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Geotecnologias aplicadas à análise espaço temporal do uso e cobertura da terra e qualidade da água do reservatório de Barra Bonita, SP, como suporte à gestão de recursos hídricos ; Geotechnologies applied to spatial and temporal analysis of the land use and land cover basin related to the water quality Barra Bonita reservoir to support water resources management

Prado, Rachel Bardy
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/09/2004 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.53%
Perante a situação atual de degradação dos recursos hídricos, destacando os reservatórios destinados a usos múltiplos, e a necessidade de se buscar soluções para tal problema, foi proposto o presente trabalho. O reservatório de Barra Bonita, localizado no interior do Estado de São Paulo, foi escolhido para estudo, por estar inserido em uma área densamente povoada, industrializada e ocupada por agricultura intensiva. Os dados adquiridos foram de natureza cartográfica (cartas de pedologia, geomorfologia, geologia, drenagem e malha municipal); orbitais (imagens multiespectrais dos satélites Landsat 5 e 7); censitários (produção agrícola municipal e densidade demográfica); limnológicos (característicasfísicas, químicas e biológicas do reservatório estudado, obtidas em campo e na literatura); pluviométricos e fluviométricos. A organização e o tratamento das diversas informações foram realizados com o auxílio de Sistema de Informação Geográfica (Spring 3.6), obtendo também um banco de dados limnológicos multitemporal. As ferramentas de geotecnologias foram aplicadas na caracterização dos fatores fisiográficos, no mapeamento do uso e cobertura da terra e do potencial poluidor das sub-bacias da bacia de drenagem...

A relação entre cultura organizacional e o uso de técnicas da qualidade e seu impacto no desempenho operacional; The interplay between organizational culture and the use of quality techniques and its impact on operational performance

Gambi, Lillian do Nascimento
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/02/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.49%
Muitas empresas têm adotado alguma iniciativa de gestão da qualidade para melhoria de seu desempenho. Entretanto, muitas dessas iniciativas nem sempre produzem os resultados pretendidos. Dentro desse contexto, a cultura organizacional tem se destacado como uma variável contextual que poderia explicar o sucesso, ou mesmo o fracasso, das iniciativas de gestão da qualidade. Dessa forma, esse estudo investiga a influência da cultura organizacional no uso das técnicas da qualidade e seu impacto no desempenho. Para isso, duas hipóteses foram consideradas 1) a cultura de uma organização influencia o conjunto de técnicas da qualidade que ela adota e, 2) a combinação entre o conjunto de técnicas da qualidade adotada por uma organização e sua cultura organizacional afeta o desempenho. Enquanto a maioria dos estudos anteriores considera a relação entre cultura, gestão da qualidade e desempenho no nível de práticas da qualidade, esse estudo estende essa discussão para o nível das técnicas. A partir de dados obtidos de 250 empresas no Brasil e Dinamarca, utilizou-se da Modelagem de Equações Estruturais para testar as hipóteses formuladas. Quatro grupos de técnicas da qualidade, quatro perfis de cultura organizacional definidos no Competing Values Framework...

Zoneamento e forma urbana: ausências e demandas na regulação do uso e ocupação do solo; Zoning and urban form: absence and demands in the regulation of land use and occupancy.

Silva, Joyce Reis Ferreira da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/04/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.36%
Esta dissertação tem como objetivo refletir sobre o Zoneamento por meio da abordagem dos aspectos morfológicos e tipológicos resultantes de sua utilização como instrumento de planejamento urbano. O zoneamento continua sendo um dos instrumentos mais difundidos e utilizados no tocante ao controle do uso e ocupação do solo entre os municípios brasileiros mesmo diante das inovações pós-Estatuto da Cidade, aprovado em 2001. Sua concepção de regulação da forma urbana, construída por meio de um processo cumulativo por mais de um século, utiliza uma matriz de parâmetros urbanísticos com base em critérios de incomodidade de usos e controle da replicabilidade do solo. A pesquisa contou com a investigação teórica de conceitos ligados à disciplina da morfologia urbana e urbanidade, a partir dos quais foram definidos componentes para seleção e análise de tecidos urbanos existentes, que compuseram o corpus desta dissertação. Tais análises, realizadas com base no universo da amostragem selecionada, composta por alguns municípios paulistas, permitiram apontar as principais limitações do zoneamento no que se refere à qualidade urbanística e urbanidade das cidades, assim como, a ausência quanto às considerações das dimensões das políticas urbanas e de otimização do solo. Pretende-se assim...

