology used in the new study (pointing out similarities and differences with those used by the OECD and by Krueger, Schiff and Valdes), compares a synopsis of the indicators from Krueger, Schiff and Valdes and the new study for the period to 1984...

Market Access for Developing Countries Exports

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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66.27%
Integration into the world economy has proven a powerful instrument for countries to promote economic growth, development, and poverty reduction. Trade has been an engine of growth for the past fifty years, owing in part to eight successive rounds of multilateral trade liberalization, as well as unilateral and regional trade liberalization. The growing integration of the world economy has raised living standards and brought increased opportunity to many parts of the globe. Many developing countries have shared in this prosperity. As a group, developing countries have become much more important in world trade, and their trade relationships have changed markedly from the traditional north-south pattern. Developing countries now account for one-third of world trade, up from about a quarter in the early 1970s, and many have substantially increased their exports of manufactures and services relative to traditional commodity exports. The share of manufactures in developing country exports has risen to 80 percent; moreover...

Key issues for freer agricultural trade from the perspective of developing countries

Zhong, Funing
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 107242 bytes; 352 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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66.29%
Almost eight years have passed since the Uruguay Round of multi-lateral negotiations were conducted under GATT, but developing countries are yet to see or benefit from the freer agricultural trade projected by most studies during the negotiations. Because most developing economies depend heavily on agricultural production and trade, the world agricultural market has a significant impact on their growth, as well as on their attitude towards the next round of negotiations. It was predicted that, following the completion of the Uruguay Round of negotiations and the establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO), the prices of most farm products in the world market would greatly increase because of cuts in domestic price support and export subsidies in developed countries. As a result, developing countries – with the exception of the poorest and most food-deficient ones – would benefit significantly from freer trade in agriculture and see their GDP growth accelerate. In reality, however, this has not been the case. World prices for major farm products remain low, while trade volumes remain the same. The reason for this is not new: the developed countries have kept their domestic price support and export subsidies at the same high levels...

Developed country imports from developing countries: are they importing enough?

Katheklakis, Kosta
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
The development of an efficient and competitive agricultural industry is of increasing importance to developing countries in their pursuit of industrialisation. The economically sustainable allocation of resources which is characteristic of an efficient industry allows sustainable growth both in the economy and in incomes. Growth in income is particularly vital in the alleviation of poverty. Increased trade flows, whether it be in agricultural or non- agricultural products facilitates the growth of local producers in developing countries. Agriculture is important for developing countries because a majority of their population lives in rural areas where agriculture is the primary source of income. Thus the increase in agricultural trade for these countries, as brought on by the establishment of a competitive and efficient industry helps to raise rural incomes and promote industrialisation. However, there exist many o bstacles to the free flow of trade in agricultural products. Many of these obstacles orig1nate in the trade and domestic support policies of the developed world. For this reason, previous and current trade negotiations in the World Trade Organisation have had the facilitation of development in developing and Least Developed Countries as a primary concern. The Uruguay Round of negotiations was aimed at reducing tariffs and domestic support with an aim to improving market access for developing countries. While there were some decreases in tariff levels...

"Global Development Finance" Projects a Brighter Outlook for Developing Countries; Global Development Finance: uma perspectiva mais positiva para os países em desenvolvimento

Lynn, Robert; De Klein, Annette; Farah, Caroline; Keyfitz, Robert; Riordan, Mick; Van Der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Wolfe, Bert
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.28%
Prospects for developing countries have improved considerably in the past six months finds the World Bank's just-released "Global Development Finance 2000." Industrial country output and world trade growth have become stronger and more broadly based. Although prices for primary commodities have firmed, inflationary pressures in the world economy remain contained. And while interest rates in some industrial countries have risen, spreads on lending to developing countries have fallen sharply--and capital flows to developing countries have stabilized. Developing countries grew an estimated 3.3 percent in 1999, up 0.6 percentage points from the estimate in last fall's "Global Economic Prospects" and more than twice the pace in 1998 (table 1). Developing country growth is expected to rise to 4.5-5.0 percent in 2000-02. During the recent financial crisis 45 developing countries containing 1.6 billion people experienced a drop in per capita income. But in 2000 those numbers are expected to fall to 14 countries with 140 million people. Still...

