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Geographic Distribution and Inheritance of Three Cytoplasmic Incompatibility Types in Drosophila Simulans

Montchamp-Moreau, C.; Ferveur, J. F.; Jacques, M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1991 EN
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46.62%
Wolbachia-like microorganisms have been implicated in unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility between strains of Drosophila simulans. Reduced egg eclosion occurs when females from uninfected strains (type W) are crossed with males from infected strains (type R). Here we characterize a third incompatibility type (type S) which is also correlated with the presence of Wolbachia-like microorganisms. Despite the fact that the symbionts cannot be morphologically distinguished, we observed complete bidirectional incompatibility between R and S strains. This indicates that the determinants of incompatibility are different in the two infected types. S/W incompatibility is unidirectional and similar to R/W incompatibility. A worldwide survey of D. simulans strains showed that type S incompatibility was found only in insular populations which harbor the mitochondrial type SiI. Both W and R types were found among mainland and island populations harboring the worldwide mitochondrial type SiII. Type S incompatibility could be involved in the reinforcement of the geographical isolation of SiI populations.

Variability within the Seychelles Cytoplasmic Incompatibility System in Drosophila Simulans

Mercot, H.; Llorente, B.; Jacques, M.; Atlan, A.; Montchamp-Moreau, C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1995 EN
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46.49%
In Drosophila simulans, we described a cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) system (Seychelles) restricted to insular populations that harbor the mitochondrial type SiI. Since then, these populations have been shown to be heterogeneous, some being infected by one Wolbachia genetic variant only (wHa), while others are infected simultaneously by wHa and by another variant (wNo) always found in association with wHa. We have experimentally obtained two D. simulans strains only infected by the wNo variant. This variant determines its own cytoplasmic incompatibility type. In particular, the cross between wNo-bearing flies and wHa-bearing ones is bidirectionally incompatible. The Seychelles CI type, stricto sensu, is distinguished by being determined by the simultaneous presence of two Wolbachia variants that we found to be mutually incompatible. In addition, we observed incomplete maternal transmission of the Wolbachia.

Wolbachia Infection and Cytoplasmic Incompatibility in Drosophila Species

Bourtzis, K.; Nirgianaki, A.; Markakis, G.; Savakis, C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1996 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.82%
Forty-one stocks from 30 Drosophila species were surveyed for Wolbachia infection using PCR technology. D. sechellia and two strains of D. auraria were found to be infected and were tested for the expression of cytoplasmic incompatibility, along with D. ananassae and D. melanogaster strains, which are already known to be infected. D. ananassae and D. melanogaster show levels of incompatibility up to 25%, while D. auraria and D. sechellia exhibit levels of egg mortality ~60%. A dot-blot assay using the dnaA sequence as probe was developed to assess the infection levels in individual males that were used in incompatibility crosses. A positive correlation between bacterial density and cytoplasmic incompatibility was observed. The stocks examined can be clustered into at least two groups, depending on the levels of infection relative to the degree of cytoplasmic incompatibility exhibited. One group, containing D. simulans Hawaii, D. sechellia, and D. auraria, exhibits high levels of cytoplasmic incompatibility relative to levels of infection; all the other species and D. simulans Riverside exhibit significantly lower levels of cytoplasmic incompatibility relative to levels of infection. These data show that, in addition to bacterial density...

Segregation of Cytoplasmic Incompatibility Properties in CULEX PIPIENS FATIGANS

Subbarao, Sarala K.; Krishnamurthy, B. S.; Curtis, C. F.; Adak, T.; Chandrahas, R. K.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1977 EN
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46.61%
Maternally inherited variants, which arose within a laboratory colony of Culex pipiens fatigans, have been studied by rearing cultures from single egg rafts. Segregation, i.e., variation of cytoplasmic incompatibility properties between the male progeny of individual females, was demonstrated. Also, from the daughters of individual females, sub-lines were derived within which all the males showed the same incompatibility or compatibility properties. Among the descendants of tetracycline-treated individuals were lines which superficially simulated these phenomena, but these lines ultimately reverted to the cytoplasmic compatibility type of the strain which was submitted to the treatment. The types of variations in cytoplasmic incompatibility properties that have been studied are discussed.