On the use of quality tools : a case study

Fernandes, Fábio; Sousa, Sérgio; Lopes, Isabel da Silva
Fonte: Newswood Limited - IAENG Publicador: Newswood Limited - IAENG
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /07/2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.5%
Organizations need to improve their processes to continually achieve customer satisfaction and, to do that in an effective and efficient way, should use quality tools. The main objective of this research project is to improve the level of quality through the use of quality tools in a company in the installation phase. The PDCA cycle is applied as a methodology to trigger the use of quality tools in problems solving. It is also intended to verify the effectiveness of the PDCA cycle as a methodology for quality tools implementation. A case study was performed starting with the diagnosis of the quality management function, identifying the most critical processes. Subsequently, an analysis of the historical data of the company was made to detect problems and prioritize actions. After, the intervention focused on solving a specific process problem following the PDCA cycle and using quality tools in all its steps. The presented methodology can help companies to increase the use of quality tools which, according to recent study, continues to have little use. All tools have proved to be useful and effective. The application of the Taguchi method to determine the optimum combination of factors of a station (together with other improvement actions) caused a 50% decrease of the most critical defective component and an overall reduction of 29% in the level of nonconformities in the preparation section.; This work was financed with FEDER Funds by Programa Operacional Fatores de Competitividade – COMPETE and by National Funds by FCT –Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia...

Transparent Reporting of Data Quality in Distributed Data Networks

Kahn, Michael G.; Brown, Jeffrey S.; Chun, Alein T.; Davidson, Bruce N.; Meeker, Daniella; Ryan, Patrick B.; Schilling, Lisa M.; Weiskopf, Nicole G.; Williams, Andrew E.; Zozus, Meredith Nahm
Fonte: AcademyHealth Publicador: AcademyHealth
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.59%
Introduction: Poor data quality can be a serious threat to the validity and generalizability of clinical research findings. The growing availability of electronic administrative and clinical data is accompanied by a growing concern about the quality of these data for observational research and other analytic purposes. Currently, there are no widely accepted guidelines for reporting quality results that would enable investigators and consumers to independently determine if a data source is fit for use to support analytic inferences and reliable evidence generation. Model and Methods: We developed a conceptual model that captures the flow of data from data originator across successive data stewards and finally to the data consumer. This “data lifecycle” model illustrates how data quality issues can result in data being returned back to previous data custodians. We highlight the potential risks of poor data quality on clinical practice and research results. Because of the need to ensure transparent reporting of a data quality issues, we created a unifying data-quality reporting framework and a complementary set of 20 data-quality reporting recommendations for studies that use observational clinical and administrative data for secondary data analysis. We obtained stakeholder input on the perceived value of each recommendation by soliciting public comments via two face-to-face meetings of informatics and comparative-effectiveness investigators...

