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The identity of the invasive fouling bryozoan Watersipora subtorquata (d’Orbigny) and some other congeneric species

Vieira, Leandro Manzoni; Spencer Jones, M; Taylor, Paul D
Fonte: Auckland Publicador: Auckland
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Watersipora subtorquata (d’Orbigny, 1852) has been widely reported as a fouling species from tropical to temperate waters. The continued confusion over the correct name for this species led us to provide a redescription of d’Orbigny’s type of Cellepora subtorquata, and to make comparisons with other species of Watersipora. We show that the majority of specimens assigned to W. subovoidea (d’Orbigny, 1852) are morphologically distinct from the recently erected neotype of W. subovoidea; these specimens are here reidentified as Watersipora subtorquata. Other specimens previously assigned to W. subtorquata belong to W. subatra (Ortmann, 1890), described originally from Japan. Owing these inconsistences, we suggest setting aside the neotype of Watersipora subovoidea, which is based on Busk’s Lepralia cucullata and is not from the same locality as d’Orbigny’s type. Watersipora cucullata is redescribed and figured using Busk’s specimens; the species is known from the Mediterranean, including the Adriatic. Three other species—Watersipora atrofusca (Busk, 1856), Watersipora aterrima (Ortmann, 1890) and Watersipora nigra (Canu & Bassler, 1930)—are also refigured. Watersipora edmondsoni Soule & Soule, 1975 is synonymised with W. subtorquata (d’Orbigny). Two new species are described...

Revisão taxonômica da subfamília Crassostreinae (Bivalvia: Ostreidae); Taxonomic revision of subfamily Crassostreinae (Bivalvia: Ostreidae)

Amaral, Vanessa Simão do
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/12/2014 PT
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Foram aplicadas técnicas de análise e comparação de anatomia detalhada, através de dissecções e por análises moleculares em um grupo altamente variável como os Ostreidae com objetivo de comprovar o monofiletismo de Crassostreinae. Por ser economicamente importante em todo o mundo, a diferenciação entre as espécies é fundamental, com aplicações até na produção. Através de um estudo comparativo de morfologia detalhada, representantes de quase todos os gêneros de Ostreoidea foram analisados. Inicialmente, os representantes da subfamília Crassostreinae foram estudados isoladamente. Em cada uma foi realizada uma análise filogenética na procura de sua monofilia e de sua identidade básica. Os representantes de Ostreinae e Gryphaeidae foram utilizados como grupo-externo. Em seguida, alguns representantes de Pteriomorphia foram incorporados ao grupo-externo (Limidae, Spondylidae, Plicatulidae, Isognomonidae, Anomiidae) com enraizamento em Arcidae. Foram estudados 73 caracteres, presentemente comentados e discutidos. Uma única árvore mais parcimoniosa foi obtida: (((((((Cryptostrea permolis (Teskeyostrea weberi ((Hyotissa hyotis (Parahyotissa mcgintyi - P. numisma)) ((Eostrea puelchana - E. lurida) (Ostrea edulis (Ostreola equestris ("Dendostrea" sp1 ((Lopha cristagalli - Alectryonella plicatula) ((Dendostrea folium - D. sp 2) ("Dendostrea" frons ("Saccostrea" echinata ("Saccostrea" palmula (((Saccostrea mordax - "Striostrea" prismatica) (Saccostrea cucullata - S. glomerata)) ((Crassostrea virginica (C. gigas - C. bilineata)) (C. mangle (C. brasiliana - C. rhizophorae)))))))))))))))) Plicatulostrea onca) Plicatula gibbosa) Spondylus americanus) Lima sp.) (Anomia simplex - Isognomon alatus)) Barbatia cândida) tendo como índices: passos = 372...

