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Using indicators of deforestation and land-use dynamics to support conservation strategies: A case study of central Rondonia, Brazil

FERRAZ, Silvio Frosini de Barros; VETTORAZZI, Carlos Alberto; THEOBALD, David M.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.32%
In Rondonia State, Brazil, settlement processes have cleared 68,000 km 2 of tropical forests since the 1970s. The intensity of deforestation has differed by region depending on driving factors like roads and economic activities. Different histories of land-use activities and rates of change have resulted in mosaics of forest patches embedded in an agricultural matrix. Yet, most assessments of deforestation and its effects on vegetation, soil and water typically focus on landscape patterns of current conditions, yet historical deforestation dynamics can influence current conditions strongly. Here, we develop and describe the use of four land-use dynamic indicators to capture historical land-use changes of catchments and to measure the rate of deforestation (annual deforestation rate), forest regeneration level (secondary forest mean proportion), time since disturbance (mean time since deforestation) and deforestation profile (deforestation profile curvature). We used the proposed indices to analyze a watershed located in central Rondonia. Landsat TM and ETM+ images were used to produce historical land-use maps of the last 18 years, each even year from 1984 to 2002 for 20 catchments. We found that the land-use dynamics indicators are able to distinguish catchments with different land-use change profiles. Four categories of historical land-use were identified: old and dominant pasture cover on small properties...

Can the Deforestation Breeze Change the Rainfall in Amazonia? A Case Study for the BR-163 Highway Region

SAAD, Sandra I.; ROCHA, Humberto R. da; DIAS, Maria A. F. Silva; ROSOLEM, Rafael
Fonte: AMER METEOROLOGICAL SOC Publicador: AMER METEOROLOGICAL SOC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22%
The authors simulated the effects of Amazonian mesoscale deforestation in the boundary layer and in rainfall with the Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (BRAMS) model. They found that both the area and shape (with respect to wind incidence) of deforestation and the soil moisture status contributed to the state of the atmosphere during the time scale of several weeks, with distinguishable patterns of temperature, humidity, and rainfall. Deforestation resulted in the development of a three-dimensional thermal cell, the so-called deforestation breeze, slightly shifted downwind to large-scale circulation. The boundary layer was warmer and drier above 1000-m height and was slightly wetter up to 2000-m height. Soil wetness affected the circulation energetics proportionally to the soil dryness (for soil wetness below similar to 0.6). The shape of the deforestation controlled the impact on rainfall. The horizontal strips lined up with the prevailing wind showed a dominant increase in rainfall, significant up to about 60 000 km(2). On the other hand, in the patches aligned in the opposite direction (north-south), there was both increase and decrease in precipitation in two distinct regions, as a result of clearly separated upward and downward branches...

Assessing the impact of deforestation and climate change on the range size and environmental niche of bird species in the Atlantic forests, Brazil

LOISELLE, Bette A.; GRAHAM, Catherine H.; GOERCK, Jaqueline M.; RIBEIRO, Milton Cezar
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22%
Aim Habitat loss and climate change are two major drivers of biological diversity. Here we quantify how deforestation has already changed, and how future climate scenarios may change, environmental conditions within the highly disturbed Atlantic forests of Brazil. We also examine how environmental conditions have been altered within the range of selected bird species. Location Atlantic forests of south-eastern Brazil. Methods The historical distribution of 21 bird species was estimated using Maxent. After superimposing the present-day forest cover, we examined the environmental niches hypothesized to be occupied by these birds pre- and post-deforestation using environmental niche factor analysis (ENFA). ENFA was also used to compare conditions in the entire Atlantic forest ecosystem pre- and post-deforestation. The relative influence of land use and climate change on environmental conditions was examined using analysis of similarity and principal components analysis. Results Deforestation in the region has resulted in a decrease in suitable habitat of between 78% and 93% for the Atlantic forest birds included here. Further, Atlantic forest birds today experience generally wetter and less seasonal forest environments than they did historically. Models of future environmental conditions within forest remnants suggest generally warmer conditions and lower annual variation in rainfall due to greater precipitation in the driest quarter of the year. We found that deforestation resulted in a greater divergence of environmental conditions within Atlantic forests than that predicted by climate change. Main conclusions The changes in environmental conditions that have occurred with large-scale deforestation suggest that selective regimes may have shifted and...