Distributed GIS for Monitoring and Modeling Urban Air Quality

Yeang, Chen-Hsiang, 1969-; Ferreira, Joseph Jr; Ismail, Ayman
Fonte: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference in Urban Planning and Urban Management Publicador: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference in Urban Planning and Urban Management
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 439559 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The progress of technology has made the measurement of air quality and the simulation of complex air pollution models both feasible and cost-effective. However, there is a long way to go in terms of facilitating widespread access to the data and models, and linking the monitoring of trace gases with specific urban activities and land use that might be controllable. As part of a NASA-funded project, we are working with scientists and engineers to design and test a distributed GIS infrastructure for studying such "urban respiration" phenomena. Measurements of trace gases within a metropolitan area (from mobile and fixed instruments) are geo-referenced, time-stamped, and stored in a relational database server (Oracle). GIS services (using ArcInfo and ArcView) are connected to the database so that subsets of the trace gas measurements can be extracted and converted on-the-fly into GIS data layers. These subsets (by location, date, and time-of-day) can be displayed and cross-referenced with other layers such as weather conditions, land use and cover, topography, hydrography, demography, and congestion levels of road networks. A web-based interface (using ArcView Internet Map Server) allows research team members at different locations to query...

Tracking Results in Agriculture and Rural Development in Less-Than-Ideal Conditions : A Sourcebook of Indicators for Monitoring and Evaluation

Global Donor Platform for Rural Development; World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Fonte: Global Donor Platform for Rural Development; World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Publicador: Global Donor Platform for Rural Development; World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.39%
The purpose of this sourcebook is to pull together into a single document a collection of common sense tips and recommendations based on actual practices and experience around the world. The sourcebook aims first and foremost to help strengthen Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) capacity at the national and sub-national levels, and to ensure a consistency of approach and methodology so that, at the global level, sufficient reliable and timely information can be accessed from the different countries and used to make cross-country comparisons and to calculate development indicators at the global level. The sourcebook is specifically targeted towards countries where conditions are less-than-ideal, particularly with respect to the availability of relevant information. The sourcebook also shows how a service delivery approach can be used to select indicators which can generate useful, easy-to-measure early outcome measures. It suggests that greater use be made of qualitative indicators, such as access, use and satisfaction. The sourcebook devotes considerable attention to the need for a strong statistical infrastructure and reviews the range of different statistical instruments available.

Changes in quantity and quality of time for children: United States, 1981-1997

Moro-Egido, Ana
Fonte: Universidad de Granada. Departamento de Teor??a e Historia Econ??mica Publicador: Universidad de Granada. Departamento de Teor??a e Historia Econ??mica
Tipo: Relatório
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.4%
This paper tries to analyze changes in the allocation of time decided by mothers and how their characteristics influence that allocation across the period 1981-1997 in the United States. Data reveals that there exists an increase on the quantity and quality of time devoted to children by some types of mothers. Shift-share analysis shows that behind the increase there is a change in maternal behaviour. Then, it seems reasonable to model the decisions of the mothers and try to explain which are the determinants. Estimations suggest that working time is a substitute of quantity, but not quality, of time with children. Being single reduces not only time but also its quality. Mother???s earnings and level of education have changed their influence on time with children across time.

Data Utilization and Evidence-Based Decision Making in the Health Sector : Survey of Three Indian States

Belay, Tekabe; Mbuya, Nkosinathi; Rajan, Vikram
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Health Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.51%
Recently, there has been increased attention to data use in the international public health community. At the global level there have been major investments in data collection for public health programs. However, there is concern that such data are not being used. Data and information lack value unless they are used to inform decisions. Interventions that increase local demand for information and facilitate its use enhance evidence-based decision making. Data use therefore, is critical to improving the effectiveness and sustainability of the health system. Data quality is poor and use of available data is low in India's health sector. The current study focuses on issues of data use. It aims to shed light on how data are used for decision-making at different levels of the health sector in India and to highlight impediments to improved data utilization. This report is organized in five sections. The survey design, instruments and the data collection process will be described in the next section. Findings including measurement of data use...

