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The effect of legume cover crops grown in an olive orchard on soil microbial activity

Pereira, Ermelinda; Arrobas, Margarida; Ferreira, I.Q.; Rodrigues, M.A.
Fonte: International Legume Society Publicador: International Legume Society
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
Microbial biomass and soil respiration are major indicators of the soil biological fertility which can be affected by soil management practices. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the effect of three ground-cover treatments, imposed to an olive orchard, on soil microbial biomass and activity. The ground-cover treatments were: Natural vegetation (Nat veg); Natural vegetation fertilized with 60 kg N ha-1 (Nat veg +N); and a mixture of eleven sdf-reseed.ing annual legumes (Legumes) grown as a cover crop. The experiment was carried out in a rainfed olive orchard located in Mirandela, NE Portugal. Three years after the experimental set-up had been installed, random samples of soil were collected in two depths, 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm. The microbial biomass C (Cmic) was determined by the fumigation-extraction method; the basal respiration (BR) as the rate of C02 eyolved in a 7 days soil incubation at 25 oc; and soil organic C (Corg) by the Walkley-Black method. The Cmic:Corg ratio and the metabolic quotient (qCOz.), defined as the respiration rate per unit of biomass, were thereafter estimated. The values of Cmic and BR were significandy higher under the Legumes treatment in comparison with Nat veg +N and Nat veg. It seems that Legumes increased the C stored in the soil and promoted soil microbial activity...

Cover cropping effects on olive physiology in rainfed orchards

Gonçalves, Berta; Correia, C.M.; Moutinho-Pereira, J.M.; Bacelar, E.A.; Brito, Cátia; Ferreira, Helena; Rodrigues, M.A.
Fonte: CECH Publicador: CECH
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
Olive orchards are often cultivated under rainfed conditions, although the irrigated areas are currently increasing. In Trás-os-Montes region, only 5% of the total area harvested is irrigated, and this picture will not change in the near future, due to natural limitation on water resources. Therefore, despite the importance of some high-density and super-high-density orchards that have been planted in the South of Portugal, it is still crucial for the olive sector, and in particular for many inland regions, that the rainfed orchards are managed in a profitable and environmentally sustainable way.

Cover cropping in a sloping, non-irrigated vineyard: 1 - effects on weed composition and dynamics

Monteiro, Ana; Lopes, Carlos; Machado, J.P.; Fernandes, N.; Araújo, A.
Fonte: Estação Vitivinicola Nacional Publicador: Estação Vitivinicola Nacional
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
The influence of two sward treatments and soil cultivation on the composition, the structure, and the evolution of the biomass of vineyard weed communities was examined. The 3-year study (2002-2004) was carried out in a sloping, non-irrigated vineyard, cv. ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’, in the Estremadura winegrowing region of Portugal. The experimental treatments were: soil tillage (control); permanent sown cover crop - Lolium perenne ‘Nui’, L. multiflorum ‘Bartíssimo’, Festuca ovina ‘Ridu’, F. rubra ssp. rubra ‘Echo’, Trifolium incarnatum. ‘Red’, T. repens ‘Huie’ and T. subterraneum ‘Claire’; and permanent resident vegetation. Total weed biomass in the spring did not reveal significant differences between treatments, but varied annually. The management practices – e.g. time and number of soil cultivations and inter-row mowing – were determinant in weed biomass evolution. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed significant treatment effects on community structure. Three years after the experiment was set up, in the soil tillage treatment weed composition was dominated by annual broad-leaved species, namely five Geraniaceae species, Medicago polymorpha and Sonchus oleraceus. The perennial broad-leaved species Oxalis pes-caprae was also a dominant species in soil tillage. In both sward treatments there was an increase in the perennial broad-leaved and grass species. Compared to soil tillage...

Cover cropping in a sloping, non-irrigated vineyard: 2 - effects on vegetative growth , yield, berry and wine quality of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes

Monteiro, Ana; Lopes, Carlos; Machado, J.P.; Fernandes, N.; Araújo, A.
Fonte: Estação Vitivinicola Nacional Publicador: Estação Vitivinicola Nacional
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.48%
Grapevine vegetative growth, yield, fruit composition and wine quality were studied in the Estremadura Winegrowing Region of Portugal in a ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ slopping non-irrigated vineyard. During three seasons three treatments were compared: soil tillage (control), permanent resident vegetation, and permanent sown cover crop. When compared to soil tillage, the inter-row sward treatments displayed a lower predawn leaf water potential from bloom to mid-ripening. These differences in vine water status did not affect vine yield or berry sugar accumulation; however, in the third season after experiment setup it induced a significant reduction in vegetative growth in the sward treatments, compared to soil tillage. This vegetative growth reduction had a positive effect on grape composition by reducing titratable acidity and increasing berry skin total phenols and anthocyanins. Those differences were also detected in the wines by the judges who gave a better classification to the wines from the sward treatments. Our results indicate that cover cropping can be a valuable tool for controlling vigour and enhancing wine quality in this winegrowing region.

