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Representações das vítimas de violência doméstica sobre o sistema de justiça criminal

Faro, Patrícia Ribeiro
Fonte: [s.n.] Publicador: [s.n.]
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.44%
Dissertação apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa, como parte dos requisitos para a obtenção do grau de Mestre em Psicologia Jurídica; Paulatinamente, e em diferentes conjunturas, o fenómeno da violência doméstica tem vindo a ser objeto de interesse, tanto a nível legal, assistindo-se desde 2007 à criminalização de todo o tipo de violência exercida no espaço privado, como o nível social, impondo-se um ajustamento das políticas de intervenção. Neste estudo é nossa intenção analisar e perceber de que forma a justiça portuguesa responde, de facto, às necessidades e expectativas das vítimas de violência doméstica, acedendo para tal aos significados e representações que estas constroem sobre o sistema de justiça criminal. O estudo, caracteriza-se pela existência de uma amostra de conveniência do sexo feminino, composta por grupos contrastantes, atendendo a diversas variáveis (e.g., parentalidade; fase do processo judicial; contexto de acolhimento). Para tal desenvolveu-se uma entrevista semiestruturada, como forma de aceder, através das suas narrativas, aos significados e representações de 12 mulheres vítimas de violência na intimidade, que solicitaram diferentes apoios como forma de inverter e quebrar o ciclo da violência. As participantes do estudo beneficiavam...

O crime de tortura e a justiça criminal: um estudo dos processos de tortura na cidade de São Paulo; Crime of torture and criminal justice: a study of torture cases in the city of Sao Paulo

Jesus, Maria Gorete Marques de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/10/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.29%
O presente trabalho apresenta um estudo sobre a continuidade da tortura no atual Estado Democrático de Direito existente no Brasil, destacando a dissonância entre a criminalização da tortura no ordenamento jurídico e político e a efetividade da punição desse crime pelo sistema de justiça criminal. Destaca-se o fato de que a lei 9.455/97, que tipifica o crime de tortura no Brasil, considera que qualquer pessoa pode ser responsabilizada por crime de tortura. Ela difere da Convenção Contra a Tortura e Outros Tratamentos ou Penas Cruéis, Desumanos e Degradantes, que especifica que a tortura é todo o ato praticado por agentes do Estado, restringindo a penalidade apenas para esses agentes. Sendo assim, a lei brasileira pode servir para punir tanto os agentes do Estado como os não agentes. Este dado é importante porque existe uma distinção entre os julgamentos em que figuram como réus os agentes do Estado daqueles em que os réus são não agentes do Estado. Essas distinções revelam que os julgamentos de crimes de tortura não se dirigem somente ao ato criminoso, mas aos agressores, vítimas e testemunhas. A pesquisa sustenta que a continuidade da tortura não está baseada apenas na recorrência e dinâmica dessa prática em delegacias...

Pela metade: as principais implicações da nova lei de drogas no sistema de justiça criminal em São Paulo; By half: the main implications of the new drug law in the criminal justice system in São Paulo

Campos, Marcelo da Silveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/03/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.51%
Nos anos 90 era comum que a distinção entre o traficante e o usuário estivesse baseada nos artigos da antiga lei de drogas, ou seja, em criminalizar alguém por drogas por meio dos artigos 16 ou 12. Eram os próprios números dos artigos das leis que representavam socialmente e distinguiam um usuário (16) de um traficante de drogas (12) e, claro, o modo como à polícia poderia ou não incriminar alguém dentro do sistema de justiça criminal no Brasil. Após o ano de 2006, o Estado Brasileiro promulga a chamada Nova Lei de Drogas com o objetivo de deslocar o usuário de drogas para o sistema de saúde ao mesmo tempo em que aumenta a punição para os traficantes. Assim, este trabalho analisa as principais implicações da chamada nova lei de drogas lei 11.343 de 2006 desde a sua formulação no sistema político até a sua aplicação no sistema de justiça criminal tendo como problemática empírica geral o fenômeno da intensificação do encarceramento por tráfico de drogas no Brasil, sobretudo, após o advento da nova lei. Para tanto, a análise parte da formulação que o novo dispositivo de drogas no Congresso Nacional teve, dentre os seus principais objetivos, dispor: i) o fim da pena de prisão para o usuário de drogas; ii) o advento de um tratamento médico para o usuário; iii) o aumento da punição para o traficante mediante a expansão de grupos criminosos no início dos anos 2000...