O impacto do desmatamento no ciclo hidrológico: um estudo de caso para a rodovia Cuiabá-Santarém; The impact of the ongoing deforestation on the hydrological cycle: a case study of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway

Rosolem, Rafael
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/10/2005 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22%
Este trabalho buscou quantificar alguns impactos no ciclo hidrológico, especialmente o padrão de precipitação, decorrentes do desmatamento regional nas proximidades da rodovia Cuiabá-Santarém (BR-163), por meio de um experimento numérico de simulação da atmosfera com o modelo RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System), na versão brasileira (Brazilian RAMS – BRAMS), com alta resolução (célula de 16x16 km). Foi utilizado um cenário de desmatamento, provido por modelos empíricos de desmatamento, para o ano de 2026, numa situação sem governância, com um tempo de simulação de 40 dias entre 20 de Outubro a 30 de Novembro. Os dados de forçamento na fronteira utilizaram a reanálise do NCEP para o ano de 2002. Houve uma redução média de 7% do padrão de chuva na região após o desmatamento, na área perturbada, e não houve efeitos substanciais nas regiões além da fronteira de desmatamento como um todo. Porém, a distribuição heterogênea do uso da terra induziu à formação de uma célula térmica, sobre a região desmatada, que resultou em uma certa variabilidade espacial da chuva próxima ao setor de desmatamento. Uma célula térmica induziu o levantamento de massa (por convergência) aproximadamente acima da região desmatada...

O desmatamento desigual na Amazônia brasileira: sua evolução, suas causas e conseqüências sobre o bem-estar; The unequal deforestation in the Amazonian Region: its evolution, causes and consequences on the welfare

Prates, Rodolfo Coelho
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/07/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.34%
A presente tese analisa o desmatamento na Amazônia brasileira, evidenciando que o mesmo é desigual entre os estados e procura discutir, por meio da análise interpretativa e econométrica, as causas desse desmatamento desigual, bem como avaliar os impactos sobre o bem-estar se o desmatamento for reduzido. A tese está organizada na forma de três artigos, seguindo modelo não tradicional autorizado pela Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz". O primeiro artigo, intitulado o Processo de Desenvolvimento da Amazônia e o seu Desmatamento, analisa - com base na revisão da literatura existente e por meio da análise de dados secundários, e realizando uma análise histórica desde a colonização portuguesa - as etapas de desenvolvimento da região amazônica e sua associação com a prática do desmatamento, destacando as políticas públicas que fomentaram o desenvolvimento da região e o atual avanço de sistemas produtivos, orientados pelo estímulo econômico. Demonstra-se que o desenvolvimento da Amazônia, citados como as principais causas do desmatamento e estimulados em boa parte por políticas econômicas, é um processo desuniforme no tempo e no espaço, gerando o desmatamento desigual entre os estados que compõem essa região e dentro de cada estado. O segundo artigo...

Impactos econômicos da limitação do desmatamento no Brasil; Economic impacts of limiting deforestation in Brazil

Cabral, Caroline de Souza Rodrigues
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/04/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.19%
O fenômeno de aquecimento do planeta, conhecido como "Efeito Estufa", é um dos fenômenos de degradação ambiental mais alarmante. Países que mais emitem os gases de efeito estufa (GEEs) têm, portanto, sofrido forte pressão internacional para que reduzam tais emissões. No caso do Brasil, grande atenção é voltada à questão do desmatamento, um dos maiores responsáveis pelas emissões de dióxido de carbono. Com isso, o país se comprometeu a reduzir suas emissões entre 36,1% e 38,9% em relação às emissões projetadas para 2020. Para conseguir isso, foi promulgada a Lei nº 12.187, que regula que uma das medidas a serem tomadas é a redução de 80% do desmatamento na Amazônia Legal e de 40% do desmatamento no Cerrado. Assim como o aquecimento global, a produção de alimentos também é um dos maiores desafios do mundo moderno. Mais uma vez, Brasil tem um papel fundamental nesta questão, organizações como a OCDE e a FAO afirmam que o Brasil é o país com maior potencial de aumentar a produção agrícola. Ademais, a importância da produção de alimentos para o Brasil é reforçada pelo fato de que o agronegócio é um setor fundamental da economia brasileira tanto em termos de geração de renda quanto para promoção de divisas. Uma questão importante é como a agropecuária brasileira será impactada diante da redução no desmatamento da Amazônia e do Cerrado. Uma hipótese é que frear o desmatamento resultaria em redução significante na produção agropecuária...