Flora das vinhas da Região Demarcada do Dão

Caetano, Maria de Fátima Piedade Baeta
Fonte: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2009 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.55%
Mestrado em Engenharia Agronómica - Instituto Superior de Agronomia; This work presents a characterization of vegetation composition in Winegrowing Region of Dão. In spring 2008, vineyards were surveyed and winemakers inquires were carried out in Dão. 206 taxa were recorded and distributed in 31 families, with predominance of the Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Poaceae. The taxa with a relative frequency higher than 75% were Cerastium glomeratum, Chamaemelum fuscatum, Hypochaeris radicata, Ornithopus compressus, Poa annua, Raphanus raphanistrum, Rumex acetosella ssp. angiocarpus and Stellaria media. The perennials Convolvulus arvensis and Cynodon dactylon showed a frequency higher than 40% and abundance higher than 20 and 12 plants m-2, respectively. The predominant vineyard soil management, in inter row, was cover cropping (53 %), mostly by resident vegetation, and soil tillage (41%). Herbicides were applied mostly in the row (46%) of the vineyards, only 4% were applied in total area and 2% in inter row. The soil management in 50% of the rows was soil tillage. CCA analysis showed that specific species were associated to the variables of geographical situation and soil management. Some species appeared associated with cover cropping...

Effects of organic residue management and legume cover on growth of pine seedlings, nutrient leaching and soil properties

Gómez-Rey, M.X.; Madeira, M.; Vasconcelos, E.
Fonte: INRA/EDP Sciences Publicador: INRA/EDP Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.6%
• The short-term effect of organic residue management on the growth and nutrition of Pinus pinaster Ait. seedlings, and on nutrient leaching and chemical properties of an acid soil was assessed through a lysimeter experiment. Treatments included absence, placement on the soil surface, and incorporation into the soil (with and without legume cover cropping) of organic residues (forest floor litter or forest floor litter plus harvest residues). • Residues placed on the soil surface enhanced seedling growth. Organic residues reduced nutrient losses (NO− 3 , Ca andMg) and resulted in nutrient accumulation in the soil. Harvest residues positively affected K seedling nutrition status and enhanced K soil accumulation. • Legume cover cropping reduced soil nutrient losses (N, Ca, Mg and K) during the early stage of seedling growth; it also improved seedling nutrition status (N and P), but without any effect on growth. • Harvest residues plus forest floor litter placed on the soil surface was the most appropriate management to both reduce nutrient losses through leaching and increase height of seedlings at the end of the experimental period (two years).

Fertilization and cover crop effects on soil nitrogen and plant nutrition in a young guarana plantation

Trujillo,Lucerina; Lehmann,Johannes; Cravo,Manoel da Silva; Atroch,André Luiz; Nascimento Filho,Firmino José do
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
Fruit tree production is gaining an increasing importance in the central Amazon and elsewhere in the humid tropics, but very little is known about the nutrient dynamics in the soil-plant system. The present study quantified the effects of fertilization and cover cropping with a legume (Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth.) on soil nitrogen (N) dynamics and plant nutrition in a young guarana plantation (Paullinia cupana Kunth. (H.B. and K.) var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke) on a highly weathered Xanthic Ferralsol. Large subsoil nitrate (NO3-) accumulation at 0.3-3 m below the guarana plantation indicated N leaching from the topsoil. The NO3- contents to a depth of 2 m were 2.4 times greater between the trees than underneath unfertilized trees (P<0.05). The legume cover crop between the trees increased soil N availability as shown by elevated aerobic N mineralization and lower N immobilization in microbial biomass. The guarana N nutrition and yield did not benefit from the N input by biological fixation of atmospheric N2 by the legume cover (P>0.05). Even without a legume intercrop, large amounts of NO3- were found in the subsoil between unfertilized trees. Subsoil NO3- between the trees could be utilized, however, by fertilized guarana. This can be explained by a more vigorous growth of fertilized trees which had a larger nutrient demand and exploited a larger soil volume. With a legume cover crop...