Effects of A and B Wolbachia and host genotype on interspecies cytoplasmic incompatibility in Nasonia.

Bordenstein, S R; Werren, J H
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1998 EN
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46.53%
Wolbachia endosymbionts cause postmating reproductive isolation between the sibling species Nasonia vitripennis and N. giraulti. Most Nasonia are doubly infected with a representative from each of the two major Wolbachia groups (A and B). This study investigates the role of single (A or B) and double (A and B) Wolbachia infections in interspecies cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) and host genomic influences on the incompatibility phenotype. Results show that the single A Wolbachia harbored in N. vitripennis (wAv) is bidirectionally incompatible with the single A Wolbachia harbored in N. giraulti (wAg). Results also indirectly show that the N. vitripennis wBv is bidirectionally incompatible with the N. giraulti wBg. The findings support current phylogenetic evidence that suggests these single infections have independent origins and were acquired via horizontal transfer. The wAv Wolbachia expresses partial CI in the N. vitripennis nuclear background. However, following genomic replacement by introgression, wAv expresses complete CI in the N. giraulti background and remains bidirectionally incompatible with wAg. Results show that double infections can reinforce interspecies reproductive isolation through the addition of incompatibility types and indicate that the host genome can influence incompatibility levels. This study has implications for host-symbiont coevolution and the role of Wolbachia in speciation.

Natural Wolbachia infections in the Drosophila yakuba species complex do not induce cytoplasmic incompatibility but fully rescue the wRi modification.

Zabalou, Sofia; Charlat, Sylvain; Nirgianaki, Androniki; Lachaise, Daniel; Merçot, Hervé; Bourtzis, Kostas
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2004 EN
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In this study, we report data about the presence of Wolbachia in Drosophila yakuba, D. teissieri, and D. santomea. Wolbachia strains were characterized using their wsp gene sequence and cytoplasmic incompatibility assays. All three species were found infected with Wolbachia bacteria closely related to the wAu strain, found so far in D. simulans natural populations, and were unable to induce cytoplasmic incompatibility. We injected wRi, a CI-inducing strain naturally infecting D. simulans, into the three species and the established transinfected lines exhibited high levels of CI, suggesting that absence of CI expression is a property of the Wolbachia strain naturally present or that CI is specifically repressed by the host. We also tested the relationship between the natural infection and wRi and found that it fully rescues the wRi modification. This result was unexpected, considering the significant evolutionary divergence between the two Wolbachia strains.

The effect of Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility on host population size in natural and manipulated systems.

Dobson, Stephen L; Fox, Charles W; Jiggins, Francis M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/03/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.49%
Obligate, intracellular bacteria of the genus Wolbachia often behave as reproductive parasites by manipulating host reproduction to enhance their vertical transmission. One of these reproductive manipulations, cytoplasmic incompatibility, causes a reduction in egg-hatch rate in crosses between individuals with differing infections. Applied strategies based upon cytoplasmic incompatibility have been proposed for both the suppression and replacement of host populations. As Wolbachia infections occur within a broad range of invertebrates, these strategies are potentially applicable to a variety of medically and economically important insects. Here, we examine the interaction between Wolbachia infection frequency and host population size. We use a model to describe natural invasions of Wolbachia infections, artificial releases of infected hosts and releases of sterile males, as part of a traditional sterile insect technique programme. Model simulations demonstrate the importance of understanding the reproductive rate and intraspecific competition type of the targeted population, showing that releases of sterile or incompatible individuals may cause an undesired increase in the adult number. In addition, the model suggests a novel applied strategy that employs Wolbachia infections to suppress host populations. Releases of Wolbachia-infected hosts can be used to sustain artificially an unstable coexistence of multiple incompatible infections within a host population...