Race, crime, and criminal justice in Portugal

Cunha, Manuela Ivone P. da
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Publicado em //2010 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.26%
How is ‘difference’ reflected on crime and the criminal justice system in Portugal? The answers obtained depend on which notions we can translate ‘difference’ into: ‘race’, ‘ethnicity’, ‘foreigners’, ‘immigrants’, ‘minorities’. This, in turn, depends also on whether we focus on statistics, rates, or, from another angle, experiences of crime and of the criminal justice system. Quantitative and qualitative data highlight different but complementary aspects of a same landscape. This paper focuses on both. It first uses Portuguese official statistics, which allow for grasping ‘difference’ only in terms of the pair: foreigners/citizens, regardless of race or ethnicity. Second, it draws on an ethnographic study in a women’s prison, which allowed for the highlighting of the way categories of race and ethnicity may be at play in crime, law enforcement, and the experience of imprisonment. In all three domains class and the nature of residential areas emerge as important conditions for the relevance of race and ethnicity. The changing intersection between ethnicity and class, mediated by conditions such as the neighbourhood and the workings of the drug economy contributes to prevent, in prison, strong expressions of race and ethnicity as categories of identity and social organization.

Capacity to Attend to the Needs of Persons with Dual Diagnoses in the Criminal Justice System: Views of Mental Health and Criminal Justice Professionals

Christina, Fergus
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.51%
Currently, individuals with intellectual disabilities are overrepresented within the Criminal Justice System (Griffiths, Taillon-Wasmond & Smith, 2002). A primary problem within the Criminal Justice System is the lack of distinction between mental illness and intellectual disabilities within the Criminal Code. Due to this lack of distinction and the overall lack of identification procedures in the Criminal Justice System, individuals with disabilities will often not receive proper accommodations to enable them to play an equitable role in the justice system. There is increasing evidence that persons with intellectual disabilities are more likely than others to have their rights violated, not use court supports and accommodations as much as they should, and be subject to miscarriages of justice (Marinos, 2010). In this study, interviews were conducted with mental health (n=8) and criminal justice professionals (n=8) about how individuals with dual diagnosis are received in the Criminal Justice System. It was found that criminal justice professionals lack significant knowledge about dual diagnosis, including effective identification and therefore appropriate supports and accommodations. Justice professionals in particular were relatively ill-prepared in dealing effectively with this population. One finding to highlight is that there is misunderstanding between mental health professionals and justice professionals about who ought to take responsibility and accountability for this population.

Searching for Accommodations within the Ontario Criminal Justice System for Persons with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Views of Social Service Agency and Justice Professionals

Stromski, Samantha
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.35%
Although persons with intellectual disabilities have been conceptualized as having rights to equality in Canada and internationally, there continue to be gaps in the delivery of justice when they are involved within the criminal process. The literature consistently reported that individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASDs) often experienced challenges within the justice system, such as difficulty understanding abstract legal concepts (Conry & Fast, 2009). In the Canadian legal system, accommodations are available to enable persons with disabilities to receive equal access to justice; however, how these are applied to persons with FASDs had not been fully explored in the literature. In this study, in-depth interviews were conducted with social service agency workers (n=10) and justice professionals (n=10) regarding their views of the challenges persons with FASDs experience in the justice system and their suggestions on the use of accommodations. The findings showed that while supports have been provided for individuals with intellectual disabilities, there has been a lack of specialized accommodations available specifically for individuals with FASDs in accessing their right to justice.

