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On Vastness and Variability: Cultural Transmission, Historicity, and the Paleoindian Record in Eastern South America

ARAUJO,ASTOLFO G.M.
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Ciências Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.08%
Eastern South America, or what is today Brazilian territory, poses interesting questions about the early human occupation of the Americas. Three totally distinct and contemporaneous lithic technologies, dated between 11,000 and 10,000 14C BP, are present in different portions of the country: the Umbu tradition in the south, with its formal bifacial industry, with well-retouched scrapers and bifacial points; the Itaparica tradition in the central-west / northwest, totally unifacial, whose only formal artifacts are limaces; and the "Lagoa Santa" industry, completely lacking any formal artifacts, composed mainly of small quartz flakes. Our data suggests that these differences are not related to subsistence or raw-material constraints, but rather to different cultural norms and transmission of strongly divergent chaînes opératoires. Such diversity in material culture, when viewed from a cultural transmission (CT) theory standpoint, seems at odds with a simple Clovis model as the origin of these three cultural traditions given the time elapsed since the first Clovis ages and the expected population structure of the early South American settlers.

Cultural Norms Shaping Research Group Interviews with Chinese American Immigrants

Kwan, Christine M. L.; Chun, Kevin M.; Chesla, Catherine A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
Practical knowledge on how to tailor research methods for Asian Americans is relatively scarce despite the rapid population growth of this ethnic group and the ongoing calls for greater cultural competence among researchers. Based on a 4-year qualitative study of family and cultural issues in diabetes management among Chinese American immigrants, this article presents data-based analyses of culturally nuanced group interview processes, and recommendations for conducting culturally appropriate group interviews. Group interview processes were prominently shaped by 4 cultural norms: sensitivity to social hierarchy, monitoring public display of strong emotions, face concerns, and emphasis on group harmony. Strategies for facilitating open and dynamic group interviews in the presence of these norms were identified. Skillful facilitation of group processes, either by accommodating or diffusing norms, was required to promote participant rapport and encourage disclosure of everyday experience.

THE CYCLE OF VIOLENCE IN CONTEXT: EXPLORING THE MODERATING ROLES OF NEIGHBORHOOD DISADVANTAGE AND CULTURAL NORMS*

WRIGHT, EMILY M.; FAGAN, ABIGAIL A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
Although the cycle of violence theory has received empirical support (Widom, 1989a, 1989b), in reality, not all victims of child physical abuse become involved in violence. Therefore, little is known regarding factors that may moderate the relationship between abuse and subsequent violence, particularly contextual circumstances. The current investigation used longitudinal data from 1,372 youth living in 79 neighborhoods who participated in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), and it employed a multivariate, multilevel Rasch model to explore the degree to which neighborhood disadvantage and cultural norms attenuate or strengthen the abuse–violence relationship. The results indicate that the effect of child physical abuse on violence was weaker in more disadvantaged communities. Neighborhood cultural norms regarding tolerance for youth delinquency and fighting among family and friends did not moderate the child abuse–violence relationship, but each had a direct effect on violence, such that residence in neighborhoods more tolerant of delinquency and fighting increased the propensity for violence. These results suggest that the cycle of violence may be contextualized by neighborhood structural and cultural conditions.

Alchemists’ Visions: Cultural Norms in Eliciting and Analyzing Life History Narratives

LUBORSKY, MARK R.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1990 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
Comparative study within a group of systematically elicited life narratives revealed key variations in narrative sequencing and conceptual templates. These dimensions are associated with significant differences in subjective meaning, frames for interpreting experience, and personal adjustment. This paper describes the study methods and results, and proposes that life histories be studied in the context of other similarly collected narratives, instead of one at a time. It outlines limitations of current methods of eliciting, analyzing, and writing up texts which may systematically obscure important dimensions of subjectivity and of cultural norms.