Wolbachia-Induced Unidirectional Cytoplasmic Incompatibility and Speciation: Mainland-Island Model

Telschow, Arndt; Flor, Matthias; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Hammerstein, Peter; Werren, John H.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/08/2007 EN
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46.48%
Bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are among the most common endosymbionts in the world. In many insect species these bacteria induce a sperm-egg incompatibility between the gametes of infected males and uninfected females, commonly called unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). It is generally believed that unidirectional CI cannot promote speciation in hosts because infection differences between populations will be unstable and subsequent gene flow will eliminate genetic differences between diverging populations. In the present study we investigate this question theoretically in a mainland-island model with migration from mainland to island. Our analysis shows that (a) the infection polymorphism is stable below a critical migration rate, (b) an (initially) uninfected “island” can better maintain divergence at a selected locus (e.g. can adapt locally) in the presence of CI, and (c) unidirectional CI selects for premating isolation in (initially) uninfected island populations if they receive migration from a Wolbachia-infected mainland. Interestingly, premating isolation is most likely to evolve if levels of incompatibility are intermediate and if either the infection causes fecundity reductions or Wolbachia transmission is incomplete. This is because under these circumstances an infection pattern with an infected mainland and a mostly uninfected island can persist in the face of comparably high migration. We present analytical results for all three findings: (a) a lower estimation of the critical migration rate in the presence of local adaptation...

Artificial Triple Wolbachia Infection in Aedes albopictus Yields a New Pattern of Unidirectional Cytoplasmic Incompatibility ▿ §

Fu, Yuqing; Gavotte, Laurent; Mercer, David R.; Dobson, Stephen L.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Obligately intracellular Wolbachia bacteria infect numerous invertebrates and often manipulate host reproduction to facilitate the spread of infection. An example of reproductive manipulation is Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), which occurs commonly in insects. This CI has been the focus both of basic scientific studies of naturally occurring invasion events and of applied investigations on the use of Wolbachia as a vehicle to drive desired genotypes into insect populations (“gene drive” or “population replacement” strategies). The latter application requires an ability to generate artificial infections that cause a pattern of unidirectional incompatibility with the targeted host population. A suggested target of population replacement strategies is the mosquito Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito), an important invasive pest and disease vector. Aedes albopictus individuals are naturally “superinfected” with two Wolbachia types: wAlbA and wAlbB. Thus, generating a strain that is unidirectionally incompatible with field populations requires the introduction of an additional infection into the preexisting superinfection. Although prior reports demonstrate an ability to transfer Wolbachia infections to A. albopictus artificially...

Wolbachia Symbiont Infections Induce Strong Cytoplasmic Incompatibility in the Tsetse Fly Glossina morsitans

Alam, Uzma; Medlock, Jan; Brelsfoard, Corey; Pais, Roshan; Lohs, Claudia; Balmand, Séverine; Carnogursky, Jozef; Heddi, Abdelaziz; Takac, Peter; Galvani, Alison; Aksoy, Serap
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.48%
Tsetse flies are vectors of the protozoan parasite African trypanosomes, which cause sleeping sickness disease in humans and nagana in livestock. Although there are no effective vaccines and efficacious drugs against this parasite, vector reduction methods have been successful in curbing the disease, especially for nagana. Potential vector control methods that do not involve use of chemicals is a genetic modification approach where flies engineered to be parasite resistant are allowed to replace their susceptible natural counterparts, and Sterile Insect technique (SIT) where males sterilized by chemical means are released to suppress female fecundity. The success of genetic modification approaches requires identification of strong drive systems to spread the desirable traits and the efficacy of SIT can be enhanced by identification of natural mating incompatibility. One such drive mechanism results from the cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) phenomenon induced by the symbiont Wolbachia. CI can also be used to induce natural mating incompatibility between release males and natural populations. Although Wolbachia infections have been reported in tsetse, it has been a challenge to understand their functional biology as attempts to cure tsetse of Wolbachia infections by antibiotic treatment damages the obligate mutualistic symbiont (Wigglesworthia)...

Wolbachia strain wMel induces cytoplasmic incompatibility and blocks dengue transmission in Aedes albopictus

Blagrove, Marcus S. C.; Arias-Goeta, Camilo; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Sinkins, Steven P.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.49%
Wolbachia inherited bacteria are able to invade insect populations using cytoplasmic incompatibility and provide new strategies for controlling mosquito-borne tropical diseases, such as dengue. The overreplicating wMelPop strain was recently shown to strongly inhibit the replication of dengue virus when introduced into Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, as well as to stimulate chronic immune up-regulation. Here we show that stable introduction of the wMel strain of Drosophila melanogaster into Aedes albopictus, a vector of dengue and other arboviruses, abolished the transmission capacity of dengue virus-challenged mosquitoes. Immune up-regulation was observed in the transinfected line, but at a much lower level than that previously found for transinfected Ae. aegypti. Transient infection experiments suggest that this difference is related to Ae. albopictus immunotolerance of Wolbachia, rather than to the Wolbachia strain used. This study provides an example of strong pathogen inhibition in a naturally Wolbachia-infected mosquito species, demonstrating that this inhibition is not limited to naturally naïve species, and suggests that the Wolbachia strain is more important than host background for viral inhibition. Complete bidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility was observed with WT strains infected with the naturally occurring Ae. albopictus Wolbachia...