Where is our criminal justice system going

Kilcommins, Shane
Fonte: The Probation Service Publicador: The Probation Service
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.22%
peer-reviewed; Ireland’s criminal justice system is showing some signs of drifting in the direction of an ‘assembly line’ model of justice in which the State–individual balance is increasingly tipped in favour of the former. David Garland’s ‘culture of control’ thesis is very useful in describing the thrust and direction of this trend, particularly given the tendency to review events through starkly juxtaposing the inclusionary elements of penal welfarism and the exclusionary elements of control. Such a juxtaposition facilitates analogies, contrasts and generalisations serving the very useful purpose of highlighting ruptures, discontinuities, and dissimilarities within orthodox practices and ways of thinking. The paper make the point that though many of the indices of control are present in Ireland, many significant phenomena and occurrences in the criminal process do not sit neatly within the four corners of the thesis.; PUBLISHED; peer-reviewed

The Dutch criminal justice system. Organization and operation

Tak, Peter J. P.
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Buch (Monographie); info:eu-repo/semantics/book
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.45%
The Dutch criminal justice system for some time has been famous for its mildness. This mildness, which has been reflected for example in a strikingly low prison rate in the early 1970s has impressed foreign criminal law scholars and criminal justice officials. This traditional mildness is now under pressure. Crime has increased considerably and so has the prison rate. Major changes have taken place in Dutch society. It has gradually become multiethnic, not always sharing common values and norms. Crime changed and became more violent and organized. These changes require new criminal justice policies. In recent years, considerable changes in criminal law and law enforcement legislation have been adopted by Parliament. The Dutch police force has been reorganized, as has been the prosecution service. The statutory powers of the police to investigate organized crime have been expanded. The efficiency of the prosecution service is improved, the judiciary has been extended and prison capacity has been increased. This booklet covers both the organization of the present Dutch criminal justice system and the main procedures used within the system. It deals with the basic principles that guide the operation of the Dutch criminal justice system.

Offenders as victims: coping with non-physical disabilities in the criminal justice system.

Mei, Anna Lee Li
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.58%
This report argues that the current paradigm of criminal justice is not conducive to the rehabilitation and treatment of people with non-physical disabilities, a general term referring to people with disabilities associated with mental and intellectual impairments. In order to prevent people with non-physical disabilities from entering the criminal justice system, or divert those who enter it, the criminal justice system and human services providers (namely, the health and social services) must develop an integrated approach for the early identification and appropriate treatment for them. Not only do the level of integration between human service providers and the criminal justice system need to improve, resources should be directed to build the overall capacity within these institutions and the wider community to effectively deal with them. Research has shown that persons with non-physical disabilities are over-represented in the criminal justice system. The complexities in conceptualising and assessing people with nonphysical disabilities in the clinical realm present major challenges to identifying them within the criminal justice system, impacting on the ability to obtain a precise understanding on the prevalence of offenders with non-physical disabilities. Consequently...

Justice for Forests : Improving Criminal Justice Efforts to Combat Illegal Logging

Goncalves, Marilyne Pereira; Panjer, Melissa; Greenberg, Theodore S.; Magrath, William B.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.55%
Every two seconds, across the world, an area of forest the size of a football field is clear-cut by illegal loggers. In some countries, up to 90 percent of all the logging taking place is illegal. Estimates suggest that this criminal activity generates approximately US$10-15 billion annually worldwide funds that are unregulated, untaxed, and often remain in the hands of organized criminal gangs. Thus far, domestic and international efforts to curb forest crimes have focused on preventative actions, but they have had little or no significant impact. While prevention is an essential part of enforcement efforts to tackle illegal logging, it has not halted the rapid disappearance of the world's old-growth trees. New ideas and strategies are needed to preserve what is left of forests. This paper suggests that current practice be combined with a more targeted, punitive approach, through more effective use of the criminal justice system. It argues that the criminal justice system should form an integral part of any balanced and organized strategy for fighting forest crime. This strategy should include initiatives to enhance the efficiency of criminal justice in combating illegal logging that is...