In vitro antifungal activity and cytotoxic effect of essential oils and extracts of medicinal and aromatic plants against Candida krusei and Aspergillus fumigatus

Correa-Royero,Julieth; Tangarife,Verónica; Durán,Camilo; Stashenko,Elena; Mesa-Arango,Ana
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2010 EN
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The plants are usually used in traditional medicine as antimicrobial agents and their essential oils and extracts have been known to possess antifungal activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the activity of 32 essential oils and 29 extracts against C. krusei and A. fumigatus as well as the cytotoxic effect on Vero cells. Time-kill curve and interaction between antifungals and the most active sample against C. krusei, was also evaluated. The oils from C. ambrosioides and the extract of M. cucullata showed antifungal activity against C. krusei (GM-MIC 7.82 and 31.25 µg/mL, respectively). L. citriodora was actives against C. krusei and A. fumigates (GM-MIC = 99.21 µg/mL and 62.5 µg/mL respectively). Time-kill assays done with C. ambrosioides oil showed fungicidal activity at 4x MIC. The interaction of C. ambrosioides oil with itraconazole and amphotericin B was tested following the chequerboard technique. No interaction was detected for the combination of C. ambrosioides oil with amphotericin B and itraconazole (FICI range = 1.03-1.06 and 1.03-1.00, respectively). Cytotoxicity assays for all samples were carried out with MTT. Only the oil from Hedyosmun sp. and L. dulcis were cytotoxic.

Potential Importance of Fish Predation and Zooplankton Grazing on Natural Populations of Freshwater Bacteria †

Riemann, Bo
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1985 EN
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The rates of ingestion of natural bacterial assemblages by natural populations of zooplankton (>50 μm in size) were measured during a 19-day period in eutrophic Frederiksborg Slotssø, Denmark, as well as in experimental enclosures (containing 5.3 m3 of lake water). The fish and nutrients of the enclosures were manipulated. In enclosures without fish, large increases in ingestion by zooplankton >140 μm in size were found (up to 3 μg of C liter−1 h−1), compared with values less than 0.3 μg of C liter−1 h−1 in the enclosures with fish and in the open lake. Daphnia cucullata and D. galeata dominated the community of zooplankton of >140 μm. Ingestion rates for zooplankton between 50 and 140 μm decreased after a period of about 8 days, in all enclosures and in the lake, to values below 0.1 μg of C liter−1 h−1. On the last 2 sampling days, somewhat higher values were observed in the enclosures with fish present. The >50-μm zooplankton ingested 48 to 51% of the bacterial net secondary production in enclosures without fish, compared to 4% in the enclosures with added fish. Considering the sum of bacterial secondary production plus biomass change, 35 to 41% of the available bacteria were ingested by zooplankton of >50 μm in the enclosures without fish...

Spatial, environmental and anthropogenic effects on the taxon composition of hybridizing Daphnia

Keller, Barbara; Wolinska, Justyna; Manca, Marina; Spaak, Piet
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The competitive ability of hybrids, compared with their parental taxa, can cover a wide fitness range from poor to superior. For example communities of the Daphnia galeata–hyalina–cucullata species complex often show hybrid dominance. We tested whether taxa composition of 43 European lakes inhabited by this species complex can be explained by habitat characteristics (e.g. size descriptors, trophy level) or geography. We found that D. galeata occurs more frequently south of the Alps, whereas D. hyalina and D. cucullata are found more in the north. Lakes with D. galeata dominance had higher temperatures whereas D. hyalina dominance could be attributed to low phosphorus loads. The dominance of F1-hybrids, however, was not explainable with current environmental variables. In a subset of 28 lakes, we studied the impact of eutrophication history on F1-hybrid success. Lakes with the highest trophic state in the past tended to be dominated by F1-hybrids. Our data demonstrate that human-mediated habitat disturbance (eutrophication) has facilitated hybrid success and altered the Daphnia taxon composition across lakes. At the same time, specific habitat conditions might provide a refuge from hybridization for native genotypes.

Daphnia hybridization along ecological gradients in pelagic environments: the potential for the presence of hybrid zones in plankton

Petrusek, Adam; Seda, Jaromír; Macháček, Jiří; Ruthová, Štěpánka; Šmilauer, Petr
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.44%
The relative homogeneity of pelagic environments has been regarded as the reason for the absence of hybrid zones for hybridizing planktonic Daphnia (Crustacea: Cladocera); occasional dominance of interspecific hybrids over parental species was explained by their temporal superiority in fluctuating environments. However, water bodies with spatially varying environmental conditions might facilitate the formation of hybrid zones in plankton. We studied the distribution of species and hybrids of the Daphnia longispina complex in 11 canyon-shaped reservoirs, localities characterized by horizontal environmental gradients (particularly of food supply and size-selective predation); we also analysed patterns of carapace size and fecundity among coexisting taxa. Spatial distribution of taxa agreed with their ecological characteristics; those showing different affinities along longitudinal reservoir profiles differed in size according to the presumed fish predation gradient. Only hybrids of Daphnia galeata with Daphnia cucullata and D. longispina (=hyalina) were recorded. The latter two species preferred opposite ends of gradients, such spatial segregation probably explaining the absence of their hybrids. Distributional patterns were relatively stable in two consecutive summers...