Modeling the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of deforestation-driven carbon emissions: the INPE-EM framework applied to the Brazilian Amazon

Dutra Aguiar, Ana Paula; Ometto, Jean Pierre; Nobre, Carlos; Lapola, David Montenegro; Almeida, Claudio; Vieira, Ima Celia; Soares, Joao Vianei; Alvala, Regina; Saatchi, Sassan; Valeriano, Dalton; Castilla-Rubio, Juan Carlos
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 3346-3366
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22%
We present a generic spatially explicit modeling framework to estimate carbon emissions from deforestation (INPE-EM). The framework incorporates the temporal dynamics related to the deforestation process and accounts for the biophysical and socioeconomic heterogeneity of the region under study. We build an emission model for the Brazilian Amazon combining annual maps of new clearings, four maps of biomass, and a set of alternative parameters based on the recent literature. The most important results are as follows: (a) Using different biomass maps leads to large differences in estimates of emission; for the entire region of the Brazilian Amazon in the last decade, emission estimates of primary forest deforestation range from 0.21 to 0.26 similar to Pg similar to C similar to yr-1. (b) Secondary vegetation growth presents a small impact on emission balance because of the short duration of secondary vegetation. In average, the balance is only 5% smaller than the primary forest deforestation emissions. (c) Deforestation rates decreased significantly in the Brazilian Amazon in recent years, from 27 similar to Mkm2 in 2004 to 7 similar to Mkm2 in 2010. INPE-EM process-based estimates reflect this decrease even though the agricultural frontier is moving to areas of higher biomass. The decrease is slower than a non-process instantaneous model would estimate as it considers residual emissions (slash...

Effects of deforestation pattern and private nature reserves on the forest conservation in settlement areas of the Brazilian Amazon

Metzger,Jean Paul
Fonte: Instituto Virtual da Biodiversidade | BIOTA - FAPESP Publicador: Instituto Virtual da Biodiversidade | BIOTA - FAPESP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22%
The effects of deforestation patterns, private nature-reserve extents and agricultural fallow periods on forest conservation were simulated for settlement projects in the Brazilian Amazon that produce a fish-bone pattern of occupation and where slash-and-burn agriculture is predominantly used. Data for simulation was obtained from previous work at the Bragantina region, the oldest agricultural frontier in the Brazilian Amazon. Forest conservation was evaluated using the size of remnant forest fragments, the amount of interior habitat, the connectivity among fragments and the extent of fragmentation. Results showed that the best scenario for forest conservation is the maintenance of 80% of the lot as privatereserve using deforestation pattern that allow to group the reserves from different farmers at the end of the lot. When private-reserve coverage is bellow 80% of the landscape, forest conservation status will be influenced by the deforestation pattern. Some patterns (e.g. random location of deforestation plots) will then be particularly deleterious, producing a highly fragmented landscape, while other patterns (e.g., progressive deforestation from one edge) can allow the maintenance of large forest fragments. To get forest conservation in these cases...

Taxas de desmatamento anuais no bioma Cerrado: uma análise a partir de dados MODIS para o período de 2003 a 2007; Annual ratesof deforestation in the Cerrado Biome: an analysis from the modis data for the period 2003 to 2007

SILVA, Elaine Barbosa da
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Geografia; Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Geografia; Ciências Humanas
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.19%
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of deforestation rates, for the 2003 2007 period, aiming at a better understanding of the current transformations of the Cerrado biome, as well as the generation of future scenarios. Prior to the rate estimations, a thorough physical characterization of the landscape and a comprehensive analysis of the occupation history of the biome were conducted. Concerning the rates, these were obtained for both the municipalities of the State of Goias, as well as for the entire biome, according to the Ottobacias criteria (level 3) for watershed divisions. In particular, the calculation of the rates took into account: a) land cover land use maps based on the visual interpretation of 2001 2002 Landsat TM imagery (produced, respectively, within the scope of the projects Identification of Priority Biodiversity Conservation Areas in the State of Goias PDIAP and Conservation and Sustainable Use of the Brazilian Biological Diversity PROBIO) and b) the annual deforestation dataset generated by the Cerrado Warning Deforestation System (SIAD Cerrado), for the period between October 2003 October 2007, based on the comparative analysis of MODIS vegetation index images. In both instances of analysis...