Living in a "Different World": Experiences of Racialized Women in the Criminal Justice System

TASEVSKI, JENNIFER
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 578290 bytes; application/pdf
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.38%
The criminalization of women is an area of study that has intrigued many researchers. Using critical race theory, multiracial feminist theory, and radical feminist theory, this research attempts to explain this phenomenon. Through the use of personal interviews with women who are currently reintegrating back into society after being incarcerated, I attempt to uncover the factors which influence female criminality, and analyze the experiences women encounter when confronted by the Canadian criminal justice system. A key hypothesis that fuels this study is that discriminatory practices exist within the Canadian criminal justice system which negatively impact women of colour and Aboriginal women. I argue that the criminalization of women of colour and Aboriginal women occurs as a result of failing to take into consideration the intersectionality of race, class and gender in women who commit criminal acts. This phenomenon occurs due to patriarchal and classist biases that seek to maintain current power structures and relationships by continually oppressing those who do not fit within their group. The findings that emerged from the interviews support my hypothesis and confirm that changes within the criminal justice system are imperative in order to ensure women are treated fairly.; Thesis (Master...

A autonomia da Perícia Criminal Oficial no âmbito da Polícia Federal: percepções e reflexões dos profissionais do Sistema de Justiça Criminal

Amorim, José Viana
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Dissertação
PT_BR
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.38%
Trata-se de uma pesquisa de natureza marcadamente descritiva, com etapas exploratórias, que visa a descrever as percepções e reflexões desveladas pelos sujeitos da pesquisa nas análises temáticas realizadas sobre diversas questões que envolvem o tema da autonomia da Perícia Criminal Oficial, no âmbito da Polícia Federal. Para esse fim, utilizou-se da metodologia da análise de conteúdo, segundo Bardin (1977). Os sujeitos da pesquisa foram escolhidos segundo o critério de acessibilidade e da natureza dos cargos, quais sejam: Delegado da Polícia Federal, Juiz Federal, Perito Criminal Federal e Procurador da República. Face à predominância do cunho qualitativo neste estudo, não há expectativas de generalizações dos resultados obtidos no campo, assim como a seleção desses sujeitos não priorizou pela representatividade quantitativa de cada cargo. O referencial teórico foi construído com o propósito de contextualizar e favorecer a compreensão do leitor sobre como é constituída a realidade em que se insere o objeto de estudo, buscando descrever os termos e conceitos necessários a essa compreensão, tais como: (i) o que é o Sistema de Justiça Criminal e como se deu seu processo de formação no Estado moderno; (ii) como é a estrutura e o fluxo processual básico do modelo brasileiro...

THE SYSTEM OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE BETWEEN PUBLIC INVISIBILITY AND RECOGNITION IN PERIPHERAL MODERNITY; O SISTEMA DE JUSTIÇA PENAL ENTRE A INVISIBILIDADE PÚBLICA E O RECONHECIMENTO NA MODERNIDADE PERIFÉRICA

Boldt, Raphael; Faculdade de Direito de Vitória (FDV) e Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität (Frankfurt am Main).; Adeodato, João Maurício; Professor Titular das Faculdades de Direito do Recife e de Vitória.
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/04/2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.37%
Diante das aparentes contradições do discurso punitivo da modernidade, fundador do processo penal e das tensões entre emancipação e regulação que caracterizam o Direito e o Judiciário modernos, espaços públicos supostamente destinados ao reconhecimento dos indivíduos, pretende-se discutir se o sistema de justiça criminal e, em especial, o processo penal, podem assegurar aos indivíduos as condições necessárias à afirmação da visibilidade e do reconhecimento. A partir do método dialético, defende-se a tese de que o processo penal da modernidade e, em especial, o sistema de justiça penal brasileiro, são incompatíveis com o reconhecimento intersubjetivo em razão de um obstáculo epistemológico, que serve ao mesmo tempo de mecanismo eficiente de consolidação da invisibilidade pública e de humilhação social.; In view of the apparent contradictions of the punitive discourse of modernity that establishes the criminal process and the tensions between emancipation and regulation that characterizes the modern Law and the Judiciary – public spaces that are supposedly for the recognition of individuals –, it is intended to debate if the criminal justice system and, in particular, the criminal proceeding could ensure the necessary conditions for visibility and recognition. From a dialectical method it is assumed that the criminal process in modernity and...