Alocasia cucullata Exhibits Strong Antitumor Effect In Vivo by Activating Antitumor Immunity

Peng, Qiuxian; Cai, Hongbing; Sun, Xuegang; Li, Xin; Mo, Zhixian; Shi, Jue
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/09/2013 EN
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Chinese herbal medicines have long been used to treat various illnesses by modulating the human immune response. In this study, we investigate the immuno-modulating effect and antitumor activity of Alocasia Cucullata (AC), a Chinese herb traditionally used to treat infection and cancer. We found that the whole water extract of AC roots could significantly attenuate tumor growth in mouse tumor models. The median survival time of the AC-treated mice was 43 days, 16 days longer than that of the control group. Moreover, the AC-treated mice showed substantially higher induction of key antitumor cytokines, such as IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, indicating that AC may exert antitumor effect by activating antitumor immunity. To further pinpoint the cellular and molecular mechanism of AC, we studied the dose response of a human monocytic cell line, THP-1, to the whole water extract of AC. Treatment of the AC extract significantly induced THP-1 differentiation into macrophage-like cells and the differentiated THP-1 showed expression of specific macrophage surface markers, such as CD11b and CD14, as well as productions of antitumor cytokines, e.g. IFN-γ and TNF-α. Our data thus point to AC as potentially a new, alternative immuno-modulating herbal remedy for anticancer treatment.

Lichen Secondary Metabolites in Flavocetraria cucullata Exhibit Anti-Cancer Effects on Human Cancer Cells through the Induction of Apoptosis and Suppression of Tumorigenic Potentials

Nguyen, Thanh Thi; Yoon, Somy; Yang, Yi; Lee, Ho-Bin; Oh, Soonok; Jeong, Min-Hye; Kim, Jong-Jin; Yee, Sung-Tae; Crişan, Florin; Moon, Cheol; Lee, Kwang Youl; Kim, Kyung Keun; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Kim, Hangun
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/10/2014 EN
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Lichens are symbiotic organisms which produce distinct secondary metabolic products. In the present study, we tested the cytotoxic activity of 17 lichen species against several human cancer cells and further investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying their anti-cancer activity. We found that among 17 lichens species, F. cucullata exhibited the most potent cytotoxicity in several human cancer cells. High performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the acetone extract of F. cucullata contains usnic acid, salazinic acid, Squamatic acid, Baeomycesic acid, d-protolichesterinic acid, and lichesterinic acid as subcomponents. MTT assay showed that cancer cell lines were more vulnerable to the cytotoxic effects of the extract than non-cancer cell lines. Furthermore, among the identified subcomponents, usnic acid treatment had a similar cytotoxic effect on cancer cell lines but with lower potency than the extract. At a lethal dose, treatment with the extract or with usnic acid greatly increased the apoptotic cell population and specifically activated the apoptotic signaling pathway; however, using sub-lethal doses, extract and usnic acid treatment decreased cancer cell motility and inhibited in vitro and in vivo tumorigenic potentials. In these cells...

The relationship between physical and biological habitat conditions and hermatypic coral recruits’ abundance within insular reefs (Colombian Caribbean); Revista de biologia tropical