Geographic Patterns of Land Use and Land Intensity in the Brazilian Amazon

Chomitz, Kenneth M.; Thomas, Timothy S.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.48%
Using census data from the Censo Agropecuario 1995-96, the authors map indicators of current land use, and agricultural productivity across Brazil's Legal Amazon, These data permit geographical resolution about ten times finer than afforded by "municipio" data, used in previous studies. The authors focus on the extent, and productivity of pasture, the dominant land use in Amazonia today. Simple tabulations suggest that most agricultural land in Amazonia yields little private economic value. Nearly ninety percent of agricultural land is either devoted to pasture, or has been out of use for more than four years. About forty percent of the currently used pastureland, has a stocking ratio of less that 0.5 cattle per hectare. Tabulations also show a skewed distribution of land ownership: almost half of Amazonian farmland is located in the one percent of properties that contain more than two thousand hectares. Multivariate analyses relate forest conversion, and pasture productivity to precipitation, soil quality...

Autopercepção em saúde bucal e qualidade de vida em idosos não-institucionalizados; Self-perception of oral health and quality of life in elderly non-institutionalized

Cláudia Elisa de Campos Esmeriz
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/02/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.49%
A apresentação deste trabalho compõe-se de dois estudos. O primeiro realizado com 308 idosos, vinculados a Unidades de Saúde da Família, cujo objetivo principal foi analisar a associação entre domínios de qualidade de vida em saúde e características epidemiológicas e sociodemográficas de idosos não institucionalizados, afim de avaliar a influência ou interferência sobre a qualidade de vida desses idosos. A maioria dos voluntários pertencia à faixa etária entre 60 a 70 anos, com média de idade (desvio-padrão) de 67,5 (2,8), predomínio do gênero feminino (63,3%), casados (62%) e com o ensino fundamental (76,6%). O índice CPO-D foi 28,5 (4,8), assim como a prevalência de uso de próteses odontológicas 80,2%. A variável dependente deste estudo foi o uso de próteses. Realizaram-se avaliações clínicas para índice CPO-D e Uso de prótese, além do uso de instrumento de avaliação subjetiva para Qualidade de Vida em idosos. Os dados foram analisados pelos testes de Qui-Quadrado ou Exato de Fisher, utilizando um índice de confiança de 95% (?=0,05) e Regressão Logística Múltipla. A associação entre uso e necessidade de próteses às características sociodemográficas, apresentou resultado significativo estatisticamente para o gênero feminino...

Autopercepção em saude bucal e qualidade de vida em idosos não-institucionalizados; Self-perception of oral heath and quality of the in non-instituionalized elderly

Claudia Elisa de Campos Esmeriz
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/02/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.51%
O presente trabalho é composto por dois estudos, realizados com uma amostra de 371 idosos vinculados a Unidades de Saúde da Família, tendo como principal objetivo verificar se há associação entre a autopercepção de saúde bucal do idoso e variáveis clínicas, sociodemográficas, domínios de qualidade de vida e epressão geriátrica, e como sua saúde bucal pode interferir em sua autoavaliação e qualidade de vida. Em ambos, a amostra apresentou média (desvio-padrão) de idade de 67,4 anos (2,8), com maioria na faixa etária entre 60 a 70 anos, predomínio do gênero feminino (63,3%), casados (60,5%) e que cursaram o ensino fundamental (75%). Apresentaram alto índice CPO-D em 28,5 (4,8), quando comparado a outras faixas etárias e alta pocentagem de uso de próteses removíveis (parciais ou totais) 80,6%. O primeiro estudo teve como variável dependente a autopercepção de saúde bucal. Foram realizadas avaliações clínicas (OMS 1999) para índice CPO-D, CPI e Uso/Necessidade de prótese, e utilizados três instrumentos de avaliações não clínicas: 1 - Qualidade de Vida (SF-36); 2 - Autopercepção de saúde bucal (Índice GOHAI) e 3 - Escala de Depressão Geriátrica (Yesavage). Os dados foram avaliados pelos testes de Kruskal-Wallis...

The impact of managed care on children's access, satisfaction, use, and quality of care.