Residual effect of soil tillage on water erosion from a Typic Paleudalf under long-term no-tillage and cropping systems

Lanzanova,Mastrângello Enívar; Eltz,Flávio Luiz Foletto; Nicoloso,Rodrigo da Silveira; Cassol,Elemar Antonino; Bertol,Ildegardis; Amado,Telmo Jorge Carneiro; Girardello,Vitor Cauduro
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.56%
Soil erosion is one of the chief causes of agricultural land degradation. Practices of conservation agriculture, such as no-tillage and cover crops, are the key strategies of soil erosion control. In a long-term experiment on a Typic Paleudalf, we evaluated the temporal changes of soil loss and water runoff rates promoted by the transition from conventional to no-tillage systems in the treatments: bare soil (BS); grassland (GL); winter fallow (WF); intercrop maize and velvet bean (M+VB); intercrop maize and jack bean (M+JB); forage radish as winter cover crop (FR); and winter cover crop consortium ryegrass - common vetch (RG+CV). Intensive soil tillage induced higher soil losses and water runoff rates; these effects persisted for up to three years after the adoption of no-tillage. The planting of cover crops resulted in a faster decrease of soil and water loss rates in the first years after conversion from conventional to no-tillage than to winter fallow. The association of no-tillage with cover crops promoted progressive soil stabilization; after three years, soil losses were similar and water runoff was lower than from grassland soil. In the treatments of cropping systems with cover crops, soil losses were reduced by 99.7 and 66.7 %...

Strip-tilled Cover Cropping for Managing Nematodes, Soil Mesoarthropods, and Weeds in a Bitter Melon Agroecosystem

Marahatta, Sharadchandra P.; Wang, Koon-Hui; Sipes, Brent S.; Hooks, Cerruti R.R.
Fonte: The Society of Nematologists Publicador: The Society of Nematologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.78%
A field trial was conducted to examine whether strip-tilled cover cropping followed by living mulch practice could suppress root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and enhance beneficial nematodes and other soil mesofauna, while suppressing weeds throughout two vegetable cropping seasons. Sunn hemp (SH), Crotalaria juncea, and French marigold (MG), Tagetes patula, were grown for three months, strip-tilled, and bitter melon (Momordica charantia) seedlings were transplanted into the tilled strips; the experiment was conducted twice (Season I and II). Strip-tilled cover cropping with SH prolonged M. incognita suppression in Season I but not in Season II where suppression was counteracted with enhanced crop growth. Sunn hemp also consistently enhanced bacterivorous and fungivorous nematode population densities prior to cash crop planting, prolonged enhancement of the Enrichment Index towards the end of both cash crop cycles, and increased numbers of soil mesoarthropods. Strip-tilled cover cropping of SH followed by clipping of the living mulch as surface mulch also reduced broadleaf weed populations up to 3 to 4 weeks after cash crop planting. However, SH failed to reduce soil disturbance as indicated by the Structure Index. Marigold suppressed M. incognita efficiently when planted immediately following a M. incognita-susceptible crop...

Impact of No-till Cover Cropping of Italian Ryegrass on Above and Below Ground Faunal Communities Inhabiting a Soybean Field with Emphasis on Soybean Cyst Nematodes

Hooks, Cerruti R. R.; Wang, Koon-Hui; Meyer, Susan L. F.; Lekveishvili, Mariam; Hinds, Jermaine; Zobel, Emily; Rosario-Lebron, Armando; Lee-Bullock, Mason
Fonte: The Society of Nematologists Publicador: The Society of Nematologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.48%
Two field trials were conducted between 2008 and 2010 in Maryland to evaluate the ability of an Italian ryegrass (IR) (Lolium multiflorum) cover crop to reduce populations of plant-parasitic nematodes while enhancing beneficial nematodes, soil mites and arthropods in the foliage of a no-till soybean (Glycine max) planting. Preplant treatments were: 1) previous year soybean stubble (SBS); and 2) herbicide-killed IR cover crop + previous year soybean stubble (referred to as IR). Heterodera glycines population densities were very low and no significant difference in population densities of H. glycines or Pratylenchus spp. were observed between IR and SBS. Planting of IR increased abundance of bacterivorous nematodes in 2009. A reverse trend was observed in 2010 where SBS had higher abundance of bacterivorous nematodes and nematode richness at the end of the cover cropping period. Italian ryegrass also did not affect insect pests on soybean foliage. However, greater populations of spiders were found on soybean foliage in IR treatments during both field trials. Potential causes of these findings are discussed.