Acosta Moreno, Luis Alberto; Bernal Soleto, Katherine
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana
Formato: 1-20
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60-3; Existe poca evidencia sobre la dependencia entre la abundancia de juveniles de corales hermatípicos y las condiciones del hábitat. La abundancia de corales juveniles se relacionó con condiciones del hábitat macro (ubicación del arrecife, profundidad) y microescala (tipo e inclinación del sustrato, exposición a luz, textura y cantidad de sedimento, área de crecimiento potenial de juveniles). El muestreo se realizó en cuatro arrecifes insulares del Caribe colombiano. La dependencia se evaluó usando tablas y coeficientes de contingencia y análisis de correspondencia múltiples. Agaricia tenuifolia mostró las dependencias más robustas, siendo significativas para juveniles presentes frecuentemente en arrecifes continentales, sustrato horizontal expuesto a luz, con competidores. Los juveniles se asociaron con moderado a alto sedimento, muy fino y acumulado en el fondo. Porites astreoides presentó cuatro dependencias; alta frecuencia en sustrato expuesto a luz, horizontal, sin sedimento, con competidores y en arrecifes oceánicos entre 2-16m. Siderastrea siderea exhibió tres dependencias, para juveniles en lugares crípticos, sustrato inclinado y sin competidores. A. lamarcki, Leptoseris cucullata, A. agaricites, P. porites...

Villadia cucullata Rose

G. B. Hinton
Fonte: Universidade Nacional Autônoma do México Publicador: Universidade Nacional Autônoma do México
Tipo: imagen
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Villadia cucullata Rose

G. B. Hinton
Fonte: Universidade Nacional Autônoma do México Publicador: Universidade Nacional Autônoma do México
Tipo: imagen
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Villadia cucullata Rose

G. B. Hinton
Fonte: Universidade Nacional Autônoma do México Publicador: Universidade Nacional Autônoma do México
Tipo: imagen
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Villadia cucullata Rose

G. B. Hinton
Fonte: Universidade Nacional Autônoma do México Publicador: Universidade Nacional Autônoma do México
Tipo: imagen
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27.44%

Villadia cucullata Rose

G. B. Hinton
Fonte: Universidade Nacional Autônoma do México Publicador: Universidade Nacional Autônoma do México
Tipo: imagen
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27.44%

Villadia cucullata Rose

G. B. Hinton
Fonte: Universidade Nacional Autônoma do México Publicador: Universidade Nacional Autônoma do México
Tipo: imagen
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27.44%

Villadia cucullata Rose

G. B. Hinton
Fonte: Universidade Nacional Autônoma do México Publicador: Universidade Nacional Autônoma do México
Tipo: imagen
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27.44%

Villadia cucullata Rose

G. B. Hinton
Fonte: Universidade Nacional Autônoma do México Publicador: Universidade Nacional Autônoma do México
Tipo: imagen
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27.44%

Villadia cucullata ssp. apiculata Moran y Uhl

G. B. Hinton
Fonte: Universidade Nacional Autônoma do México Publicador: Universidade Nacional Autônoma do México
Tipo: imagen
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27.44%

Maxillaria cucullata Lindl.

G. B. Hinton
Fonte: Universidade Nacional Autônoma do México Publicador: Universidade Nacional Autônoma do México
Tipo: imagen
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27.44%

Avifauna of “RPPN da UNISC”, Sinimbu municipality, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Avifauna da RPPN da UNISC, Sinimbu, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

Oliveira, Samuel Lopes; Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul; Köhler, Andreas
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2010 POR
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This work presents a list of 169 bird species registered at the "RPPN da UNISC", Private Natural Heritage in Sinimbu municipality, Rio Grande do Sul state. The survey was carried out between January 2007 and January 2009. Five species were highlighted as being most threatened with extinction in the state: Odontophorus capueira, Patagioenas cayennensis, Amazona pretrei, Triclaria malachitacea and Grallaria varia. One of them, Amazona pretrei, was also threatened on a national and global level, and eight species, were classified as near-threatened globally (Triclaria malachitacea, Strix hylophila, Picumnus nebulosus, Piculus aurulentus, Carpornis cucullata, Leptasthenura setaria, Cyanocorax caeruleus and Euphonia chalybea). The occurrence of four species was previously unknown in the region (Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana, Trogon rufus, Myiopagis viridicata and Turdus leucomelas) and the presence of six rare or rarely-registered species for Rio Grande do Sul state (Accipiter striatus, Geranospiza caerulescens, Micrastur semitorquatus, Chamaeza ruficauda, Macropsalis forcipata and Muscipripa vetula) was also verified. These records, in conjunction with other surveys conducted in the central escarpment of the Planalto, show high diversity of bird life...