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The future of olive groves on sloping land and ex-ante assessment of cross compliance for erosion control

Graaff, Jan de; Duarte, Filomena; Fleskens, Luuk; Figueiredo, Tomás de
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
Under the past Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) olive oil subsidy regime, farmers were eligible for subsidies on the basis of the amount of olive oil they produced. This led to an intensification of production, particularly on flat land, and had inmost cases negative environmental effects, such as more soil erosion on sloping land and more pollution. With the decoupling of agricultural support under the newly established rules of the CAP, formalised in 2005, cross compliance measures have become obligatory. In this paper an ex-ante assessment is made of the application of cross compliance for soil erosion control (natural cover crops and terrace maintenance) in hilly and mountainous olive groves in Tr ´ as-os- Montes in Portugal. A linear programming model was developed to assess the various socio-economic and environmental effects of four different development scenarios for olive groves. The scenarios were developed on the basis of changing market prices, wage rates and subsidies; their effects included shifts towards intensification, abandonment and organic farming. Simulations considering a minimum return to labour constraint showed very high levels of abandonment, particularly in combination with cross compliance obligations. However...

Water, Electricity, and the Poor : Who Benefits from Utility Subsidies?

Komives, Kristin; Foster, Vivien; Halpern, Jonathan; Wodon, Quentin
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.43%
While consumer utility subsidies are widespread in both the water and electricity sectors, their effectiveness in reaching and distributing resources to the poor is the subject of much debate. This publication brings together empirical evidence on subsidy performance across a wide range of countries. It documents the prevalence of consumer subsidies, provides a typology of the many variants found in the developing world, and presents a number of indicators useful in assessing the degree to which such subsidies benefit the poor, focusing on three key concepts: beneficiary incidence, benefit incidence, and materiality. The findings on subsidy performance will be useful to policy makers, utility regulators, and sector practitioners who are contemplating introducing, eliminating, or modifying utility subsidies, and to those who view consumer utility subsidies as a social protection instrument.

Affordability and Subsidies in Public Urban Transport : What Do We Mean, What Can Be Done?

Estupiñán, Nicolás; Gómez-Lobo, Andrés; Muñoz-Raskin, Ramón; Serebrisky, Tomás
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.48%
Subsidy policies on public urban transport have been adopted ubiquitously. In both developed and developing countries, subsidies are implemented to make transport more affordable. Despite their widespread implementation, there are virtually no quantitative assessments of their distributional incidence, making it impossible to determine if these instruments are pro-poor. This paper reviews the arguments used to justify subsidy policies in public urban transport. Using different tools to quantitatively evaluate the incidence and distributive impacts of subsidy policy options, the paper analyzes the findings of a series of research papers that study urban public transport subsidy policies in developed and developing countries. The available evidence indicates that current public urban transport subsidy policies do not make the poorest better off. Supply-side subsidies are, for the most part, neutral or regressive; while demand-side subsidies perform better-although many of them do not improve income distribution. Considering that the policy objective is to improve the welfare of the poorest...

Multi-Utilities and Access : Can Private Multi-Utilities Help Expand Service to Rural Areas?

Tremolet, Sophie
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.22%
In 1997 Gabon awarded the first real concession in Africa, under a contract that introduced coverage targets for expanding service to previously unconnected rural areas. SEEG, the new concessionaire, offers both water and electricity service, with the electricity business cross-subsidizing the less developed water business. Five years on, the concessionaire has performed well in established service areas, often exceeding targets, but has made less progress in more isolated areas. This Note assesses lessons for the design of contracts with incentives for expanding service beyond the immediate circles of major urban centers-and on the potential role of multi-utilities.

Telecom Subsidies : Output-Based Contracts for Rural Services in Peru

Cannock, Geoffrey
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
In Peru private telecommunications operators bid for the minimum government subsidy to provide pay phone service to the poor in targeted rural areas. Part of the subsidy is paid on award, part once the equipment is installed, and the rest in semiannual installments for several years, contingent on compliance with performance standards. The winning bidders get a nonexclusive concession defining their rights and obligations. Early pilot results show that the private investment mobilized is twice the subsidy provided.

Infrastructure Reform, Better Subsidies, and the Information Deficit

Gómez-Lobo, Andrés; Foster, Vivien; Halpern, Jonathan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.45%
In developing countries the provision of water and sanitation services is often subsidized. These subsidies take the form of a general underpricing of water, numerous cross-subsidies, and inefficient billing and collection. An essential part of infrastructure reform is the redesign of subsidies. In the design of an optimal subsidy scheme the key decisions are the choice of eligibility criteria, the level of the subsidy and the budgetary requirements. However, the lack of consistent and reliable data sets which combine socioeconomic and water consumption information may be an important obstacle to making good decisions, undermining efforts to provide affordable water services for the poor. This Note discusses the type of information required, where it can be found, and ways to deal with shortcomings in the data. To illustrate, the Note draws on data from World Bank work in Panama.