Sunn Hemp Cover Cropping and Organic Fertilizer Effects on the Nematode Community Under Temperate Growing Conditions

Hinds, Jermaine; Wang, Koon-Hui; Marahatta, Sharadchandra P.; Meyer, Susan L. F.; Hooks, Cerruti R. R.
Fonte: The Society of Nematologists Publicador: The Society of Nematologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.59%
Field experiments were conducted in Maryland to investigate the influence of sunn hemp cover cropping in conjunction with organic and synthetic fertilizers on the nematode community in a zucchini cropping system. Two field treatments, zucchini planted into a sunn hemp living and surface mulch (SH) and zucchini planted into bare-ground (BG) were established during three field seasons from 2009 to 2011. In 2009, although SH slightly increased nematode richness compared with BG by the first harvest (P < 0.10), it reduced nematode diversity and enrichment indices (P < 0.01 and P < 0.10, respectively) and increased the channel index (P < 0.01) compared to BG at the final harvest. This suggests a negative impact of SH on nematode community structure. The experiment was modified in 2010 and 2011 where the SH and BG main plots were further split into two subplots to investigate the added influence of an organic vs. synthetic fertilizer. In 2010, when used as a living and surface mulch in a no-till system, SH increased bacterivorous, fungivorous, and total nematodes (P < 0.05) by the final zucchini harvest, but fertilizer type did not influence nematode community structure. In 2011, when incorporated into the soil before zucchini planting, SH increased the abundance of bacterivorous and fungivorous nematodes early in the cropping season. SH increased species richness also at the end of the season (P < 0.05). Fertilizer application did not appear to influence nematodes early in the season. However...

Cover Cropping Alters the Diet of Arthropods in a Banana Plantation: A Metabarcoding Approach

Mollot, Gregory; Duyck, Pierre-François; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Lescourret, Françoise; Martin, Jean-François; Piry, Sylvain; Canard, Elsa; Tixier, Philippe
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/04/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.56%
Plant diversification using cover crops may promote natural regulation of agricultural pests by supporting alternative prey that enable the increase of arthropod predator densities. However, the changes in the specific composition of predator diet induced by cover cropping are poorly understood. Here, we hypothesized that the cover crop can significantly alter the diet of predators in agroecosystems. The cover crop Brachiaria decumbens is increasingly used in banana plantations to control weeds and improve physical soil properties. In this paper, we used a DNA metabarcoding approach for the molecular analysis of the gut contents of predators (based on mini-COI) to identify 1) the DNA sequences of their prey, 2) the predators of Cosmopolites sordidus (a major pest of banana crops), and 3) the difference in the specific composition of predator diets between a bare soil plot (BSP) and a cover cropped plot (CCP) in a banana plantation. The earwig Euborellia caraibea, the carpenter ant Camponotus sexguttatus, and the fire ant Solenopsis geminata were found to contain C. sordidus DNA at frequencies ranging from 1 to 7%. While the frequencies of predators positive for C. sordidus DNA did not significantly differ between BSP and CCP, the frequency at which E. caraibea was positive for Diptera was 26% in BSP and 80% in CCP; the frequency at which C. sexguttatus was positive for Jalysus spinosus was 14% in BSP and 0% in CCP; and the frequency at which S. geminata was positive for Polytus mellerborgi was 21% in BSP and 3% in CCP. E. caraibea...

The nutritional status and olive yield after three years of the cultivation of legume species as a cover crop in an olive orchard

Rodrigues, M.A.; Ferreira, I.Q.; Dimande, Paulo; Pereira, Ermelinda; Arrobas, Margarida
Fonte: International Legume Society Publicador: International Legume Society
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.54%
Growing self-reseeding annual legumes in olive orchards may increase the sustainability of the cropping system by increasing soil organic carbon and reducing the use of nitrogen fertilizers. In thls work, results are presented on the nitrogen nutritional status of trees and olive yields three years after the introduction of different ground-cover treatments in an olive orchard located in NE PortugaL The experimental design included three ground-cover treatments: Natural vegetation (Nat veg); Natural vegetation fertilized with 60 kg N ha'1 yr·1 (Nat vet +N); and a mixture of eleven self-reseeding annual legumes (Legumes). The experiment started in October 2009. The nutritional statUs of olive trees was assessed by leaf analysis, collecting leaves in July 2012 and January 2013 and determining the concentration of nutrients in leaves. In November 2012, the olive yields were recorded from eight pre-tagged trees per treatment. Nitrogen concentration in leaves and olive yields were significandy different among the ground-cover treatments. In July 2012, leaf N concentrations were 1 0.8, 11.9 and 14.1 g kg'', respectively in the treatments Nat veg, Nat veg +N and Legumes. In January 2013, the values were 12.6, 15.6 and 15.7 g kg·1 • The olive yields were 2.9...

