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A teoria de securitização e o processo decisório da estratégia militar dos Estados Unidos na Guerra do Iraque

Duque, Marina Guedes
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Dissertação
POR
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Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Instituto de Relações Internacionais, 2008.; Este trabalho realiza um estudo de caso do processo decisório por meio do qual a estratégia militar dos Estados Unidos na Guerra do Iraque foi escolhida. Para tanto, examinam-se: (a) os atores governamentais envolvidos nas questões de segurança nacional, e sua interação; (b) as idéias de cada ator sobre o tipo de estratégia militar a ser empregada na Guerra do Iraque; (c) o arcabouço legal e institucional do processo decisório em assuntos de segurança nacional; e (d) o processo político em que se inseriu a tomada de decisão sobre a estratégia militar dos EUA na Guerra do Iraque. As fontes utilizadas incluem documentos oficiais, pronunciamentos de autoridades governamentais e depoimentos de funcionários do alto escalão do governo, assim como veículos de mídia e bibliografia pertinente. Analisa-se como o processo decisório sobre o tipo de força a ser utilizado na Guerra do Iraque sofreu impacto significativo da securitização bem-sucedida do terrorismo, nos EUA, após os atentados de 11 de setembro. Observa-se que a vinculação, por parte do governo Bush, do regime de Saddam Hussein ao terrorismo anti-estadunidense fez com que as decisões relacionadas à Guerra do Iraque não seguissem as regras normais de tomada de decisão e se conformassem aos interesses dos atores mais influentes dentro do governo. Conclui-se que o resultado do processo decisório correspondeu quase exclusivamente às preferências da liderança civil do Departamento de Defesa...

Epidemiology, health policy, and resource allocation: the Israeli perspective.

Haber, S; Lunenfeld, B
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1984 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Israel represents a developed country as far as demand and consumption of health services are concerned. The analysis of the Israeli health system reveals a significant trend of expansion in the intensity and the utilization of health services as well as an accelerated development of sophisticated technology, while the percentage of Gross National Product used for health expenditure remained constant and even decreased. Competing needs, reflecting population growth, a rapid aging process, new areas of treatment, and changes in use of health services, illustrate the aggravating issue of setting priorities. The permanent dilemma of the health system is oscillation between opposite trends: enlargement of public eligibility and technological capabilities and economic reduction and budget limitations. Is there a possibility that the insufficiencies of the system are built into patterns of thinking of those in the system, into its structure, and into its organization of health services delivery? Does the formulation of health policy influence, in terms of the outcomes of the system, priorities and allocation of resources? Does the process of decisionmaking reflect in an appropriate manner the epidemiologic data? Under the objective constraints...

Socioeconomic Barriers to Informed Decisionmaking Regarding Maternal Serum Screening for Down Syndrome: Results of the French National Perinatal Survey of 1998

Khoshnood, Babak; Blondel, Béatrice; De Vigan, Catherine; Bréart, Gérard
Fonte: © American Journal of Public Health 2004 Publicador: © American Journal of Public Health 2004
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2004 EN
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Objectives. We sought to evaluate socioeconomic disparities in serum screening for Down syndrome and assess whether such disparities are more likely to reflect limits in access or information or, rather, informed decisionmaking.

Evidence and Effectiveness in Decisionmaking for Quarantine

Bensimon, Cécile M.; Upshur, Ross E.G.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.89%
When public health decisionmakers turned to quarantine during the recent severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic, difficult questions were raised about the legitimacy and acceptability of restrictive measures to attain public health goals. SARS also brought to light how scientific uncertainty can permeate public health decisionmaking, leading us to think about the relationship between the adequacy of evidence of the effectiveness of an intervention and its role in the justification of public health action.