Reaching the Urban Poor with Private Infrastructure

Brook Cowen, Penelope; Tynan, Nicola
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
Nontraditional infrastructure service providers supply many low-income consumers in slums and urban peripheries in developing countries. And technological change has eased entry by new providers. But the current approach to private participation in infrastructure typically gives exclusivity to a local monopoly for a long period. In return, the monopoly utility is obligated to provide service to all in the area at a certain standard, charging a rising block tariff and using some cross-subsidies. This approach can inadvertently erect barriers to improving service for low-income households. Policymakers therefore need to rethink their approach to private participation transactions and their regulation. In particular, they need to focus on facilitating new entry.

Price Structures, Cross-Subsidies, and Competition in Infrastructure

Irwin, Timothy
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.4%
Governments often regulate not only the overall level of prices charged by infrastructure firms but also the relationship between prices for different services or customers. Prices can differ among different types of customers, even when no customers can be said to be subsidizing another, for example, when one asset is used to supply a service to two or more groups of customers. One of the hurdles that governments must overcome in introducing competition in infrastructure is dealing with the social and political implications of changing price structures, or rate rebalancing. Generally, competition should reduce overall costs in the sector, lessening the need to compensate groups hurt by price increases resulting from rate rebalancing. But if the efficiency gains are not enough to offset the price increases for some groups and the government is worried about the political and social costs of rate balancing, it has three basic options: 1) preserving the old price structure; 2) funding price subsidies from general tax revenue rather than from transfers within the firm or industry; and 3) relying on social safety nets rather than price subsidies. Whichever option a government chooses should stand up against the following four tests: 1) Do subsidies reach the people the government most wants to support? 2) are the costs clear and measurable? 3) Are the administrative costs as low as possible? 4) Is the revenue raised from the source that entails the least cost to the economy? This Note looks at the three options in practice and reviews how they measure up against the four criteria. It concludes that governments should eliminate price subsidies if politically feasible. But even if they cannot...

Capital Subsidies Implicit in Concessional Finance : How to Make Them More Transparent and Better Targeted

Kingdom, William; Baeumler, Axel; Guzman, Alfonso
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) finance a significant share of developing country water sector investments in Vietnam. Much of this financing is concessional and often on-lent by national governments, at similar concessional terms, to water utilities. This concessionality carries an implicit subsidy, i.e., the difference between MDB financing terms and commercial financing terms priced more in line with the underlying credit risks. As such concessional financing is most often used for capital investment projects, the implicit subsidy can be considered a capital subsidy. This working paper asks whether there is an opportunity to increase the value of concessional financing for water sector investments by making implicit capital subsidies more explicit and targeting them to a clearly defined public policy objective. Specifically, the paper (i) considers the extent to which implicit subsidies exist in MDB lending for the water sector; (ii) identifies a possible approach to quantify the amount of subsidies involved; (iii) outlines an emerging framework to make subsidies more explicit as a basis for improved targeting; and (iv) discusses operational implications. By investigating these issues...

Belarus : Strengthening Public Resource Management

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.19%
This report, the first Public Expenditure Review of Belarus, will remain focused on broad systemic questions. A number of the problems emphasized in the subsequent chapters fall into four broad categories. These categories are all closely interrelated: The complicated array of extrabudgetary and quasi-fiscal sources of state finance imposes substantial losses on the economy. Budgetary preparation and approval lacks focus, realism, and an appropriate balance of political influence. The implementation of the budget suffers from excessively weak legality, and allows for too much discretion in the allocation and re-allocation of state expenditures. The connection between state objectives and public expenditures is often unclear or weak. There are many recommendations for changes that could help to improve fiscal discipline, strengthen allocative effectiveness and improve the technical efficiency, we present the most critical actions that are needed: Improve realism in budgetary planning and the management of state obligations. Develop institutions to support commitment to budgetary implementation. Expand the coverage of the budget to account for most activities with fiscal impact. Develop a framework for identifying...

Private Provision of Rural Infrastructure Services: Competing for Subsidies

Wellenius, Bjorn; Foster, Vivien; Malmberg-Calvo, Christina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
Market-oriented reforms of infrastructure in developing countries tend to focus primarily on commercially viable services in urban areas. Nevertheless, an increasing number of countries are beginning to experiment with extending the market paradigm to infrastructure services in rural areas that are often less attractive in commercial terms. In these cases, subsidies are used to close the gap between market requirements and development needs, and are increasingly determined and allocated on a competitive basis. The authors discuss the conditions under which competition among firms for such subsidies-successfully used in the telecommunications sector in a number of middle-income countries-could also be applied to electricity, water and sanitation, and transportation services in lower-income countries.

