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Penalização do crime de infanticídio : conceções dos estudantes universitários portugueses; Penalty for the crime of infanticide : the conception of portuguese university students

Carvalho, Ana Sofia Rebelo da Silva
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
Publicado em //2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.52%
Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Psicologia; O crime de infanticídio apresenta, em Portugal e noutros países, uma moldura penal bastante inferior ao crime de homicídio, podendo ser aplicada apenas a mulheres. Assim, parece pertinente avaliar a forma como os estudantes universitários portugueses se posicionam face a este crime. Foram traçados como objetivos identificar diferenças: na atribuição de penas a casos de infanticídio ao nível do sexo e do curso do participante; na atribuição de penas de prisão perpétua e penas de morte ao nível de 3 categorias de infanticídio (acidente, psicose aguda e filho indesejado) e ao nível do sexo do(a) ofensor(a); nas razões dadas pelos participantes para justificarem a pena escolhida, também ao nível do sexo do(a) ofensor(a). Participaram 344 estudantes da Universidade do Minho, preenchendo um questionário composto por dados sociodemográficos e por 6 vinhetas. Os resultados revelaram que os alunos de Engenharia atribuem penas mais pesadas em relação a Ciências Sociais e Direito; penas de prisão perpétua e penas de morte são mais vezes atribuídas à categoria de psicose aguda e aos pais ofensores; relativamente às razões, as mães foram mais vezes desresponsabilizadas e os pais mais vezes considerados maldosos/perversos. Não foram encontradas associações entre as caraterísticas sociodemográficas e a atribuição de penas.; In Portugal...

The absence of cruelty is not the presence of humanness: physicians and the death penalty in the United States

Zivot, Joel B
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/12/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.73%
The death penalty by lethal injection is a legal punishment in the United States. Sodium Thiopental, once used in the death penalty cocktail, is no longer available for use in the United States as a consequence of this association. Anesthesiologists possess knowledge of Sodium Thiopental and possible chemical alternatives. Further, lethal injection has the look and feel of a medical act thereby encouraging physician participation and comment. Concern has been raised that the death penalty by lethal injection, is cruel. Physicians are ethically directed to prevent cruelty within the doctor-patient relationship and ethically prohibited from participation in any component of the death penalty. The US Supreme Court ruled that the death penalty is not cruel per se and is not in conflict with the 8th amendment of the US constitution. If the death penalty is not cruel, it requires no further refinement. If, on the other hand, the death penalty is in fact cruel, physicians have no mandate outside of the doctor patient relationship to reduce cruelty. Any intervention in the name of cruelty reduction, in the setting of lethal injection, does not lead to a more humane form of punishment. If physicians contend that the death penalty can be botched...

Death Penalty Decisions: Instruction Comprehension, Attitudes, and Decision Mediators

Patry, Marc W.; Penrod, Steven D.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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A primary goal of this research was to empirically evaluate a set of assumptions, advanced in the Supreme Court’s ruling in Buchanan v. Angelone (1998), about jury comprehension of death penalty instructions. Further, this research examined the use of evidence in capital punishment decision making by exploring underlying mediating factors upon which death penalty decisions may be based. Manipulated variables included the type of instructions and several variations of evidence. Study 1 was a paper and pencil study of 245 undergraduate mock jurors. The experimental design was an incomplete 4×2×2×2×2 factorial model resulting in 56 possible conditions. Manipulations included four different types of instructions, presence of a list of case-specific mitigators to accompany the instructions, and three variations in the case facts: age of the defendant, bad prior record, and defendant history of emotional abuse. Study 2 was a fully-crossed 2×2×2×2×2 experiment with four deliberating mock juries per cell. Manipulations included jury instructions (original or revised), presence of a list of case-specific mitigators, defendant history of emotional abuse, bad prior record, and heinousness of the crime. The sample of 735 jury-eligible participants included 130 individuals who identified themselves as students. Participants watched one of 32 stimulus videotapes based on a replication of a capital sentencing hearing. The present findings support previous research showing low comprehension of capital penalty instructions. Further...