Personal Decisionmaking Styles and Long-Term Care Choices

Maloney, Susan K.; Finn, Jeffrey; Bloom, Diane L.; Andresen, Julie
Fonte: CENTERS for MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES Publicador: CENTERS for MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1996 EN
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27.33%
To learn more about how older people make decisions about long-term care (LTC), in-depth interviews were conducted with 63 elderly individuals and 56 of their relatives to obtain information on the decisionmaking process. This qualitative research showed that LTC decisionmaking does not always follow typical consumer dedisionmaking models, in which a consumer seeks a product or service, selects among the alternatives, and assesses the choice. Further, the interviews yielded four long-term care decisionmaking styles among older adults related to their degree of planning or not planning. This study underscores the need to develop tailored communications for older people and their families aimed at encouraging appropriate and cost-effective use of LTC services.

From Practice to Evidence in Child Welfare: Model Specification and Fidelity Measurement of Team Decisionmaking

Bearman, Sarah Kate; Garland, Ann F.; Schoenwald, Sonja K.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2014 EN
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Fidelity measurement methods have traditionally been used to develop and evaluate the effects of psychosocial treatments and, more recently, their implementation in practice. The fidelity measurement process can also be used to operationally define and specify components of emerging but untested practices outside the realm of conventional treatment. Achieving optimal fidelity measurement effectiveness (scientific validity and reliability) and efficiency (feasibility and relevance in routine care contexts) is challenging. The purpose of this paper is to identify strategies to address these challenges in child welfare system practices. To illustrate the challenges, and operational steps to address them, we present a case example using the “Team Decisionmaking” (TDM; Annie E. Casey Foundation) intervention. This intervention has potential utility for decreasing initial entry into and time spent in foster care and increasing rates of reunification and relative care. While promising, the model requires rigorous research to refine knowledge regarding the relationship between intervention components and outcomes—research that requires fidelity measurement. The intent of this paper is to illustrate how potentially generalizable steps for developing effective and efficient fidelity measurement methods can be used to more clearly define and test the effects of child welfare system practices.

Three Strategies of Interpretation

Vermeule, Cornelius Adrian
Fonte: University of San Diego Publicador: University of San Diego
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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We may distinguish three styles or strategies of decisionmaking. Under a maximizing approach, the decisionmaker chooses the action whose consequences are best for the case at hand (defining "best" according to some value the decisionmaker holds). Where decisionmakers choose the action that is best relative to constraints, accounting for the direct costs and opportunity costs of decisionmaking, we may call the approach optimizing rather than maximizing. Whereas the maximizer focuses only on the case at hand, the optimizer acts so as to maximize value over an array of cases. In contrast to both approaches, satisficing permits any decision whose results in the case at hand are good enough - although satisficing, like optimizing, may itself represent an indirect strategy of maximization. In this brief essay, I apply these distinctions to legal interpretation. Many approaches to the interpretation of statutes and the Constitution are maximizing approaches that attempt to produce as much as possible of some value the interpreter holds - for example, fidelity to legislative intent or original understandings. Optimizing approaches to interpretation condemn maximizing interpretation as a simpleminded approach that neglects the costs of decisionmaking and the costs of interpretive error. An alternative to both maximizing and optimizing approaches is a satisficing style of interpretation...

Misperceptions of feedback in dynamic decisionmaking

Fonte: Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Formato: 41 p.; 2893785 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
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by John D. Sterman.; "D-3876-1." "Presented at the 1986 meeting of the Judgment/Decisionmaking Society, New Orleans, La."; Bibliography: p. 28-30.

Participation and Intermediary NGOs

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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26.89%
Nongovenrmental organizations (NGOs) can be effective intermediaries in Bank funded projects which depend on participation and capacity building at the community level. Successful collaboration depends on identifying an organization with appropriate characteristics, and involving its staff in decisionmaking from as early as possible in the project cycle. Steps must be taken to prevent Bank or government requirements undermining the participatory orientation of the NGO and, where necessary, to strengthen NGO capacity, encourage cooperation between NGOs, and support communication between NGOs and government.