Universal(ly Bad) Service : Providing Infrastructure Services to Rural and Poor Urban Consumers

Clarke, George R. G.; Wallsten, Scott J.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
Until recently, utility services (telecommunications, power, water, and gas) throughout the world were provided by large, usually state-owned, monopolies. However, encouraged by technological change, regulatory innovation, and pressure from international organizations, many developing countries are privatizing state-owned companies and introducing competition. Some observers worry that even if reforms improve efficiency, they might compromise an important public policy goal-ensuring "universal access" for low-income and rural households. The authors review the motivation for universal service, methods used to try to achieve it under monopoly service provision, how reforms might affect these approaches, and the theoretical and empirical evidence of the impact of reform on these consumers. Next, using household data from around the world, they investigate empirically the historical performance of public monopolies in meeting universal service obligations and the impact of reform. The results show the massive failure of state monopolies to provide service to poor and rural households everywhere except Eastern Europe. Moreover...

Political Economy of Power Sector Subsidies : A Review with Reference to Sub-Saharan Africa

Kojima, Masami; Bacon, Robert; Trimble, Chris
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
Power sector subsidies in Sub-Saharan Africa are substantial and highly regressive. While subsidies can be quick, easy, and politically expedient to implement, they are equally quick to take root and challenging to remove. Optimal policies that are technically sound and welfare-enhancing over the long run have nevertheless been found difficult to launch and even more challenging to sustain. Of the barriers to reform, those associated with political economy are among the most powerful, yet their analysis is often lacking due consideration in the reform design process. This paper reviews the literature on power subsidies and their reform with emphasis on the political economy of such reform. It examines pricing principles in the power sector and different types of subsides; drivers for subsidies, benefits and costs of subsidy reform, and their distribution; and approaches to political economy analysis, tools available, and methodological issues. The paper draws examples from Sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere...

Distributional Impacts of Energy Cross-Subsidization in Transition Economies

Grainger, Corbett; Zhang, Fan; Schreiber, Andrew
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
Subsidies and cross-subsidies in the energy sector are common throughout Eastern Europe and Central Asia. In Belarus, revenues from an industrial tariff on electricity are used to cross-subsidize heating for households. Input-output (IO) data and a household consumption survey are used to analyze the distributional impacts of this cross-subsidization. This paper illustrates cost shares and electricity-intensity of different sectors and consumption categories and uses the IO data to obtain first-order estimates of the distributional incidence of policy reform. The paper then analyzes distributional impacts of subsidy reform with a Computable General Equilibrium model. Although poorer households benefit from reduced heating costs, the increase in prices of other consumer goods due to higher electricity prices more than offsets the benefits they receive from the subsidies. The analysis finds that the current cross-subsidies are regressive, and policy reform would be highly progressive.

Subsidies in Chilean Public Utilities

Serra, Pablo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.57%
The author analyzes subsidies in Chile's public utilities. Over the last decade, especially, significant efforts have been made to extend public services to rural populations. An explicit consumption subsidy for potable water (targeted to the poorest twenty percent of the population) currently benefits seventeen percent of the population. Cross-subsidies have been virtually eliminated in Chile, and existing subsidies are funded from the national budget. The elimination of cross-subsidies has facilitated competition in some services. Prices have fallen substantially in services that new operators have entered, showing that regulation is a poor substitute for competition. The Chilean experience shows that it is possible to design direct subsidies (such as the one for drinking water) at relatively low cost to the state. Moreover, putting rural infrastructure projects out to public tender whenever possible, has allowed substantial reductions in government spending. Chile's experience also shows that it is possible to use subsidies that do not distort people's behavior - by making sure that they perceive the marginal cost of providing the service. In rural zones where there is no infrastructure, investment needs to be subsidized. Users do not pay the long-run marginal cost...

The Transition from Underpricing Residential Electricity in Bangladesh : Fiscal and Distributional Impacts

Ahmed, Faizuddin; Trimble, Chris; Yoshida, Nobuo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.4%
The electricity sector in Bangladesh has been facing unprecedented challenges, with severe capacity constraints and sector subsidies that quadrupled from 0.2 percent to 0.8 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) between 2010 and 2012, driving the government's fiscal deficit deeper. This policy note examines the poverty and distribution impact of one such reform-residential electricity tariff increases-along with their fiscal implications. A challenge of such adjustments is how to minimize their impact on the poor and vulnerable. Using household survey data, this report studies the distributional and fiscal implications of the residential tariff adjustments between March 2010 and March 2012 on to inform policy dialogue on the provision and targeting of electricity subsidies. Electricity subsidies are defined as the difference between the cost of supplying a unit of electricity and the tariff the end-user is charged for a given unit. Between 2010 and 2012, real cost of supply increased almost 20 percent. This policy note focuses on just one part of a much broader and complex system of connected energy policies. The policy implications of this analysis should only be considered in light of this broader context. In particular...