La condanna a morte di Saddam Hussein. Riflessioni sul divieto di pena capitale e sulla "necessaria sproporzione" della pena nelle Gros Violations

Donini, Massimo
Fonte: Universidade da Coruña Publicador: Universidade da Coruña
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ITA
Relevância na Pesquisa
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[Abstract] The death sentence of Saddam Hussein is one of those extreme cases that put in tension the foundations of the absolute prohibition of the capital punishment, still more in the moment in which we think to extend its capacity in a universal sense and consi- dering the fact that numerous States (Arabic Countries, China, United States, Japan, etc.) maintain it, comprised therefore occidental or liberal political systems, and not only authoritarian or religious-political systems: the compact exclusion of Europe from that group moreover regards an entity that has financed yearlong Saddam, giving him enormous amounts of war materials, also chemical, thanks which were realized the genocides that he was charged with, included the crime of the 148 died of Dujail (apart from the tortured ones, deported etc.), killed for reprisal after his assassination attempt, and on which the criminal trial has condemned him has been focused. Looking through the accusations and the numerous violations of the defensive guarantees of the process, moreover it is pointed out that the trial of Saddam Hussein has been an effective pro- cess, not like the ghost-trial that in 1984 the Iraq Revolutionary Court celebrated in order to condemn to death penalty 148 men...

O desenvolvimento constitucional da pena de morte nos Estados Unidos

Santiago Filho, Luiz Francisco Mota
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Outros
PT_BR
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Regulamentada desde as legislações mais arcaicas, como o Código de Hamurabi na Babilônia de 4.000 a.C., a pena de morte é um dos institutos mais antigos da humanidade. É também um dos temas mais controvertidos do Direito, cerne de debates que se intensificam na medida na medida em que os direitos humanos são universalizados, principalmente em meados do século XX. Diante disso, a audaciosa manutenção da pena de morte no sistema jurídico norte-americano, o último reduto do instituto no mundo ocidental, é o resultado de longo e árduo processo de desenvolvimento constitucional, orientado principalmente pelos constantes avanços da jurisprudência da Suprema Corte dos Estados Unidos sobre a pena capital. O presente trabalho tem como escopo apresentar o histórico de tais decisões, bem como fundamentos de cunho criminológico, moral, filosófico e econômico aplicáveis à sistemática da pena de morte, expondo ainda dados sobre a aplicação da pena capital e perspectivas para o futuro da sanção nos Estados Unidos.; Regulated since the prime of positive law, in the 4.000 B.C. Babylonian Code of Hammurabi, the death penalty is one of the most ancient institutes of human history. It is also one of the most controversial legal topics...

Such is life: Australia and the death penalty

Fowler, Elouise
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.65%
In theory at least, Australia is an overwhelmingly anti death penalty country. Australia has abolished the death penalty in all jurisdictions and has signed international treaties such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the Second Optional Protocol. While Australia has ratified the Second Optional Protocol which creates a 'non-derogable' individual human right not to be executed and prohibits the execution of anyone under the law of the ratifying country, Australia has not enshrined this protocol into domestic law. This has created a fundamental tension between Australia's obligations under these agreements and Australian domestic law. The central problem is that since these obligations have not been legislated on by the Australian Parliament, it is therefore legal for jurisdictions and law enforcement agencies in Australia to simply ignore them. The law in this crucial area of human rights is fragile. For example, there is nothing to stop any jurisdiction in Australia from reintroducing the death penalty. While this may not be likely in 2009, it could be a significant issue in the event of a terrorist attack. It is more than possible, potentially encouraged by an imminent election...