Interest in Healthy Living Outweighs Presumed Cultural Norms for Obesity for Ghanaian Women

Jumah, Naana Afua; Seffah, Joseph; Biritwum, Richard; Duda, Rosemary B.; Hill, Allan G.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
Background: Cultural norms indicate that obesity reflects increased wealth and prosperity. Yet obesity is linked to serious medical illnesses. The purpose of this study was to determine if Ghanaian women would change their body image if it meant a healthier life. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 305 Ghanaian women waiting for clinic appointments at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra Ghana. This survey included questions on current health, selection of figural stimuli, decision making on health and social determinants and 5 questions on self-perception of health from SF-36. Anthropometric measures were taken and body mass index calculated. Women were also provided with health related information at the conclusion of the interview. Results: The majority of all women surveyed would reduce their current body image if it meant that they would have an overall healthier life and reduce the risks of obesity-linked illnesses and complications. Currently obese women were significantly more likely than non-obese women to reduce their body image to reduce the risk of hypertension (OR 2.03 [1.64 – 2.51], <0.001); cardiovascular accident (OR 1.96 [1.61 – 2.38], <0.001); diabetes (OR 2.00 [1.63 – 2.44], <0.001); myocardial infarction (OR 2.27 [1.80 – 2.86]...

24.03 Relativism, Reason, & Reality, Fall 2002; Relativism, Reason, & Reality

Yablo, Stephen
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
EN-US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
An examination of philosophical issues on the theme of relativism. Are moral standards relative to cultures and/or moral frameworks? Are there incompatible or non-comparable ways of thinking about the world that are somehow equally good? Is science getting closer to the truth? Is rationality -- the notion of a good reason to believe something -- relative to cultural norms? What are selves? Is there a coherent form of relativism about the self? Discussion of these questions through the writings of contemporary philosophers such as Thomas Kuhn, Karl Popper, Gilbert Harman, Judith Thomson, and Derek Parfit. Emphasis on ways of making these vague questions precise, and critical evaluation of philosophical arguments.

21F.019 / 21F.021 Communicating Across Cultures, Spring 2003; Communicating Across Cultures

Widdig, Bernd; Breslow, Lori
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
EN-US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
In an increasingly interconnected world, communicating across cultures is a crucial skill in the international networks of business, science, and technology. Subject examines a range of communication styles and techniques resulting from different cultural norms and traditions. It begins with a general theoretical framework and then moves into case studies. Topics include understanding the relationship between communication and culture, differences in verbal and non-verbal communication styles, barriers to intercultural communication, modes of specific cross-cultural communication activities (e.g. argumentation, negotiation, conflict resolution) and intercultural adjustment. Case studies explore specific ways of communicating in Asian and European cultures. Graduate students are expected to complete additional assignments. Taught in English. From the course home page: Course Description It has become commonplace knowledge that globalization is one of the major forces shaping our world. If we look at the spread of information, ideas, capital, media, cultural artifacts--or for that matter, people--we can see the boundaries and borders that have historically separated one country or one group from another are becoming more and more permeable. For proof of this close to home...

Estudio de caso sobre la integración del componente cultural en la enseñanza del japonés

Blanco Cortés, Laura María; Ibarreche Fonseca, Pablo
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de Grado Pregrado Formato: Pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
Esta investigación, llevada a cabo bajo la metodología de estudio de caso, buscaba evaluar la integración del componente cultural en un currículo de enseñanza de idioma japonés. Para llevar a cabo esta evaluación, los investigadores determinaron tres categorías importantes para la integración del componente cultural: la presencia de normas culturales, la recurrencia de temas culturales y el empleo de actividades que facilitan la integración de dicho componente. Para la recolección de datos, se desarrollaron instrumentos basados en la teoría existente sobre la integración del componente cultural y se aplicaron en una institución no universitaria de enseñanza de japonés. Se utilizaron los siguientes instrumentos: encuestas a los estudiantes, entrevista a los profesores y formatos para la observación de clase por parte de los investigadores. La investigación arrojó datos sobre las tres categorías mencionadas, el proceso de evaluación llevado a cabo y otros elementos que afectan la integración del componente cultural.; This research sought to evaluate the cultural component integration into a Japanese language teaching curriculum through the case study methodology. For its execution, the authors identified three significant categories for the integration of the cultural component: presence of cultural norms...