Local Institutions, Poverty, and Household Welfare in Bolivia

Grootaert, Christiaan; Narayan, Deepa
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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27.33%
The authors empirically estimate the impact of social capital on household welfare in Bolivia--where they found 67 different types of local associations. They focus on household memberships in local associations as being especially relevant to daily decisions that affect household welfare and consumption. On average, households belong to 1.4 groups and associations: 62 percent belong to agrarian syndicates, 16 percent to production groups, 13 percent to social service groups, and 10 percent to education and health groups. Smaller numbers belong to religious and government groups. Agrarian syndicates, created by government decree in 1952, are now viewed mainly as community-initiated institutions to manage conmunal resources. They have been registered as legal entities to work closely with municipalities to represent the interests and priorities of local people in municipal decisionmaking. The effects of social capital operate through (at least) three mechanisms: sharing of information among association members; the reduction of opportunistic behavior; and better collective decisionmaking. The effect of social capital on household welfare was found to be 2.5 times that of human capital. Increasing the average educational endowment of each adult in the household by one year (about a 2.5-percent increase) would increase per capita household spending 4.2 percent; a similar increase in the social capital endowment would increase spending 9 to 10.5 percent. They measured social capital along six dimensions: density of memberships...

Application of Future State Decision Making in the EAGLE Combat Model

Parry, Samuel H.; Schoenstadt, Arthur
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
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EAGLE is a systematic combat simulation which is currently under development by the TRADOC Analysis Command at Fort Leavenworth. EAGLE is written using the Artificial Intelligence (AI) language LISP, which is ideally suited for describing both combat missions and decisions in understandable, nature language terms within an extremely sophisticated tactics knowledge base. Earlier reports, however, have asserted that systematic combat models which use the so- called present-state decisionmaking paradigm have a fundamentally flawed decisionmaking process. This report investigates the application in EAGLE of an alternative, future-state decisionmaking architecture, called the Generalized Value System (GVS), describes the general changes to EAGLE code and data structures necessary to impelement this methodology, and presents and example of how we believe this methodology would execute within EAGLE

Future-state decisionmaking under the Generalized Value System architecture

Schoenstadt, Arthur L.; Parry, Samuel H.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.33%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; This report asserts that a fundamental flaw exists in current systematic combat models-the use of the so-called present-state decisionmaking paradigm. This paradigm is shown not only to be unrealistic but also to rely on hidden models. The report also presents and examines a proposed alternative -- the future-state decisionmaking architecture of the Generalized Value System [GVS]. This architecture is shown to be more realistic than present-state decisionmaking, yet practical to implement. The necessary elements of the GVS are discussed in detail, and an example presented. Areas of the proposed GVS architecture which will require additional research are also discussed.

U.S. decisionmaking process on NATO enlargement: implications for East Eurpoean States

Malashchenko, Vitaliy B.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
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This thesis examines the evolution of post-Cold War U.S. policy towards NATO as a case study of the way in which domestic and international pressures interact to shape security policy. I argue that the expansion of U.S. commitments to post-Cold War Europe corresponds to the way key U.S. policymaking institutions have framed American national interests. President Clinton, his key advisers and Republican leaders of Congress emphasize that NATO enlargement advances American interests by accelerating the success of democratic and market economy reforms in Eastern European countries and Russia. But NATO enlargement also serves a more defensive mission -- that of pushing back threats to the West from the East. The process that led to this definition of U.S. interests reflects the flexibility of the U.S. decisionmaking structure, and the sharing of powers between Congress, the president and other key actors. The interpretation of these national interests, in turn, have been shaped by two factors: geostrategic perspectives and domestic political concerns. Wide agreement has emerged between Congress and the Executive branch that NATO enlargement serves U.S. geostrategic interests. Moreover, at least until now, partisan political conflict over NATO enlargement has remained muted. Such conflicts could grow as new strategic questions emerge with the prospect of enlargement beyond the Vishegrad countries (Poland...