Reduced Expression of BjRCE1 Gene Modulated by Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Incompatibility Alters Auxin Response in Cytoplasmic Male-Sterile Brassica juncea

Yang, Xiaodong; Liu, Xunyan; Lv, Wenhui; Li, Lu; Shi, Qianqian; Yang, Jinghua; Zhang, Mingfang
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/06/2012 EN
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46.66%
The signal from organelle to nucleus, namely retrograde regulation of nuclear gene expression, was largely unknown. Due to the nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility in cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) plants, we employed CMS Brassica juncea to investigate the retrograde regulation of nuclear gene expression in this study. We studied how reduced BjRCE1 gene expression caused by the nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility altered the auxin response in CMS of B. juncea. We isolated the BjRCE1 gene that was located in the nucleus from B. juncea. Over-expression of BjRCE1 enhanced auxin response in transgenic Arabidopsis. The expression of BjRCE1 was significantly reduced in CMS compared with its maintainer fertile (MF) line of B. juncea. There were fewer lateral roots in CMS than MF under normal and treatment of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) conditions. Expression patterns of several auxin-related genes together with their phenotypes indicated a reduced auxin response in CMS compared to MF. The phenotypes of auxin response and auxin-related gene expression pattern could be mimicked by inhibiting mitochondrial function in MF. Taken together, we proposed reduced expression of BjRCE1 gene modulated by nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility alters auxin response in CMS B. juncea. This may be an important mechanism of retrograde regulation of nuclear gene expression in plants.

Transcriptional Regulation of Culex pipiens Mosquitoes by Wolbachia Influences Cytoplasmic Incompatibility

Pinto, Sofia B.; Stainton, Kirsty; Harris, Simon; Kambris, Zakaria; Sutton, Elizabeth R.; Bonsall, Michael B.; Parkhill, Julian; Sinkins, Steven P.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.49%
Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) induced by the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis causes complex patterns of crossing sterility between populations of the Culex pipiens group of mosquitoes. The molecular basis of the phenotype is yet to be defined. In order to investigate what host changes may underlie CI at the molecular level, we examined the transcription of a homolog of the Drosophila melanogaster gene grauzone that encodes a zinc finger protein and acts as a regulator of female meiosis, in which mutations can cause sterility. Upregulation was observed in Wolbachia-infected C. pipiens group individuals relative to Wolbachia-cured lines and the level of upregulation differed between lines that were reproductively incompatible. Knockdown analysis of this gene using RNAi showed an effect on hatch rates in a Wolbachia infected Culex molestus line. Furthermore, in later stages of development an effect on developmental progression in CI embryos occurs in bidirectionally incompatible crosses. The genome of a wPip Wolbachia strain variant from Culex molestus was sequenced and compared with the genome of a wPip variant with which it was incompatible. Three genes in inserted or deleted regions were newly identified in the C. molestus wPip genome...

The relative importance of DNA methylation and Dnmt2-mediated epigenetic regulation on Wolbachia densities and cytoplasmic incompatibility

LePage, Daniel P.; Jernigan, Kristin K.; Bordenstein, Seth R.
Fonte: PeerJ Inc. Publicador: PeerJ Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.49%
Wolbachia pipientis is a worldwide bacterial parasite of arthropods that infects germline cells and manipulates host reproduction to increase the ratio of infected females, the transmitting sex of the bacteria. The most common reproductive manipulation, cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), is expressed as embryonic death in crosses between infected males and uninfected females. Specifically, Wolbachia modify developing sperm in the testes by unknown means to cause a post-fertilization disruption of the sperm chromatin that incapacitates the first mitosis of the embryo. As these Wolbachia-induced changes are stable, reversible, and affect the host cell cycle machinery including DNA replication and chromosome segregation, we hypothesized that the host methylation pathway is targeted for modulation during cytoplasmic incompatibility because it accounts for all of these traits. Here we show that infection of the testes is associated with a 55% increase of host DNA methylation in Drosophila melanogaster, but methylation of the paternal genome does not correlate with penetrance of CI. Overexpression and knock out of the Drosophila DNA methyltransferase Dnmt2 neither induces nor increases CI. Instead, overexpression decreases Wolbachia titers in host testes by approximately 17%...