Death penalty in Asia and its implications for Australia

Jia, Wen
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the death penalty reality in Asia and examine its implications for Australia. Research for this report largely involved historical research method, especially in analysing the selected three Asian states (Singapore, Indonesia and P.R.China) about their decisions to retain death penalty. Review on current literature in regard to anti-death penalty movement was employed to some extent. The interview of a Member of Parliament did not form part of the report, and yet was inspirational. The report summarises the Asian approach as the Sovereignty/ 'Asian Values' approach in contrast to Australia's human rights approach. In contextualising each approach into the specific state, it appears that the approach those Asian states adopt essentially is a notion that lends legitimacy to statesponsored killings. In Singapore, death penalty is a tool to secure social order. In Indonesia, death penalty transformed from asserting ruling party's authority to demonstrating government's capacity to reform. In Chinese case, death penalty seNes to assert state's authority. Meanwhile, the human rights approach adopted by Australia has not fully realised its potential in consolidating Australia's official position as an abolitionist state either...

A lei de 10 de junho de 1835 : justiça, escravidão e pena de morte; The June 10 1835 law of : justice, slavery and death penalty

Ricardo Figueiredo Pirola
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/12/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Em 10 de junho de 1835 foi sancionada pelo regente imperial uma nova lei de repressão aos crimes cometidos por escravos. Em relação à legislação existente a nova lei ampliava o número de delitos praticados por cativos, que passariam a ser condenados com a pena capital, e encurtava os procedimentos para o julgamento e execução de sentença. Apesar da recorrente indicação na historiografia sobre a importância dessa lei na repressão de movimentos de contestação escrava e na aplicação da pena de morte, o assunto tem recebido ainda pouca atenção. Esta tese de doutorado busca analisar o contexto que levou à criação e aprovação da lei de 10 de junho de 1835 e também sua aplicação ao longo do século XIX.; On June 10 1835, Brazil's imperial regent sanctioned a new law to repress crimes committed by slaves. Compared to the existing legislation, the new law shortened trial and sentencing procedures, and increased the number of slave crimes which were to be subject to mandatory capital punishment. Despite historiography of this law's central role in the repression of slave protests and in the application of the death penalty, the subject-matter has received little attention from historians. This doctoral dissertation analyzes the context that led to the creation of the June 10 1835 law...

International society, standard of civilisation, and the abolition of the death penalty: the United Nations and China; Sociedade internacional, standard de civilização, e a abolição da pena de morte: as Nações Unidas e a China

Vaz-Pinto, Ana Raquel Coutinho Rosa
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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As Nações Unidas conseguiram criar uma 'janela de oportunidade' em relação a abolição internacional da pena de morte. Este esforço está inserido no 'resgate do indviduo' em matéria de direitos humanos e responsibilidade dos estados que se verificou a partir de 1945. Para além disso, a questão dos direitos humanos ocupa um lugar central na procura de um novo standard de civilização. Todavia, esta procura não tem sido consensual e reflecte o estádio embrionário da sociedade de estados que tenta harmonizar a uma escala universal os seus elementos de sociedade, sistémicos, e comunitários. A institutionalização da abolição da pena de morte não está ainda conseguida e, bem pelo contrário, e um processo que se encontra no inicio. A maix barreira para as Nações Unidas é a de promover a norma abolicionista no domínio das abordagens pluralistas de grandes potências como a China, o país que lidera o número de sentenças capitais e execuções em todo o mundo. O pluralismo metodológico da Escola Inglesa permite-nos compreender os diversos componentes deste debate, i e., a abolição da pena de morte é per se um elemento comunitário desenvolvido numa moldura de sociedade e que enfrenta constrangimentos pluralistas.; The United Nations has been successful in establishing an international abolitionist 'window of opportunitv' regarding the death penalty. This 'window' is included in the wider framework of human rights and statc? accountability that was made possible after the 'rescue of the individual' in the post-1945 world. Human rights are at the core of the search for a new standard of civilisation...