Newacheck, P W; Hung, Y Y; Marchi, K S; Hughes, D C; Pitter, C; Stoddard, J J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.51%
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of managed care on children's access, satisfaction, use, and quality of care using nationally representative household survey data. DATA SOURCE: The 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). STUDY DESIGN: Bivariate and multivariate analyses are used to detect independent effects of managed care on access, satisfaction, utilization, and quality of pediatric health services. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Data were obtained from rounds 1, 2, and 3 of the 1996 MEPS. MEPS collects data on health care use, insurance, access, and satisfaction, along with basic demographic and health status information for a representative sample of the U. S. civilian, noninstitutionalized population. Our sample consists of 5,995 children between the ages of 0 and 17. FINDINGS: Among the 18 outcome indicators examined, the bivariate analysis revealed only three statistically significant differences between children enrolled in managed care and children in traditional health plans: children enrolled in managed care were more likely to receive physician services, more likely to have access to office-based care during evening or weekend hours, and less likely to report being very satisfied with overall quality of care. However...

IMPACTOS DA CONVERSÃO DE USO E MANEJO DO SOLO DO CERRADO UTILIZANDO DADOS DE CARBONO TOTAL E ISOTÓPICO; IMPACTS OF CONVERSION OF USE AND SOIL MANAGEMENT FROM CERRADO, USING TOTAL CARBON AND ISOTOPIC DATA

Resende, Thalita Mendes; Rosolen, Vania
Fonte: Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia Humana. Universidade de São Paulo. Publicador: Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia Humana. Universidade de São Paulo.
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/04/2013 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.35%
A mesorregião do Triângulo Mineiro/Alto Paranaíba recoberta originalmente pela vegetação de Cerrado vem sendo fortemente desmatada por ser uma área pioneira de expansão do agronegócio. Dentre as várias modificações ambientais relacionadas ao desmatamento destacam-se a erosão e os desequilíbrios nos estoques e na natureza das fontes de carbono. Resultados das análises de carbono total (Ctotal) e carbono isotópico de quatro categorias de uso – remanescente de cerrado arbóreo, rotação de soja e milho em sistema de plantio direto, pastagem manejada e pastagem degradada – revelaram que a conversão de uso e manejo provocaram mudanças importantes na natureza e no teordo carbono do solo. Os resultados apresentados podem podem servir como importantes indicadores de impactos ambientais quando ecossistemas naturais são convertidos em sistemas agropecuários sem adoção de manejo adequado.; The middle region of Minas Gerais / High Paranaíba originally covered by Cerrado vegetation has been heavily deforested area for being a pioneer expansion of agribusiness. Among the various environmental changes related to deforestation include soil erosion and imbalances in stocks and the nature of carbon sources. Results of analysis of total carbon (Ctotal) and carbon isotope (δ 13C) of four categories of use - remnant of cerrado tree...

Automatic image event segmentation and quality screening for albuming applications

Loui, Alexander; Savakis, Andreas
Fonte: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Publicador: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.42%
In this paper, a system for automatic albuming of consumer photographs is described and its specific core components of event segmentation and screening of low quality images are discussed. A novel event segmentation algorithm was created to automatically cluster pictures into events and sub-events for albuming, based on date/time meta data information as well as color content of the pictures. A new quality-screening is developed based on object quality to detect problematic images due to underexposure, low contrast, and camera defocus or movement. Performance testing of these algorithms was conducted using a database of real consumer photos and showed that these functions provide a useful first-cut album layout for typical rolls of consumer pictures. A first version of the automatic albuming application software was tested through a consumer trial in the United States from August to December 1999.; "Automatic image event segmentation and quality screening for albuming applications," 2000 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, 2000 (ICME 2000). The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Held in New York, New York: 30 July - 2 August 2000. ©2000 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Personal use of this material is permitted. However...

Data quality knowledge management: A Tool for the collection and organization of metadata in a data warehouse

Neely, M. Pamela
Fonte: Eighth Americas Conference on Information Systems Publicador: Eighth Americas Conference on Information Systems
Tipo: Proceedings
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.53%
This paper describes a relational database tool, the Data Quality Knowledge Management (DQKM), which captures and organizes the metadata associated with a data warehouse project. It builds on the concept of fitness for use by describing a measurement technique for subjectively assigning a measure to a data field based on the use and quality dimension of the dat within the data warehouse. This measurement can then be compared to some minimum criteria, below which it is not cost effective to enhance the quality of the data. This tool can be use to make resource allocation decisions and get the greatest benefit for the cost in utilizing the scarce resources available to enhance source data for a data warehouse.