Wolbachia Density and Cytoplasmic Incompatibility in Aedes albopictus: Concerns with Using Artificial Wolbachia Infection as a Vector Suppression Tool

Calvitti, Maurizio; Marini, Francesca; Desiderio, Angiola; Puggioli, Arianna; Moretti, Riccardo
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/03/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.48%
The mosquito Aedes albopictusi is a competent vector of harmful human pathogens, including viruses causing dengue and chikungunya. Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) induced by endosymbiotic Wolbachia can be used to produce functionally sterile males that can be released in the field as a suppression tool against this mosquito. Because the available sexing methods are not efficient enough to avoid unintentional release of a few transinfected females, we assessed the CI pattern in crosses between wPip Wolbachia-transinfected (ARwP) females and wild-type males of Ae. albopictus in this study. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to monitor the titer of the Wolbachia strains that naturally infect Ae. albopictus, that is, wAlbA and wAlbB, in age-controlled males and females. Data were coupled with incompatibility level detected when the above-mentioned males were crossed with ARwP females. Wolbachia infection titer was also monitored in samples of wild caught males. Incompatibility level was positively correlated only with wAlbA density. Crosses between wild-type males having very low wAlbA density (<0.001 wAlbA/actin copy numbers) and ARwP females were partially fertile (CIcorr = 68.06 ± 6.20). Individuals with low wAlbA titer were frequently found among sampled wild males (30%–50% depending on the site and period). ARwP males can be as considered as a very promising tool for suppressing Ae. albopictus. However...

16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis of the bacterial endosymbionts associated with cytoplasmic incompatibility in insects.

O'Neill, S L; Giordano, R; Colbert, A M; Karr, T L; Robertson, H M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/04/1992 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.49%
Bacterial endosymbionts of insects have long been implicated in the phenomenon of cytoplasmic incompatibility, in which certain crosses between symbiont-infected individuals lead to embryonic death or sex ratio distortion. The taxonomic position of these bacteria has, however, not been known with any certainty. Similarly, the relatedness of the bacteria infecting various insect hosts has been unclear. The inability to grow these bacteria on defined cell-free medium has been the major factor underlying these uncertainties. We circumvented this problem by selective PCR amplification and subsequent sequencing of the symbiont 16S rRNA genes directly from infected insect tissue. Maximum parsimony analysis of these sequences indicates that the symbionts belong in the alpha-subdivision of the Proteobacteria, where they are most closely related to the Rickettsia and their relatives. They are all closely related to each other and are assigned to the type species Wolbachia pipientis. Lack of congruence between the phylogeny of the symbionts and their insect hosts suggest that horizontal transfer of symbionts between insect species may occur. Comparison of the sequences for W. pipientis and for Wolbachia persica, an endosymbiont of ticks, shows that the genus Wolbachia is polyphyletic. A PCR assay based on 16S primers was designed for the detection of W. pipientis in insect tissue...

A New Model and Method for Understanding Wolbachia-Induced Cytoplasmic Incompatibility

Bossan, Benjamin; Koehncke, Arnulf; Hammerstein, Peter
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/05/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
Wolbachia are intracellular bacteria transmitted almost exclusively vertically through eggs. In response to this mode of transmission, Wolbachia strategically manipulate their insect hosts' reproduction. In the most common manipulation type, cytoplasmic incompatibility, infected males can only mate with infected females, but infected females can mate with all males. The mechanism of cytoplasmic incompatibility is unknown; theoretical and empirical findings need to converge to broaden our understanding of this phenomenon. For this purpose, two prominent models have been proposed: the mistiming-model and the lock-key-model. The former states that Wolbachia manipulate sperm of infected males to induce a fatal delay of the male pronucleus during the first embryonic division, but that the bacteria can compensate the delay by slowing down mitosis in fertilized eggs. The latter states that Wolbachia deposit damaging “locks” on sperm DNA of infected males, but can also provide matching “keys” in infected eggs to undo the damage. The lock-key-model, however, needs to assume a large number of locks and keys to explain all existing incompatibility patterns. The mistiming-model requires fewer assumptions but has been contradicted by empirical results. We therefore expand the mistiming-model by one quantitative dimension to create the new...