Brain Drain in Developing Countries

Docquier, Frédéric; Lohest, Olivier; Marfouk, Abdeslam
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Journal Article
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.32%
Brain Drain in Developing Countries Frederic Docquier, Olivier Lohest, and Abdeslam Marfouk An original data set on international migration by educational attainment for 1990 and 2000 is used to analyze the determinants of brain drain from developing countries. The analysis starts with a simple decomposition of the brain drain in two multiplicative components, the degree of openness of sending countries (measured by the average emigration rate) and the schooling gap (measured by the education level of emigrants compared with natives). Yet recent theoretical studies emphasize several compensatory effects, showing that a limited but positive skilled emigration rate can be beneficial for sending countries (Commander, Kangasniemi, and Winters 2004; Docquier and Rapoport 2007; Beine, Docquier, and Rapoport 2001, forthcoming; Schiff 2005 provides a critical appraisal of this literature). However, without reliable comparative data Frederic Docquier (corresponding author) is a research associate at the National Fund for Economic Research; professor of economics at the Universite Catholique de Louvain, Belgium; and research fellow at the Institute for the Study of Labor, Bonn, Germany; his email address is docquier ires.ucl.ac.be. Olivier Lohest is a research is a researcher at the Institut Wallon de l'Evaluation...

The Role of Special Differential Treatment for Developing Countries in GATT and the World Trade Organization

Michalopoulos, Constantine
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.33%
The author analyzes how changes in thinking about the role trade plays in economic development have been reflected in provisions affecting developing countries in the GATT and the WTO. He focuses on the provisions calling for the special and differential treatment of developing countries. The WTO's special, and differential treatment has been extended to include measures of technical assistance, and extended transition periods to enable countries to meet their commitments in new areas agreed on in the Uruguay round of negotiations. At the same time, many WTO provisions encourage industrial countries to give developing countries preferential treatment, through a variety of measures, none of them legally enforceable. The author concludes that weaknesses in the institutional capacity of many developing countries, provide a conceptual basis for continuing special, and differential treatment in the WTO, but that the benefits should be targeted only to low-income developing countries, and those that need help becoming integrated with the international trading system. In addition...

International Migration, Remittances, and Poverty in Developing Countries

Adams, Richard H., Jr.; Page, John
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
Few studies have examined the impact of international migration and remittances on poverty in a broad cross-section of developing countries. The authors try to fill this gap by constructing a new data set on poverty, international migration, and remittances for 74 low- and middle-income developing countries. Four key findings emerge: 1) International migration-defined as the share of a country's population living abroad-has a strong, statistical impact in reducing poverty. On average, a 10 percent increase in the share of international migrants in a country's population will lead to a 1.9 percent decline in the share of people living in poverty ($1.00 a person a day). 2) Distance to a major labor-receiving region-like the United States or OECD (Europe)-has an important effect on international migration. Developing countries that are located closest to the United States or OECD (Europe) are also those countries with the highest rates of migration. 3) An inverted U-shaped curve exists between the level of country per capita income and international migration. Developing countries with low or high per capita GDP produce smaller shares of international migrants than do middle-income developing countries. The authors find no evidence that developing countries with higher levels of poverty produce more migrants. Because of considerable travel costs associated with international migration...

Developing Countries, Dispute Settlement, and the Advisory Centre on WTO Law

Bown, Chad P.; McCulloch, Rachel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
Critical appraisals of the current and potential benefits from developing country engagement in the World Trade Organization (WTO) focus mainly on the Doha Round of negotiations. This paper examines developing country participation in the WTO dispute settlement system to enforce foreign market access rights already negotiated in earlier multilateral rounds. The dispute data from 1995 through 2008 reveal three notable trends: developing countries sustained rate of self-enforcement actions despite declining use of the Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU) by developed countries, developing countries increased use of the DSU to self-enforce their access to the markets of developing as well as developed country markets, and the prevalence of disputes targeting highly observable causes of lost foreign market access, such as antidumping, countervailing duties, and safeguards. The paper also examines potential impacts of the Advisory Centre on WTO Law (ACWL) into the WTO system in 2001. A close look at the data reveals evidence on at least three channels through which the ACWL may be enhancing developing countries' ability to self-enforce foreign market access: increased initiation of sole-complainant cases...

More Favorable and Differential Treatment of Developing Countries : Toward a New Approach in the World Trade Organization

Hoekman, Bernard; Michalopoulos, Constantine; Winters, L. Alan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.3%
The authors discuss options that could be considered in the World Trade Organization (WTO) to provide more favorable treatment-so-called special and differential treatment (SDT)-to small and low-income countries. They argue that there is a need both for differentiation across WTO members and for steps that would benefit all developing countries. The authors suggest the following to make the Doha Round more supportive of development: 1) A binding commitment by industrial countries to abolish export subsidies and nontariff barriers (tariff quotas) and to reduce most-favored-nation tariffs on labor-intensive products of export interest to developing countries to no more than 5 percent in 2010, and to no more than 10 percent for agricultural products. All tariffs on manufactures should go to zero by 2015, the target date for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Liberalization should also be undertaken by developing countries on the basis of a formula approach. 2) A binding commitment by industrial countries on services to expand temporary access for service providers by a specific amount-for example...