Pena de muerte en Colombia visión formal y visión real. Estudio de Caso: La masacre de El Salado

Carrillo Flórez, Mónica Julie
Fonte: Facultad de Ciencia Política y Gobierno Publicador: Facultad de Ciencia Política y Gobierno
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/09/2013 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.48%
Este trabajo final de grado evalúa la existencia de la pena de muerte en Colombia en su visión formal y real, a través del estudio de caso de la masacre de El Salado, en la cual las Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia toman la justicia en sus manos ejecutando a más de 60 civiles. Inicialmente se hace una descripción de cómo se ha tratado el tema de la pena de muerte a lo largo de la historia, dando una breve apreciación de lo que representa y ha representado para la civilización occidental, así como del concepto y de los tipos de penas de muerte y ejecuciones. Seguidamente se describe la historia de la pena de muerte en Colombia; como ha sido planteada la discusión del tema y como ha sido abordada institucionalmente desde la Constitución colombiana. Posteriormente se hace una breve descripción de los hechos que acontecieron durante la masacre de El Salado, los juicios aplicados, los medios de eliminación bélica y no bélica que allí tuvieron lugar y las consecuencias psicosociales para la población. La masacre tuvo lugar entre el 16 y el 21 de febrero del 2000. Finalmente se evalúa el concepto de pena de muerte y cómo ha sido la visión formal de su aplicación, así como la responsabilidad del Estado ante la aplicación de esta por parte de actores armados no institucionales. Asimismo...

¿El fin justifica los miedos? Perspectiva genealógica de los debates sobre la pena de muerte en Colombia

Bejarano, Julio Alberto
Fonte: Universidade do Rosário Publicador: Universidade do Rosário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/03/2010 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
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A lo largo de la historia republicana de Colombia el debate sobre la pena de muerte siempre ha estado presente, directa o indirectamente. A pesar de que se abolió oficialmente en 1910, ha sido frecuente escuchar voces que se muestran favorables a una reaplicación de la pena de muerte. Uno de los momentos más significativos, quizá el más importante hasta la fecha, ocurrió en 1925. El objetivo de este artículo es reflexionar sobre el proceso histórico del cadalso en Colombia, buscando examinar las posiciones presentadas por abolicionistas y defensores de la pena de muerte en los primeros años del siglo XX. El artículo se divide en dos partes. La primera aborda reflexiones filosóficas sobre la pena de muerte, alrededor de Hobbes y Spinoza, incluyendo algunas referencias sociológicas de Durkheim. La segunda se concentra en estudiar algunas polémicas a favor y en contra del restablecimiento de la pena de muerte en Colombia.-----Throughout Colombia’s republican history the debate on the death penalty has always been present, either directly or indirectly. Despite it being officially abolished in 1910, many have frequently been heard favoring a reestablishment of the death penalty. One of the most significant events, and perhaps the most important to date...

de morte: uma solução para o problema da criminalidade?

Tamanini, Sérgio Ferreira
Fonte: Universidade Católica de Brasília Publicador: Universidade Católica de Brasília
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: Texto
PT_BR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
Este trabalho visa analisar os impactos da pena capital no atual contexto brasileiro, de forma a detectar a possível redução nos altos índices de criminalidade. Para tanto, buscou-se fazer primeiramente a uma breve retrospectiva histórica sobre as penas, em especial a pena de morte e sua introdução no Brasil. Buscando uma metodologia comparativa entre as funções da pena e os fins a que se destinam nas diferentes Escolas Penais, para alcançar por dedução, a possibilidade de redução dos índices de criminalidade que assolam a sociedade brasileira. Ressalte-se que há em nosso ordenamento constitucional, barreiras expressas que impossibilitam a sua reintrodução no Brasil por via da atual Constituição de 1988. Sabe-se que embora proibida, salvo exceções previstas em Lei, fatos comprovam que a sua presença e aplicação no atual contexto social brasileiro.; This work was written to discuss the impacts of capital punishment in Brasilian current reality and indicates wheather it could help to reduce high standards of criminality. The study was made from a breef historical about the king of penalties in Brazil, specially the capital punishment and the period when it was used in the country. In a comparative study between the different legal theories it was assumed weather it is possible to reduce the high levels of criminality observed in Brasilian society. It is important to point than in the Federal Constitution created obstacles to reinstall the death penalty in Brazil. Althought it shoud be legally unlike to have such punishment back to Brasilian context...