Sistema de justiça criminal e violência doméstica contra as crianças e os adolescentes: um estudo sociológico; The criminal justice system and domestic violence against children and adolescents: a sociological study

Sandalowski, Mari Cleise; UFRGS - Santa Maria - RS
Fonte: Editora da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Edufsc) Publicador: Editora da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Edufsc)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2006 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.32%
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1414-49802006000100011A violência doméstica contra as crianças e os adolescentes constitui hoje um dos parâmetros de discussão apresentados pelos movimentos sociais e pela sociedade civil. Reconhecida há poucas décadas como um problema social no país, ela representa um dos componentes relacionados aos debates sobre a operacionalidade da justiça no Brasil. Neste artigo procura-se discutir a relação existente entre os conflitos sociais, envolvendo a infância e a adolescência, e a justiça, através da análise do tratamento conferido pelo sistema de justiça criminal em Santa Maria, município de 266 mil habitantes a 300 quilômetros da capital do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Para tanto, teve-se por objetivo examinar, além do modo como estes embates sociais são encaminhados para os mecanismos de controle social formal, os procedimentos adotados pelos operadores do direito perante estes litígios e os tipos de sentenças terminativas atribuídas a estas ações judiciais criminais, buscando compreender quais são os elementos prevalecentes nestas decisões, a partir de uma caracterização da população que acessa este sistema.; Domestic violence again children and adolescents currently constitutes an important issue for discussion by social movements and civil society. Recognized in recent decades as a social problem in Brazil...

Padrões do estupro no fluxo do sistema de justiça criminal em Campinas, São Paulo; Standard Rape Cases in the Criminal Justice System in Campinas, São Paulo

Vargas, Joana Domingues; UFMG - Belo Horizonte - MG
Fonte: Editora da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Edufsc) Publicador: Editora da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Edufsc)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2008 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.34%
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1414-49802008000200003Esta pesquisa apresenta a análise longitudinal dos registros, produzidos na Delegacia de Defesa da Mulher, no Ministério Público e nas Varas Criminais, do município de Campinas, estado de São Paulo, que permite identificar tanto as características do estupro (acusados, vítimas e relação existente entre eles), quanto os processos de seleção e de filtragem a que estes são submetidos no decorrer de seu processamento. Os resultados encontrados para Campinas inserem-se nos padrões das queixas de estupro encontrados nos estudos internacionais. Estes indicam que estupro é uma categoria heterogênea, embora os agressores sejam invariavelmente homens e as vítimas jovens. Por outro lado, quando se analisa o processo de seleção criminal, observa-se a filtragem das tipologias encontradas na fase de queixa em três padrões para o crime de estupro: intrafamiliar, cometido por agressor desconhecido e entre jovens que se conhecem.;   This study presents a longitudinal analysis of the records found in the Women’s Defense Division of the Public Ministry and in the Criminal Courts of the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo State. The study identified both the characteristics of rape (the accused...

A soberania patriarcal: o sistema de justiça criminal no tratamento da violência sexual contra a mulher; The patriarcal sovereignity: The criminal legal system in the treatment of sexual violence against women

Andrade, Vera Regina Pereira de; UFSC - Florianópolis - SC
Fonte: Fundação José Arthur Boiteux Publicador: Fundação José Arthur Boiteux
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2005 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.23%
O texto aborda, sob o marco teórico da Criminologia desenvolvida com base no paradigma do controle social, particularmente a Criminologia crítica e feminista, o funcionamento do sistema de justiça criminal relativamente à violência sexual contra a mulher (particularmente o estupro) apontando para a soberania do patriarcado e a duplicação da violência que ele arrasta consigo, e para a necessidade de inclusão e co-responsabilização de todos nós, como co-partícipes institucionais ou simbólicos do controle social e penal, na ultrapassagem da mecânica da violência, concebida em sua dimensão estrutural, institucional e intersubjetiva.; This paper points out, under a theoretical important moment of Criminology, developed based on social control paradigm, mainly the critical and feminist Criminology, the operation of criminal justice system regarding sexual violence against woman (especially rape), observing patriarchate sovereignty and an increase of violence that it has inside itself, as well as to the inclusion need and coresponsibility of everyone, as institutional or symbolic partner from social and penal control...