Attracting Foreign Direct Investment : What Can South Asia's Lack of Success Teach Other Developing Countries?

Gould, David M.; Tan, Congyan; Sadeghi Emamgholi, Amir S.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.3%
Like many other developing countries, South Asian nations have been experiencing increased foreign direct investment inflows over the past decade as developing countries get a larger share of cross-border investments that were once sent to developed countries. Nonetheless, South Asia's inflows of foreign direct investment remain the lowest relative to gross domestic product among developing country regions. Why are South Asia's foreign direct investment inflows so low and what lessons can be drawn for developing countries as a whole? The analysis in this paper uses a novel empirical model that accounts for possible trends in convergence in the ratio of foreign direct investment to gross domestic product between countries and cross-sectional data for 78 countries from 2000 to 2011. The sample contains 52 developing countries. The analysis finds that two key factors are at work -- high overall regulatory restrictions on foreign direct investment and specific restrictions placed on doing business with other countries. These factors include overall trade restrictiveness...

Global Economic Prospects and the Developing Countries 2000

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank: Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
Developing countries are now recovering from the worst ravages of the financial crisis of 1997-98. However, the recovery is both uneven and fragile, and many countries continue to struggle in the aftermath. In addition to a review of international economic developments, this report considers three areas where the crisis has had a major impact on growth and welfare in the developing world. First, the crisis has increased poverty in the East Asian crisis countries, Brazil, and the Russian Federation, and elsewhere. Chapter 2 reviews the evidence on the crisis' social impact on East Asia and other developing countries, and addresses the broader issue of the impact of external shocks on poverty in developing countries. Second, though the East Asian crisis countries are experiencing a strong cyclical recovery, severe structural problems remain. Chapter 3 outlines the depth of the problems faced by the corporate and financial sectors of these economies, analyzes the challenges facing the restructuring process, and discusses the appropriate role of government in supporting restructuring and reducing systemic risk. Third, exchange rate depreciations and declines in demand in East Asia exacerbated the fall in primary commodity prices that began in 1996. Chapter 4 examines how the most commodity-dependent economies in the world--the major oil exporting countries and the non-oil exporters of Sub-Saharan Africa--have adjusted to the commodity price cycle.

Global Economic Prospects and the Developing Countries 2001

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.28%
Technological innovations and the dismantling of trade barriers over the past decade have contributed to an acceleration of growth in global trade. This acceleration has been associated with faster growth in developing countries as a group. However, many of the poorest countries have not kept pace. This year's report focuses on international trade and discusses policies that are required if developing countries are to benefit from global integration. The report is organized as follows: Chapter 1 examines the prospects for developing countries and world trade and projects that long-term growth has improved and is projected to be higher despite significant vulnerabilities. Chapter 2 analyzes trade policies in the 1990s and discusses reductions in barriers to trade, trends in trade and economic growth, weaknesses in domestic trade-related policies, and trade protection in industrial countries. Chapter 3 explores the relationships between product standards and regulatory barriers to trade, labor standards and trade sanctions...

Effective screening programmes for cervical cancer in low- and middle-income developing countries

Sankaranarayanan,Rengaswamy; Budukh,Atul Madhukar; Rajkumar,Rajamanickam
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2001 EN
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66.3%
Cervical cancer is an important public health problem among adult women in developing countries in South and Central America, sub-Saharan Africa, and south and south-east Asia. Frequently repeated cytology screening programmes -- either organized or opportunistic -- have led to a large decline in cervical cancer incidence and mortality in developed countries. In contrast, cervical cancer remains largely uncontrolled in high-risk developing countries because of ineffective or no screening. This article briefly reviews the experience from existing screening and research initiatives in developing countries. Substantial costs are involved in providing the infrastructure, manpower, consumables, follow-up and surveillance for both organized and opportunistic screening programmes for cervical cancer. Owing to their limited health care resources, developing countries cannot afford the models of frequently repeated screening of women over a wide age range that are used in developed countries. Many low-income developing countries, including most in sub-Saharan Africa, have neither the resources nor the capacity for their health services to organize and sustain any kind of screening programme. Middle-income developing countries, which currently provide inefficient screening...