Collaboration Tool Suites Developed to Support Joint Command and Control Planning and Decisionmaking

Hutchins, Susan G.; Kemple, William G.; Adamo, Ron; Boger, Dan; Nelson, Brian W.; Penta, Heather L.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
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This paper is submitted for consideration for the 2002 CCRTS track on C2 Experimentation.; Military forces, operating as a networked force, can plan, decide, and act collaboratively and concurrently to accomplish many tasks simultaneously. Operating in a collaborative information environment will enable the joint force to transition from the use of a hierarchical, serial planning process to the use of a parallel, collaborative planning process to produce reduced decision times and an increased tempo of operations. Collaboration tool suites were introduced during two recent events to support operational planning and decisionmaking processes by providing an alternative means to communicate, collaborate, and share information among warfighters that extends what is available in today’s current operational environments. One goal for these events was to develop an understanding of the implications and effects of distributed planing. A second goal was to obtain feedback on the effectiveness of these new tools for supporting future military operations in a distributed, network-centric joint force and to identify user-defined enhancements that would better meet future joint operational requirements. New information technology tools...

Handling ethical problems in counterterrorism. An inventory of methods to support ethical decisionmaking

Reding, Anaïs; Van Gorp, Anke; Robertson, Kate; Walczak, Agnieszka; Giacomantonio, Chris; Hoorens, Stijn
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Buch (Monographie); info:eu-repo/semantics/book
EN
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This document presents the findings of a study into methods that can help counterterrorism professionals make decisions about ethical problems. The study was commissioned by the Research and Documentation Centre (Wetenschappelijk Onderzoeken Documentatiecentrum, WODC) of the Dutch Ministry of Security and Justice (Ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie), on behalf of the National Coordinator for Counterterrorism and Security (Nationaal Coördinator Terrorismebestrijding en Veiligheid, NCTV). The research team at RAND Europe was complemented by applied ethics expert Anke van Gorp from the Research Centre for Social Innovation (Kenniscentrum Sociale Innovatie) at Hogeschool Utrecht. The study provides an inventory of methods to support ethical decision-making in counterterrorism, drawing on the experience of other public sectors – healthcare, social work, policing and intelligence – and multiple countries, primarily the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The report introduces the field of applied ethics; identifies key characteristics of ethical decision-making in counterterrorism; and describes methods that can help counterterrorism professionals make decisions in these situations. Finally, it explores how methods used in other sectors may be applied to ethical decision-making in counterterrorism. It also describes the level of effectiveness that may be expected from the various methods. The report is based on a structured literature search and interviews with professionals and academics with expertise in applied ethics. This report will be of interest to counterterrorism professionals who are responsible for strengthening ethical decision-making in their organisation. It may provide some insights for professionals who seek new methods to help them make ethical decisions. The findings may also be relevant for other professionals...

Adding intelligence to the Composite Warfare Commander - Distributed Dynamic Decision making paradigm.

Wright, Brian Kenneth
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 93 p.;28 cm.
EN_US
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27.33%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; The Composite Warfare Commander - Distributed Dynamic Decisionmaking (CWC-DDD) paradigm is a tool for experimentation and research into the area of command, control and communications (C3) team decisionmaking process in simulated Navy engagement scenarios. It is implemented as a computer-driven interactive game among four person hierarchical teams of decisionmakers on a network of worstations. The paradigm is a compromise between controllability and realism of the experimental environment. The major drawback with the current implementation is the lack of responsiveness of the tasks (attackers) to the actions of the assets (defenders) and the environmental conditions. This thesis details ways to improve the responsiveness of the attackers and the realism of the paradigm by the implementation of a group of if-then heuristics. The five proposed heuristics are designed to make the attackers attempt to evade the defenders while still actively pursuing their mission to penetrate the center of the battle group. The heuristics are implemented in the RAINCOAT version of the paradigm using the C programming language. The heuristics are validated by several military commanders for adherence with the accepted baule doctrine of the Navy's Composite Warfare Command.; Lieutenant...