A distribuição de uma espécie incomum: a utilização de modelos baseados em nicho ecológico para predizer a distribuição futura do desmatamento na amazônia brasileira; The distribuition of uncommon species: the use of ecological niche models to predicte the future distribuition of deforestation in brazillian amazon

Souza, Rodrigo Antônio de
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Ambientais (PRPG); Pró-Reitoria de Pós-graduação (PRPG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Ambientais (PRPG); Pró-Reitoria de Pós-graduação (PRPG)
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.32%
The Amazon forest is being cleared, burned, fragmented and over-exploited at unprecedented scales. As important as the punishment for environmental crimes, it is the prevention. This requires the identification of deforestation facilitators and deforestation mitigators, beyond the knowledge of where the combination of these factors makes it more likely the occurrence of deforestation. If there is a combination of conditions that increase the deforestation probability in a particular area, it is possible estimate potential areas of new deforestation using Ecological Niche Modeling (ENM). The main objective of this study is to test the efficiency of ENMs to define potential areas of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. In the last chapters, we raise the factors relevant to the current deforestation and that can be inputs for modeling. For this, we test the relationship between size of farms, government custody areas, agricultural technification and law enforcements with deforestation. In later chapters we use ENMs, first considering an area in western Brazilian Amazon and comparing with other models established in the literature. Subsequently, we consider the entire Brazilian Amazon and check the ENM efficiency along the deforestation frontier gradient of the municipalities. Potential areas created from the ENM...

Causes of Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon

Margulis, Sergio
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22%
The worldwide concern with deforestation of Brazilian Amazonia is motivated not only by the irreversible loss of this natural wealth, but also by the perception that it is a destructive process in which the social and economic gains are smaller than the environmental losses. This perception also underlies the diagnosis, formulation and evaluation of public policies proposed by government and non-governmental organizations working in the region, including the World Bank. The present work suggests that a fuller understanding is necessary with regard to the motivations and identity of the agents responsible for deforestation, the evaluation of the social and economic benefits from the process and the resulting implications of public policies for the region. The objective of the report is to show that, in contrast to the 1970s and 1980s when occupation of Brazilian Amazonia was largely induced by government policies and subsidies, recent deforestation in significant parts of the region is basically caused by medium- and large-scale cattle ranching. Following a private rationale...

Protected Areas and Deforestation : New Results from High Resolution Panel Data

Blankespoor, Brian; Dasgupta, Susmita; Wheeler, David
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22%
This paper investigates the effectiveness of protected areas in slowing tropical forest clearing in 64 countries in Asia/Pacific, Africa, and Latin America for the period 2001-2012. The investigation compares deforestation rates inside and within 10 kilometers outside the boundary of protected areas. Annual time series of these deforestation rates were constructed from recently published high-resolution data on forest clearing. For 4,028 parks, panel estimation based on a variety of park characteristics was conducted to test if deforestation is lower in protected areas because of their protected status, or if other factors explain the difference. For a sample of 726 parks established since 2002, a test also was conducted to investigate the effect of park establishment on protection. The findings suggest park size, national park status, and management by indigenous people all have significant association with effective protection across regions. For the Asia/Pacific region, the test offers compelling evidence that park establishment has a near-immediate and powerful effect.

Road Improvement and Deforestation in the Congo Basin Countries

Damania, Richard; Wheeler, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22%
Road construction has often been viewed as the precursor to deforestation, especially in tropical forests. Traditional responses to such threats have been reactive, with attempts to mitigate impacts through physical measures, or the establishment of protected areas. These approaches often have not been entirely successful, especially in areas where economic potential is significant. This paper seeks to mitigate such conflicts by proposing a proactive approach to development planning and environmental policy. It develops a high-resolution spatial model of road improvement impacts that includes ecological risks and the economics of forest clearing. The approach is implemented by estimating the potential impact of road upgrading on forest clearing and biodiversity in eight Congo Basin countries. The paper demonstrates how the detailed analysis can identify areas of high ecological priority as well as areas at high risk of forest loss. The paper contributes to several aspects of the literature. First, it provides the most recent and reliable estimates of the drivers of deforestation in the Congo Basin...