"Just say sorry?" Ubuntu, Africanisation and the child justice system in the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008

Sloth-Nielsen,J; Gallinetti,J
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.43%
In the midst of concerns about serious offences committed by young people, the Child Justice Act is the first formal legislative step to introduce restorative justice in South Africa, and promotes reconciliation and problem solving as an approach to the criminal behaviour of youth. This article analyses the new place of restorative justice and ubuntu in the Act through an analysis of the Preamble, Objects and General Principles sections of the Act as well as the chapters on diversion and sentencing. It notes that there is a clear and consistent framework for restorative justice and ubuntu in the Act that accords with the Constitutional Court's understanding of both concepts. In addition, the article also enquires if the inclusion of these concepts has created a criminal justice system for children that does not hold them properly accountable for their actions. The question as to whether or not the Act has created a "just say sorry" regime is answered in the negative by way of reference to the numerous checks and balances included in the Act by the legislature. In this context it is contended that the inclusion of ubuntu-related ideologies remains relevant to the development of indigenous and locally constructed images of Africanised forms of justice...

Pre- and post-trial equality in criminal justice in the context of the separation of powers

Wolf,L
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.31%
SUMMARY The previous Westminster criminal justice system entailed a different kind of separation of powers insofar as it concerns the role of state prosecutors. In the Westminster system prosecutors are part of the executive branch, whereas they were a split-off from the judiciary in constitutional states and function like a de facto second organ of the third branch of state power. Currently executive interference in state prosecutions often leads to pre-trial inequality. A further difficulty arises from the unconsidered manner in which the former royal prerogative of pardoning was retained in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. It used to be a royal veto of judicial sentences in the constitutional monarchy of the former Westminster model. Although the corresponding veto of parliamentary legislation by the head of state did not survive into modern times, the pardoning power has not been discontinued. Section 84(2)(j) thus causes an irreconcilable conflict with section 165(5) of the Constitution which guarantees the legally binding force of judicial decisions. It undermines the rule of law and leads to post-trial inequality in the execution of sentences. The parole system, which dates back to 1959, likewise allows the executive to overrule judicial sentences and is in conflict with section 165(5). The perpetuation of the status quo in criminal justice is in effect leading to a re-Westminstering of the constitutional state.

From arrest to sentencing: A comparative analysis of the criminal justice system processing for rape crimes

Vargas,Joana Domingues
Fonte: Dados Publicador: Dados
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.37%
The current article is intended to demonstrate the advantages of prioritizing an analysis of court caseload processing for a given type of crime and proceeding to a comparison of the results obtained from empirical studies in different countries. The article draws on a study I performed on rape cases tried by the court system in Campinas, São Paulo State, and the study by Gary LaFree on rape cases in the United States, based on data in Indianapolis, Indiana. The comparative analysis of determinants of victims' and law enforcement agencies' decisions concerning the pursuit of legal action proved to be productive, even when comparing two different systems of justice. This allowed greater knowledge of how the Brazilian criminal justice system operates, both in its capacity to identify, try, and punish sex offenders, and in terms of the importance it ascribes to formal legal rules in trying rape cases, in comparison to the American criminal justice system.

Crime and criminal justice in Latin America

Azevedo,Rodrigo Ghiringhelli de
Fonte: Sociologias Publicador: Sociologias
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.32%
After a presentation of indicators that allow assessing the degree of democratization of the criminal justice system in the context of democratization process in Latin America, this article points out the discrepancy existing in that domain, in the several instances that make up the justice system, from criminal legislation to the prison system. Examining the specific situation of Brazil and Argentina, problems in the functioning of institutions responsible by crime as well as the increase in crime control are pointed out as factors that cause a growing loss of legitimacy for the system, which is unable to justify its high degree of selectivity and authoritarianism. Some efforts under way to approach that phenomenon are listed. Finally, a few alternatives for institutional improvement are presented, among which the action of social scientists by producing research and analyses, as a crucial instrument to enlarge institutional ability to deal with current social conflict on democratic bases.