Acceptance and expectance : cultural norms for alcohol use in Denmark

Gronkjaer, M.; Curtis, T.; de Crespigny, C.; Delmar, C.
Fonte: Co-Action Publishing Publicador: Co-Action Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.51%
Alcohol consumption levels in Denmark are high with the risk of increased morbidity and mortality in the population. It is suggested that people’s views of ‘‘normal’’ use of alcohol must be the platform for formulating effective alcohol education and prevention strategies. However, little is known about the cultural norms for alcohol use. The aim of this article is to examine the perceptions of cultural norms for alcohol use in Denmark among different age groups and the similarities and differences between the groups, including examining how people construct and negotiate the cultural norms for drinking. Five focus group interviews were conducted with one group per the following age groups: 16-20; 21-34; 35-44; 45-64; and 65-82. These groups consisted of both men and women with five to six participants in each group (a total of 27). Thematic analysis was performed with the aim of developing themes that reflected the cultural norms for alcohol use. The unifying theme of this research was Danish people’s acceptance and expectance of social drinking. Alcohol is widely accepted and associated with mutual expectations to drink, leading to identification of cultural influences and facilitation to drink. The social drinking context plays an important role in people’s perceptions of the normality of drinking. This includes the selection of particular beverages...

On Vastness and Variability: Cultural Transmission, Historicity, and the Paleoindian Record in Eastern South America

ARAUJO,ASTOLFO G.M.
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Ciências Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.08%
Eastern South America, or what is today Brazilian territory, poses interesting questions about the early human occupation of the Americas. Three totally distinct and contemporaneous lithic technologies, dated between 11,000 and 10,000 14C BP, are present in different portions of the country: the Umbu tradition in the south, with its formal bifacial industry, with well-retouched scrapers and bifacial points; the Itaparica tradition in the central-west / northwest, totally unifacial, whose only formal artifacts are limaces; and the "Lagoa Santa" industry, completely lacking any formal artifacts, composed mainly of small quartz flakes. Our data suggests that these differences are not related to subsistence or raw-material constraints, but rather to different cultural norms and transmission of strongly divergent chaînes opératoires. Such diversity in material culture, when viewed from a cultural transmission (CT) theory standpoint, seems at odds with a simple Clovis model as the origin of these three cultural traditions given the time elapsed since the first Clovis ages and the expected population structure of the early South American settlers.

Quiebre cultural y angustia social. Casos de inmigraci??n sirio-musulmana en Caracas, Venezuela

Novo L., Ram??n
Fonte: Pedro G??mez Publicador: Pedro G??mez
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
El quiebre cultural de inmigrantes de origen sirio y fe isl??mica es productor continuo de angustias y ansiedades, v??as ??stas que la mayor??a de las veces desencadena en psicopatolog??as. Este hecho lo encontramos centrado en el choque cultural al que son expuestos dichos individuos al encontrarse en una cultura ajena donde sus redes de significantes no son aplicables en una cultura que podr??amos calificar como contraria a la ??rabe-isl??mica, es decir, de corte matrisocial, siendo esta diferencia una de las mayores productoras de angustias en los individuos sirio-musulmanes por pertenecer estos ??ltimos a una cultura patrilineal; as?? como tambi??n al ser ??stos de naciones teocr??ticas, donde las normas sociales y culturales est??n establecidas en el Cor??n. Muchos otros son los desencadenantes de la angustia, que podr??amos resumir en: Falta de trabajo, desconocimiento del idioma, comportamientos, modos de vestir, etc. De esta manera, encontramos en la antropolog??a y en su concepto de cultura un juego complementario con el psicoan??lisis que nos servir?? como instrumento para comprender el hecho inmigratorio, en fin, tendremos a la antropolog??a y al concepto de cultura como instrumento de comprensi??n.; The immigrant's cultural break from Syrian and the Islamic religion is a continuous source of anguish and anxiety...

Muslim Legal Norms and the Integration of European Muslims

MALIK, Maleiha
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
MUSMINE - Muslim Minorities in Europe; This paper examines the potential for accommodating Muslim legal and ethical norms within European liberal democracies. It focuses on areas of personal life such as family norms and ethics. The main argument of the paper is that in some areas - such as divorce or contract law - there is potential for accommodating Muslim legal and ethical norms within mainstream political and legal institutions. The advantage of this strategy is that it can encourage Muslims to identify with national political and legal institutions. This strategy can, in turn, encourage the integration of Muslims into mainstream European institutions and promote the goals of social cohesion. However, the accommodation of some religious and cultural norms in this way can create a risk of harm to women. Therefore, there need to be special processes to ensure that Muslim women's autonomy is safeguarded. The paper includes a case study and discussion of Muslim family law arbitration, and the use of 'sharia tribunals', in Great Britain.