Data quality and the data warehouse: A Decision support system for allocation of scarce resources

Neely, M. Pamela
Fonte: Proceedings of the Eleventh Americas Conference on Information Systems Publicador: Proceedings of the Eleventh Americas Conference on Information Systems
Tipo: Proceedings
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.52%
This paper describes a decision support system (DSS) for use in allocating scarce resources associated with data quality efforts in the construction of a data warehouse. The DSS is populated with metadata from a data warehouse project, including tags that identify the quality at intersections of data field, data use, and data dimensions. The resulting DSS can then experiment using business students are then presented. It can be shown that, given the proper set of skills, business students, as proxies for novices on a data warehouse development team, can effectively use the tool to analyze and prioritize hundreds of potential fields in a data warehouse project.

The Product approach to data quality and fitness for use: A Framework for analysis

Neely, M. Pamela
Fonte: Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Information Quality (ICIQ-05) Publicador: Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Information Quality (ICIQ-05)
Tipo: Proceedings
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.53%
The value of management decisions, the security of our nation, and the very foundations of our business integrity are all dependent on the quality of data and information. However, the quality of the data and information is dependent on how that data or information will be used. This paper proposes a theory of data quality based on the five principles defined by J. M. Juran for product and service quality and extends Wang et al's 1995 framework for data quality research. It then examines the data and information quality literature from journals within the context of this framework.

The influence of land use on water quality and diatom community structures in urban and agriculturally stressed rivers

Walsh,G; Wepener,V
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.57%
Epilithic diatom communities offer a holistic and integrated approach for assessing water quality as they remain in one place for a number of months and reflect an ecological memory of water quality over a period of time. The objective of this study is to use diatom assemblages to distinguish between particular land types and associated water quality impacts that are linked to these land-use patterns. Water quality and diatom community data were collected from sites in the Crocodile and Magalies Rivers (Gauteng and North West Province, South Africa) associated with agricultural, urban and natural (reference) adjacent land use respectively. The data collected were subjected to multivariate statistical techniques to analyse spatial and temporal patterns in water quality (principal component analysis) and diatom community structures (non-metric multidimensional scaling) to elucidate hypothesised differences in community structure per land-use type. Five diatom response indices (Generic Diatom Index, Specific Pollution Sensitivity Index, Biological Diatom Index, Eutrophication/Pollution Index and Percentage Pollution Tolerant Valves) incorporated in the OMNIDIA software were implemented to assess the integrity of diatom communities per land-use type. Principle component ordination of water quality describes 56.6% of the variation in data observed...

The immunization data quality audit: verifying the quality and consistency of immunization monitoring systems

Ronveaux,O.; Rickert,D.; Hadler,S.; Groom,H.; Lloyd,J.; Bchir,A.; Birmingham,M.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.51%
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the consistency and quality of immunization monitoring systems in 27 countries during 2002-03 using standardized data quality audits (DQAs) that had been launched within the framework of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization. METHODS: The consistency of reporting systems was estimated by determining the proportion of third doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP-3) vaccine reported as being administered that could be verified by written documentation at health facilities and districts. The quality of monitoring systems was measured using quality indices for different components of the monitoring systems. These indices were applied to each level of the health service (health unit, district and national). FINDINGS: The proportion of verified DTP-3 doses was lower than 85% in 16 countries. Difficulties in verifying the doses administered often arose at the peripheral level of the health service, usually as the result of discrepancies in information between health units and their corresponding districts or because completed recording forms were not available from health units. All countries had weaknesses in their monitoring systems; these included the inconsistent use of monitoring charts; inadequate monitoring of vaccine stocks...