Rural Water Service : Is a Private National Operator a Viable Business Model?

Tremolet, Sophie
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Viewpoint; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
In C�e d'Ivoire and Senegal water service is provided by privately operated national water utilities operating under enhanced lease contracts. While the national operators have performed relatively well within their service areas, their ability to expand service to rural areas has been limited. This Note focuses on the key factors shaping rural service expansion: reliance on cross-subsidies, the limited transfer of commercial risk to the private sector, and the lack of competition for serving new population centers beyond the utilities' existing areas of exclusivity. It compares the national model with those of more decentralized service provision for rural areas.

Heat Tariff Reform and Social Impact Mitigation : Recommendations for a Sustainable District Heating Sector in Belarus

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
The Government of the Republic of Belarus (GoB) plans to increase district heating (DH) tariffs to cost-recovery levels and gradually phase out subsidies, replacing them with social assistance programs. Residential DH tariffs in Belarus are currently at roughly 10-21 percent of cost-recovery levels. DH subsidies are highly regressive, add costs to business, and create significant fiscal risks and macroeconomic vulnerabilities. The purpose of this report is to analyze the social, sectoral, and fiscal impacts of the proposed tariff reform, and to identify and recommend measures to mitigate adverse impacts of DH tariff increases on the households. The analysis shows that: 1) the burden of higher DH tariffs will fall most heavily on low-income groups; 2) the current system of subsidies is unfair, benefitting wealthy customers more than the poor; 3) cross-subsidies undermine the competitiveness of industries in Belarus; and underpriced residential heat places an increasing fiscal burden on the GoB and risks macroeconomic instability. The analysis shows that a negative social impact is manageable if a tariff increase is accompanied by countervailing measures to compensate for the loss of purchasing power...

Pricing, Subsidies, and the Poor : Demand for Improved Water Services in Central America

Walker, Ian; Ordonez, Fidel; Serrano, Pedro; Halpern, Jonathan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.4%
Reformulating tariff and subsidy policies is central to improving water and sanitation services in developing countries. The traditional model of state enterprise service provision, coupled with residential tariffs set well below the cost of service, has generally delivered unsatisfactory results. Low internal generation of funds has impeded expansion of networks into poor communities and has resulted in very poor services there. Most of the subsidy has benefited higher-income groups. Reformers have proposed private provision to improve efficiency, cost-reflective tariffs to permit the systems to meet demand, and better-targeted subsidies. But is there empirical evidence that existing subsidies are ineffective and that the poor could pay the full cost of water services? Analyzing household survey and water company data from cities of Central America and Venezuela, the authors confirm that: 1) Households without piped connections pay a lot for small amounts of water from "coping sources." 2) Most public water companies undercharge hugely...

O subsídio cruzado às exportações de açúcar da União Européia: impacto sobre as exportações brasileiras de açúcar

Costa, Cinthia Cabral da; Burnquist, Heloísa Lee
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de RP Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de RP
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/03/2006 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
Este trabalho apresenta e discute um procedimento para quantificar os efeitos dos subsídios cruzados auferidos pelas exportações de açúcar refinado da União Européia (UE) sobre a exportação brasileira de açúcar. Estimou-se, a princípio, o impacto do subsídio sobre o preço ao qual o açúcar refinado é exportado pela UE. Esse efeito-preço foi associado à elasticidade-preço cruzada da demanda de importação de açúcar. A seguir, procedeu-se à simulação da eliminação do subsídio ao açúcar na União Européia para estimar o impacto dessa mudança sobre a demanda de importação pelo açúcar brasileiro refinado. Essa demanda de importação foi limitada, no entanto, apenas aos mercados comuns ao Brasil e à EU, durante o período da análise. Esse impacto foi desagregado em termos das principais regiões produtoras do País, tendo-se verificado que o incremento pela importação do açúcar da região Centro-Sul do Brasil seria bem mais expressivo, da ordem de seis vezes superior ao estimado para a região Norte-Nordeste.; This work presents and discusses a procedure to quantify the effects that cross subsidies provided for the EU refined sugar exports have upon Brazilian exports. This price effect was associated to cross price elasticities of sugar import demand for the EU sugar. This was followed by a simulation of an elimination of sugar subsidies by the European Union...