International non-governmental organizations and the abolition of the death penalty

Kim, Dongwook
Fonte: Sage Publications Inc Publicador: Sage Publications Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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During the past 45 years, nearly 100 national states have abolished the death penalty for all crimes. This global diffusion poses a puzzle since capital punishment has long been accepted as the ultimate criminal sanction and its abolition has often been politically unpopular in many parts of the world. Although the literature has provided several possible explanations, the role of human rights international non-governmental organizations in worldwide death penalty abolition has not yet received sustained analytic attention. This article offers the first such analysis by arguing that human rights international non-governmental organizations empower pro-abolition constituencies and influence governments toward abolition by framing capital punishment as a human rights violation and lobbying parliamentarians to repeal death penalty laws. Event history analyses of 158 national states from 1967 to 2010 offer strong support for the theory. Controlling for regime type, regional demonstration effects, the Council of Europe, and other rival factors, this article finds that human rights international non-governmental organizations’ local engagement has strongly significant positive relationships with complete abolition. This finding is highly robust against control variable bias...

Newspapers and the Supreme Court: In re Capital Punishment

Cai, Haoxiaohan
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Publicado em 30/01/2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.48%
This paper examines how the Supreme Court and newsprint media interface with and react to each other’s arguments, justification, and framing of the death penalty. As the philosophical justification behind the use of capital punishment evolves, how can we describe the similarities and differences between how the Supreme Court frames issues of capital punishment and how the press portrays the same? Using a case-study analysis, this paper identifies three sets of chronologically- related and issue-related death penalty cases (from 1971 to 2005) and compares the presence and importance of the varying Supreme Court arguments and newspaper frames. I find that, while the Supreme Court appears to set the boundaries of the death penalty debate for newsprint media, the latter may actually set the agenda of the Court when it strategically 1.) makes comparisons to foreign legal practices or 2.) alleges that caprice and bias pervade through the American capital punishment mechanism.; Public Policy Honors Thesis (2013) - Highest Distinction

Making the Movies Real: The Death Penalty & Local TV News

Yanich, Danilo
Fonte: Center for Community Research & Service Publicador: Center for Community Research & Service
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 343651 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.56%
Media organizations, particularly the broadcast media, have become extremely important actors on the public stage over the last three decades. As a result, what the media chose to cover and how they chose to cover it is an important question. That is magnified when the media turn their attention to a public policy issue like the death penalty that already possesses profound social significance. In no other area of public policy can the state impose its will so completely and finally on an individual citizen. Therefore, the public should understand the issues that surround capital punishment. That understanding is virtually always communicated through media organizations because very few of us have first-hand knowledge of the death penalty. In this paper, I explore how television broadcast organizations cover the imposition of the death penalty. How did they carry it out? What themes did they convey? What did the public learn?

BRAZILIAN RESERVATION AT THE PROTOCOL TO THE AMERICAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS TO ABOLISH THE DEATH PENALTY

Aguiar, Cláudia Noblat de; Universidade de Brasília – UnB
Fonte: Revista dos Estudantes de Direito da UnB; Journal of Law Students from University of Brasilia Publicador: Revista dos Estudantes de Direito da UnB; Journal of Law Students from University of Brasilia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Avaliado por Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/06/2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The present article aims to discuss the institute of reservations, by  giving  a  general  overview  and  discussing  further  the  aspect  of reservations on human right treaties. Besides that, it analyzes the Brazilian reservation at the Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights to  Abolish  the  Death  Penalty,  in  this  matter,  tries  to  understand  the settings that led the country to make such reservation and how it fits in the present  environment.    After  going  over  some  important  international documentation, such as United Nations Resolutions and the Rome Statute, it concludes that this specific reservation has become obsolete.