Identity and public attitudes to foreign aid: a framework for bottom-up policy reform

Gandy, Kizzy Marie Prem
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
How can we close the gap between the policy commitments governments make at the international level and policy implementation at the domestic level in order to address global problems such as poverty and climate change? I integrate the constructivist perspective in international relations and self-categorization theory in social psychology to propose an identitybased approach to bottom-up policy reform. Identities are context-dependent categorisations of ‘self’ and ‘other’ which help actors navigate reality. I argue that policy outputs are determined by the state’s identity whereas each citizen’s policy preferences are determined by the multiple identities which comprise their self-concept. State identities constitute cultural norms and the state’s international image relative to other states. Citizen identities constitute personal value priorities (personal identities) and group memberships (social identities). Citizens contribute to the state identity but a state’s identity is bigger than the sum of its parts. Therefore, the aggregate preferences of individual citizens may not necessarily correspond to policy outputs. This is not undemocratic because people do not engage in policy issues unless doing so is stereotypical of their current context-dependent identity. In addition...

Enabling Environments for Civic Engagement in PRSP Countries

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
It is now increasingly recognized that, alongside the state and the market, civil society is a critical factor in determining the level, pace and equity of a country's economic, social and political development. Civic engagement is the participation of private actors in the public sphere, conducted through direct and indirect interactions of civil society organizations and citizens-at-large with government, multilateral institutions and business establishments to influence decision making or pursue common goals. It is a process that organizes citizens or their entrusted representatives to "influence, shape and control public affairs and development initiatives, implementation and resources. Under the right conditions civic engagement can promote development and improve the economic and social conditions of the poor. How civil society can maximize its potential in alleviating poverty and promoting social accountability, and what types of laws, regulations, governance and cultural norms are needed to create the most conducive environment in which civil society operates...

Cognitive and Behavioral Challenges in Responding to Climate Change

Norgaard, Kari Marie
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
Climate scientists have identified global warming as the most important environmental issue of our time, but it has taken over 20 years for the problem to penetrate the public discourse in even the most superficial manner. While some nations have done better than others, no nation has adequately reduced emissions and no nation has a base of public citizens that are sufficiently socially and politically engaged in response to climate change. This paper summarizes international and national differences in levels of knowledge and concern regarding climate change, and the existing explanations for the worldwide failure of public response to climate change, drawing from psychology, social psychology and sociology. On the whole, the widely presumed links between public access to information on climate change and levels of concern and action are not supported. The paper's key findings emphasize the presence of negative emotions in conjunction with global warming (fear, guilt, and helplessness), and the process of emotion management and cultural norms in the construction of a social reality in which climate change is held at arms length. Barriers in responding to climate change are placed into three broad categories: 1) psychological/conceptual...

On Norms and Agency : Conversations about Gender Equality with Women and Men in 20 Countries

Muñoz Boudet, Ana María; Petesch, Patti; Turk, Carolyn; Thumala, Angélica
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
This report provides tremendous insight on gender norms an area that has been resistant to change, and that constrains achievement of gender equality across many diverse cultures. The report synthesizes data collected from more than 4,000 women and men in 97 communities across 20 countries. It is the largest dataset ever collected on the topic of gender and development, providing an unprecedented opportunity to examine potential patterns across communities on social norms and gender roles, pathways of empowerment, and factors that drive acute inequalities. The analysis raises the profile of persistent social norms and their impact on agency, and catalyzes discourse on the many pathways that create opportunities for women and men to negotiate transformative change. The report is underpinned by the fact that arguably the single most important contribution to development is to unleash the full power of half the people on the planet women. It underscores how crucial making investments in learning, supporting innovations that reduce the time costs of women s mobility...

Santé reproductive et santé mentale des femmes qui ont subi la violence sexuelle en temps de conflit armé : cas de la République Démocratique du Congo