Unreported yet massive deforestation driving loss of endemic biodiversity in Indian Himalaya

Pandit, M.; Sodhi, N.; Bhaskar, A.; Koh, L.; Brook, B.
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publ Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publ
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22%
Deforestation is a primary driver of biotic extinctions in the tropics. The impacts of deforestation in tropical biodiversity hotspots are of particular concern because these regions contain high concentrations of globally endemic species. However, the effects of large-scale deforestation on native biotas within the biodiversity hotspot of Himalaya remain poorly documented. Here we report on an alarming trend of deforestation in the Indian Himalaya and project the likely consequential extinctions of endemic taxa (species and subspecies) by 2100 across a broad range of taxonomic groups, including gymnosperms, angiosperms, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. With the current level of deforestation, by 2100 only about 10% of the land area of the Indian Himalaya will be covered by dense forest (>40% canopy cover)—a scenario in which almost a quarter of the endemic species could be wiped out, including 366 endemic vascular plant taxa and 35 endemic vertebrate taxa. We also show that inaccurate reporting of forest cover data by governmental institutions can result in underestimations of the biological impacts of deforestation, as well as potential miscalculations in land-use decisions (e.g., the construction of hydroelectric dams). Large-scale conservation efforts...

Deforestation Trends in the Congo Basin : Agriculture; Dynamiques de deforestation dans le bassin du Congo : agriculture

Hourticq, Joel; Megevand, Carole; Tollens, Eric; Wehkamp, Johanna; Dulal, Hari
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.25%
The Congo Basin represents 70 percent of the African continent's forest cover and constitutes a large portion of Africa's biodiversity. Agricultural development is a central lever to help people out of poverty, as well as a key driver of deforestation. Forest-friendly agricultural development is a challenge for the region. This report describes some ways forest-friendly agricultural development can materialize in the Congo Basin. It is one of a series of reports prepared during a two-year attempt to analyze and better understand deforestation dynamics in the Basin. The report presents findings related to the agricultural sector in the Congo Basin and its potential impact on forest cover. It is based on an in-depth analysis of the sector, from previous trends through future prospects. It builds on results derived from a modeling exercise conducted by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) that scrutinized national, regional, and international trends in agricultural sectors and trade...

Analise multitemporal do desflorestamento ocorrido na decada de 90 em assentamento rural de Rondonia, a partir da associação entre dados de sensoriamento remoto e dados socioeconomicos; Deforestation in a rural settlement in Rondonia in the 90's : a multitemporal analysis crossing remote sensing and socioeconomic data

Leticia Orsi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/01/2005 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22%
Esta pesquisa contribui para o debate sobre o processo de desflorestamento na região Amazônia, a partir de uma abordagem fundamentada na análise da evolução espaço-temporal do uso e ocupação do assentamento rural de Machadinho d'Oeste, Rondônia, tendo como material básico de estudo, dados de sensoriamento remoto e dados socioeconômicos. Considera-se neste estudo que, o processo de desflorestamento regional é conseqüência direta da expansão da fronteira agrícola iniciada no final da década de 60, impulsionada pelas políticas de incentivos governamentais de ocupação e desenvolvimento local. O objetivo foi avaliar se as taxas de desflorestamento das propriedades estavam em acordo com a legislação ambiental - em especial, o Zoneamento Socioeconômico-Ecológico do estado de Rondônia. Para isto, dados de um mapeamento multitemporal de uso e cobertura das terras elaborado a partir de imagens orbitais Landsat TM, para os anos de 1988, 1994 e 1998, foram utilizados como instrumento de monitoramento da evolução do desflorestamento em propriedades situadas na Gleba 2 do assentamento. Foram diferenciados 3 tipos de produtores residentes na área de estudo: os que desflorestaram até 60% da área de suas propriedades - limite proposto no ZEE...

Protected Areas’ Deforestation Spillovers and Two Critical Underlying Mechanisms: An Empirical Exploration for the Brazilian Amazon

Herrera Garcia, Luis Diego
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.29%

To date, the creation of protected areas (PAs) has been the dominant policy in the efforts to protect forests. Yet there is still somewhat limited rigorous evidence about the impacts of PAs on rates of deforestation. Further, most of the existing evidence concerns the impacts of protection within the boundaries of PAs. Much of that existing evidence does not use the characteristics of the protected lands when generating the baselines to which outcomes on protected lands are compared in order to infer the PAs' impacts. Yet even when impact within a PA has been estimated as rigorously as possible, since the total impact of protection involves impact not only inside the PA but also outside the PA even the best possible estimates of impacts within PAs could mis-state total PA impacts. Overstatements occur if there is "leakage" from PAs, i.e., spillovers of activities to forests outside PAs, so deforestation outside is higher than it would have been without the PAs.