Wolbachia Infections and the Expression of Cytoplasmic Incompatibility in Drosophila Sechellia and D. Mauritiana

Giordano, R.; O'Neill, S. L.; Robertson, H. M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1995 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.78%
Various stocks of Drosophila mauritiana and D. sechellia were found to be infected with Wolbachia, a Rickettsia-like bacterium that is known to cause cytoplasmic incompatibility and other reproductive abnormalities in arthropods. Testing for the expression of cytoplasmic incompatibility in these two species showed partial incompatibility in D. sechellia but no expression of incompatibility in D. mauritiana. To determine whether absence of cytoplasmic incompatibility in D. mauritiana was due to either the bacterial or host genome, we transferred bacteria from D. mauritiana into an uninfected strain of D. simulans, a host species known to express high levels of incompatibility with endogenous Wolbachia. We also performed the reciprocal transfer of the natural D. simulans Riverside infection into a tetracycline-treated stock of D. mauritiana. In each case, the ability to express incompatibility was unaltered by the different host genetic background. These experiments indicate that in D. simulans and D. mauritiana expression of the cytoplasmic incompatibility phenotype is determined by the bacterial strain and that D. mauritiana harbors a neutral strain of Wolbachia.

Temperature Affects the Tripartite Interactions between Bacteriophage WO, Wolbachia, and Cytoplasmic Incompatibility

Bordenstein, Sarah R.; Bordenstein, Seth R.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/12/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.61%
Wolbachia infections are a model for understanding intracellular, bacterial symbioses. While the symbiosis is often studied from a binary perspective of host and bacteria, it is increasingly apparent that additional trophic levels can influence the symbiosis. For example, Wolbachia in arthropods harbor a widespread temperate bacteriophage, termed WO, that forms virions and rampantly transfers between coinfections. Here we test the hypothesis that temperatures at the extreme edges of an insect's habitable range alter bacteriophage WO inducibility and in turn, Wolbachia densities and the penetrance of cytoplasmic incompatibility. We report four key findings using the model wasp, Nasonia vitripennis: First, both cold treatment at 18 C and heat treatment at 30 C reduce Wolbachia densities by as much as 74% relative to wasps reared at 25 C. Second, in all cases where Wolbachia densities decline due to temperature changes, phage WO densities increase and inversely associate with Wolbachia densities. Heat has a marked effect on phage WO, yielding phage densities that are 552% higher than the room temperature control. Third, there is a significant affect of insect family on phage WO and endoysmbiont densities. Fourth, at extreme temperatures...

Genetic diversity of Costa Rican populations of the rice planthopper Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae)

Hernández,Myriam; Quesada,Tania; Muñoz,Claudia; Espinoza,Ana M
Fonte: Revista de Biología Tropical Publicador: Revista de Biología Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae) is one of the main constraints of the rice production in the Neotropics. This planthopper produces severe damages as a phloem feeder, causes mechanical injury during oviposition and vectors the rice hoja blanca virus (RHBV). The main objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of T. orizicolus populations from three rice growing regions of Costa Rica, using RAPDs. Individuals from Guanacaste, Parrita, San Carlos and Cali-Colombia, as outgroup, were analyzed using the random primers. Phenetic relationships revealed that the Costa Rican populations were clearly separated from Cali-Colombia, sharing less than 25% similarity. Costa Rican populations were divided into two main branches separated at 30% similarity. The first branch included Guanacaste and San Carlos and the second displayed Parrita. In relation to similarity indexes within groups, the Guanacaste cluster showed the highest (over 50%) and Cali-Colombia was the most diverse (28%). The correspondence analysis confirmed the clusters of the phenogram and showed close interactions between the Parrita and San Carlos populations. The genetic separation observed could be the result of the geographic isolation among populations...