Death penalty abolition and the ratification of the second optional protocol

Neumayer, Eric
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2008 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This article analyses which factors promote or hinder ratification by nation states of the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the only universal treaty aimed at the abolition of the death penalty. The study finds that a democratic regime, a left-wing oriented government, regional peer influence, and a high level of economic development speed up ratification. A legal system built on common law and, if less robustly, ethnic fractionalisation lower the likelihood of ratification. These results are compared to the determinants of domestic death penalty abolition. Besides similarities, one striking difference is that Eastern European country membership in the Council of Europe has been important for domestic abolition, but has had no influence on ratification of the Second Optional Protocol. Western European countries exerted pressure on Eastern European countries to abolish the death penalty, but did not extend their pressure towards a ratification of the Second Protocol. Also, whereas economic development does not matter for domestic abolition, an internationally binding commitment to abolition becomes more likely the richer the country.

State supreme court justices are more likely to reverse death penalty sentences when they are term limited

Hall, Melinda Gann
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/06/2014 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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In theory, state supreme court justices should be independent in their decision making, rather than representative of voters’ interests as is the case for legislators. But can state supreme court justices’ decisions on certain major issues, such as the death penalty, be influenced by whether or not they are concerned about reelection? Using data from more than 8,000 death penalty cases in the late 1990s, Melinda Gann Hall finds that electorally insecure justices are more likely to make popular decisions on the issue of the death penalty when reelection is a concern, but in their final terms these justices are more likely to cast unpopular votes even under the most threatening circumstances.

Abuse of state power: the mandatory death penalty for political crimes in Southern Rhodesia, 1963 - 1970

Novak,Andrew
Fonte: Fundamina Publicador: Fundamina
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Shortly before the unilateral secession of Southern Rhodesia (colonial Zimbabwe) from the British Empire under white minority rule, the Rhodesian legislature passed sweeping security legislation authorising more severe criminal punishments for political crimes, including the mandatory death penalty for petrol bombing. This legislation conflicted with Rhodesian criminal sentencing for ordinary crimes such as murder and robbery, which permitted some judicial discretion in capital sentencing. Petrol bombing and the later mandatory death penalty for aggravated arms possession were the only two crimes that did not permit judicial sentencing discretion, making them the two most disproportionate criminal punishments ever passed in wartime Rhodesia. These statutory changes were doggedly opposed on the floor of Parliament by the independent Member of Parliament Dr Ahrn Palley and a handful of liberal and progressive allies. The penalties withstood constitutional challenges that claimed that these disproportionate punishments were cruel, inhuman, and degrading. Although the mandatory death penalty for petrol bombing proved unenforceable and would be repealed, other security legislation survived in independent Zimbabwe, where it fell into disuse but remained on the books.

Capital sentencing discretion in Southern Africa: A human rights perspective on the doctrine of extenuating circumstances in death penalty cases

Novak,Andrew
Fonte: African Human Rights Law Journal Publicador: African Human Rights Law Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.53%
In 1935, South Africa reduced the harshness of the common law mandatory death penalty for murder with the passage of the doctrine of extenuating circumstances. A judge was permitted to substitute a lesser sentence if the accused proved the existence of a mitigating factor at the time of the offence. The doctrine, which operated as a rebuttable presumption in favour of death, passed to the criminal law of Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe, as well as to the South Pacific nation of Papua New Guinea. The doctrine lacked the analytical rationality of an American or Indian-style discretionary death penalty, which required a judge to articulate an aggravating factor in order to sentence an accused to death, with the burden of proof on the prosecution. The doctrine has now been abolished in South Africa, Namibia, Papua New Guinea, Swaziland and Zimbabwe, and modified in Botswana and Lesotho. The decline of the doctrine of extenuating circumstances accords with the international consensus that the death penalty should be restricted only to the most serious crimes and only based on the circumstances of the individual offence and the characteristics of the individual offender.