Dossa, Nissou Ines
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
Problématique : Depuis bientôt deux décennies, la République Démocratique du Congo (RDC) est le territoire d’un conflit armé qui, selon l’International Rescue Commite, aurait occasionné plus de 3 millions de décès et autant de déplacés internes. Plusieurs rapports font également cas des nombreux actes de violence sexuelle (les viols, les mutilations, l’esclavage, l’exploitation sexuelle, etc.) commis envers les filles, les femmes et dans une moindre ampleur les hommes. S’il existe un consensus sur le côté barbare des actes de violence sexuelle liés aux conflits armés, rares sont les études qui ont évalué leurs conséquences sur la santé reproductive des survivantes surtout en termes d’issues telles que les fistules, les douleurs pelviennes chroniques (DPC), le désir de rapports sexuels, le désir d’enfant et le désir d’interruption de la grossesse issue de tels actes. Par ailleurs, même si la santé mentale des populations en zones de conflit représente un sujet d’intérêt, l’impact spécifique de la violence sexuelle liée au conflit sur la santé mentale des survivantes a été peu étudié. De plus, ces travaux s’intéressent aux effets de la violence sexuelle liée au conflit sur la santé mentale et sur la santé reproductive séparément et ce...

Acceptance and expectance: Cultural norms for alcohol use in Denmark

Grønkjær, Mette; Curtis, Tine; Crespigny, Charlotte De; Delmar, Charlotte
Fonte: CoAction Publishing Publicador: CoAction Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/11/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.47%
Alcohol consumption levels in Denmark are high with the risk of increased morbidity and mortality in the population. It is suggested that people's views of “normal” use of alcohol must be the platform for formulating effective alcohol education and prevention strategies. However, little is known about the cultural norms for alcohol use. The aim of this article is to examine the perceptions of cultural norms for alcohol use in Denmark among different age groups and the similarities and differences between the groups, including examining how people construct and negotiate the cultural norms for drinking. Five focus group interviews were conducted with one group per the following age groups: 16–20; 21–34; 35–44; 45–64; and 65–82. These groups consisted of both men and women with five to six participants in each group (a total of 27). Thematic analysis was performed with the aim of developing themes that reflected the cultural norms for alcohol use. The unifying theme of this research was Danish people's acceptance and expectance of social drinking. Alcohol is widely accepted and associated with mutual expectations to drink, leading to identification of cultural influences and facilitation to drink. The social drinking context plays an important role in people's perceptions of the normality of drinking. This includes the selection of particular beverages...

Cross-Cultural Variations in Big Five Relationships with Religiosity: A Socio-Cultural Motives Perspective

Gebauer, Jochen E.; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Gosling, Samuel D.; Rentfrow, Peter J.; Lamb, Michael E.; Potter, Jeff
Fonte: American Psychological Association Publicador: American Psychological Association
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
This is the accepted manuscript. This article may not exactly replicate the final version published in the APA journal. It is not the copy of record. The final version is available from APA at http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2014-35855-001/.; A socio-cultural motives perspective (SMP) on Big Five relationships is introduced. According to the SMP, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness elicit assimilation to socio-cultural norms, Openness elicits contrast from these norms, and Extraversion and Neuroticism are independent of socio-cultural assimilation and contrast. Due to socio-cultural assimilation, then, relationships of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness with an outcome will wax (become more positive or less negative) with that outcome?s increasing socio-cultural normativeness. Due to socio-cultural contrast, relationships of Openness with an outcome will wane (become less positive or more negative) with that outcome?s increasing socio-cultural normativeness. We tested the SMP using religiosity as our outcome. Study 1 included four cross-sectional self-report datasets across 66 countries (N = 1,129,334), 50 US states (N = 1,057,342), 15 German federal states (N = 20,885), and 121 British urban areas (N = 386,315). Study 2 utilized informant-report data across 37 countries (N = 544...

Community group environment for people participation and empowerment: the socio-cultural perspective

Diale,N. R.
Fonte: South African Journal of Agricultural Extension Publicador: South African Journal of Agricultural Extension
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.29%
The study was conducted in Makhuduthamaga Municipal area in Sekhukhune District of Limpopo Province in South Africa. The study observed how socio-cultural factors impact on participation environment in community development groups particularly in rural sections of society. To generate insight on these dynamics, some sets of empirical data were collected from community groups and individuals. Qualitative and quantitative sets of data were collected through structured interview schedule from simple random samples of twelve interest groups and twenty-eight individuals, and a quota sample of two organisational linkage structures. Document review of the groups was also conducted. Qualitative sets of data were collected from a simple random sample of two groups through participant observation to establishing their group dynamics and cultural protocols. The study found that the majority of community groups consisted of elderly people. It also found that the majority of people join community groups to participate in social improvement and participation. From document reviewed, no statute was found to provide for socio-cultural protocols in the groups' activities. From the observation, the study found that there are some socio-cultural norms...