Utility Regulators : Decisionmaking Structures, Resources, and Start-Up Strategy

Smith, Warrick
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Viewpoint; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.16%
The design of a regulatory agency's decisionmaking structure encompasses issues relating to the number of decisionmakers, the basis for selecting them, the role played by stakeholders, and the regulatory and appeals processes. The selection of the regulator is critical--especially in countries that have yet to establish a reputation for competence and reliability. When agencies are to be independent, the goal should be to select regulators with the personal qualities needed to exercise independent judgement and resist improper pressures. An appeals process is also important to ensure that the regulator does not stray from its mandate and that it remains accountable. The author outlines good practice.

Medicaid Consumers and Informed Decisionmaking

Greene, Jessica; Peters, Ellen
Fonte: CENTERS for MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES Publicador: CENTERS for MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.89%
In 2006, Florida's Medicaid reform required some Medicaid consumers to enroll in health plans that differed in terms of cost-sharing requirements and benefit limitations. In focus groups we found enthusiasm among Medicaid consumers for having choices among health plans; however, enthusiasm did not translate into comparison shopping for health plans. Survey findings suggested that Medicaid consumers had difficulty comprehending Medicaid healthplan comparison information, particularly if they were lower in numeracy or literacy skills. Given the number of plans offered and the numerous ways they differed, our efforts to simplify the comparison chart resulted in slightly higher comprehension, but only among those with higher skill levels. Our study suggests that policymakers should seek to simplify Medicaid Program information and design to encourage informed decisionmaking.

Essential Elements of Effective Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)—Agency Decisionmaking and the NEPA Process

Lamb, Ronald
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Relatório
Publicado em 16/11/2012 EN_US
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This paper presents the findings of an online survey and interviews with National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) professionals on their opinion on the essential and most important components of agency NEPA programs. A list of NEPA program components was developed based on a review of books, articles, and papers on ways to improve the NEPA process. Results of the online survey indicate that all of the listed elements are considered important for an agency NEPA program to be successful. No program element received an average score as high as 3 (somewhat important) and only 2 of the elements received an average score higher than 2 (very important). The highest ranked element (1. critically important) was senior management support for the NEPA process. Interviews with senior NEPA specialists confirmed that senior management support for the NEPA process was critical, and that other critical components flowed from that support. “Senior managers” were interpreted as being the agency’s senior NEPA manager or the senior manager at each facility, installation, or command. Education was most frequently identified as how agency NEPA staff could develop and maintain consistent senior management support for the NEPA process. The interview sample size was small...

Domestic Courts and Global Governance: the Politics of Private International Law

Whytock, Christopher A.
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 1546426 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em 04/12/2007 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Since the mid-1980s, U.S. and foreign parties have filed more than 100,000 lawsuits in U.S. federal courts asking for adjudication of disputes arising from transnational activity. These lawsuits raise a fundamental question of global governance: Who governs? Should the United States assert its authority to adjudicate a transnational dispute, or should it defer to the adjudicative authority of a foreign state that also has connections with the underlying activity? Should the United States assert its authority to prescribe the rules governing that activity, or should it defer to foreign prescriptive authority? U.S. district courts routinely face these questions in transnational litigation, and by answering them they help allocate governance authority among states. To shed light on the role of domestic courts in global governance, this dissertation asks: How often and under what circumstances do U.S. district courts defer to foreign authority to govern transnational activity rather than asserting domestic authority? Drawing on private international law scholarship and theories of international relations, judicial behavior, and bounded rationality, I develop a series of hypotheses about the legal and political factors that influence judicial allocation of governance authority. I then statistically test these hypotheses using original data on U.S. district court decisionmaking in two transnational litigation settings: the allocation of adjudicative authority under the forum non conveniens doctrine...