My dissertation starts with a reduced form examination of net local spillovers. We follow this with an evaluation of two mechanisms through which PAs could affect forest nearby. In particular we explore two novel angles by considering both migration choices and road building decisions. PA creation could affect the development equilibrium by shifting private and public expectations to lower migration and road building where the PA is established...

Beef Production in Brazil: A Value Chain Approach to Reducing Deforestation

Gonnella, Carrie; Holt, Jana; Hill, Louise; Braunz, Amy
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 24/04/2013 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22%
Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon is a persistent environmental problem due to its contributions to global climate change and biodiversity loss. The beef industry is a major contributor to this problem with an estimated 60-75% of deforestation caused by conversion of rainforest to pasture land. The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and the Global Roundtable on Sustainable Beef (GRSB) are seeking advice on initiatives to pursue that will make significant contributions to the reduction of deforestation. This masters project analyzes the drivers of deforestation related to the production of Brazilian beef and identifies initiatives that could help reduce deforestation. For each initiative considered, benefits, risks, and barriers are explored. In addition, an analysis of the Brazilian beef value chain is undertaken to determine which segments of the chain hold the most appealing leverage points for implementing initiatives to combat deforestation. Based on the results of this analysis, this paper recommends that WWF and the GRSB pursue efforts to improve land use planning, diversification of farm income, and implement financial mechanisms, such as REDD+. This paper also lays out a timeline for undertaking these initiatives, specific roles that the GRSB can play in each of these initiatives...

Is the Interoceanic highway exporting deforestation? A comparison of the intensity of regional Amazonian deforestation drivers within Brazil, Bolivia and Peru

Delgado, Cesar
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project Formato: 5007051 bytes; application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.19%
The Inter-Oceanic highway is a 1.9 billion dollar project that bisects southern Amazonia between the triple border region of Peru, Brazil and Bolivia. Many believe that a project of this magnitude will not only spur the trade of goods and services between these countries, but fear that Brazil’s appalling deforestation rates will exacerbate the existing deforestation trends within Peru and Bolivia. By applying remote sensing techniques and a statistical logistic regression model I was able to depict deforestation prior to 1989, the increase between 1989 and 2000 and the cumulative effect by the year 2000, in the area of the Inter-Oceanic highway and other related human infrastructure. I found that the Peruvian deforestation rates will be exacerbated and, despite common belief, the Inter-Oceanic highway is not going to be the main culprit, but the secondary road network and population centers, that the highway will encourage. Furthermore, I project that the urban explosion of certain population centers will put under severe pressure the protected areas of Tambopata in Peru and the extractive reserve of Chico Mendes in Brazil. Finally we acknowledge that countries unique socioeconomic dynamics can clearly contradict the results of classic Pan-Amazonian deforestation models.

Measuring protected areas’ impact on deforestation in Panama

Haruna, Akiko
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 10/12/2010 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.25%
Throughout the last century, protected areas (PAs) have been the major policy instrument for forest conservation worldwide, as well as in the Republic of Panama. The country has strived to lower the decline in its tropical forest cover which is rich in biodiversity. The importance of evaluating existing forest policies has been increasing, especially with emergence of financial incentives given to mitigation of deforestation. Few studies, however, have examined the effectiveness of forest policies in Panama, including the adoption of PAs. This study evaluates the impact of PAs on deforestation rates in Panama through the use of matching methods. The methods are used to adjust observable selection bias of PAs location. The conventional evaluation methods for protected areas failed to consider such bias, thus results using matching methods were expected to give less distorted estimates of the impact. Two types of matching methods were applied to obtain the estimated impacts of PAs, namely propensity score matching and covariate matching. The results were compared with those from the conventional evaluation methods. Countrywide forested plots in two time periods, 1992-2000, and 2000-2005 were examined. The results indicated positive effects of PAs on prevention of deforestation. They also revealed that conventional evaluation methods overestimated the impact of PAs. Such results agree with the previous matching analysis done for other geographic regions. It seems that the magnitude of the impact was enhanced in areas where high deforestation pressure existed. There was an indication of a geographical shift of deforestation frontiers toward remote areas with time. Bias-adjusted estimates for evaluation of PAs will be critical for formulation of future policy. With PAs being effective in avoiding deforestation...