Cover crops for the sustainability of rainfed olive orchards

Bacelar, E.A.; Correia, C.M.; Santos, D.; Moutinho-Pereira, J.M.; Gonçalves, Berta; Brito, Carlos; Ferreira, H.; Rodrigues, M.A.
Fonte: NAGREF Publicador: NAGREF
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.79%
Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is present in large areas of mainland PortugaL predominantly in less-favored regions. In spite of the fact that irrigated areas are currently increasing, most of the olive orchards are still cultivated under rainfed conditions. The success of olive farming under rainfed conditions is mainly due to the high capacity of olive tree to develop anatomical, physiological and biochemical drought resistance mechanisms. Nevertheless, the productivity is low. We propose cover cropping to control soil erosion, improve soil quality and fertility of rainfed oli\'e orchards. Cover cropping is widespread in fruit farming in temperate climates and in irrigated olive orchards, where water is not a limiting resource. The effects of cover cropping were investigated on a 14-year-old olive orchard (Olea europaea L., c. Cobrançosa) with 240 trees ha-1, grown under rainfed conditions. The commercia! orchard was located in Mirandela, in the Northeast of Portugal (41 0 31' N; 7° 12' W). Four different soil management systems were compared: (i) development of natural vegetation, (ii) self-reseeding pasture species, such as subterranean clover and other annual legume species with short growing cycle grown as cover crop; (iii) white lupine cover crop; (iv) conventional tillage...

Cover crops for the sustainability of rainfed olive orchards

Bacelar, Eunice; Correia, Carlos; Santos, Dario; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Gonçalves, Berta; Brito, Cátia; Ferreira, Helena; Rodrigues, Ângelo
Fonte: Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro Publicador: Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.79%
Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is present in large areas of mainland Portugal, predominantly in less-favored regions. In spite of the fact that irrigated areas are currently increasing, most of the olive orchards are still cultivated under rainfed conditions. The success of olive farming under rainfed conditions is mainly due to the high capacity of olive tree to develop anatomical, physiological and biochemical drought resistance mechanisms. Nevertheless, the productivity is low. We propose cover cropping to control soil erosion, improve soil quality and fertility of rainfed olive orchards. Cover cropping is widespread in fruit farming in temperate climates and in irrigated olive orchards, where water is not a limiting resource. The effects of cover cropping were investigated on a 14-year-old olive orchard (Olea europaea L., cv. Cobrançosa) with 240 trees ha-1, grown under rainfed conditions. The commercial orchard was located in Mirandela, in the Northeast of Portugal (41º 31' N; 7º 12' W). Four different soil management systems were compared: (i) development of natural vegetation, (ii) self-reseeding pasture species, such as subterranean clover and other annual legume species with short growing cycle grown as cover crop; (iii) white lupine cover crop; (iv) conventional tillage...

Policy Opportunities to Increase Cover Crop Adoption on North Carolina Farms

Chin, Jennifer; Zook, Katy; Miller, Lee
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 27/04/2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
Cover cropping is an agricultural practice that produces on-farm benefits while contributing to broader public sustainability goals. However, barriers to farmer adoption of cover crops remain poorly understood. This study seeks to determine the relative importance of the barriers that farmers overcome to adopt cover crops in North Carolina and identify the resources that enable their success. We implemented an email survey of NC farmers to gather quantitative data about cover crop use and preferences, supplemented by qualitative interviews with experts on cover crop adoption to determine the influence of policies on farmers’ decision to implement cover crops. Our data show that farmers in NC overcame three broad categories of challenges to adopt cover crops: agronomic, input costs, and knowledge transfer. The level of these challenges varies depending on farm size and income, age of farmer, farming experience, and whether information to plant cover crops was obtained through extension, farmer networks, or private industry. Timing, in particular, was a challenge for farmers regardless of their demographic characteristics. We recommend a holistic policy approach that strengthens diverse types of knowledge sharing through on-farm demonstration...

Policy Opportunities to Increase Cover Crop Adoption on North Carolina Farms

Miller, Lee; Zook, Katy; Chin, Jennifer
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 27/04/2012 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
Cover cropping is an agricultural practice that produces on-farm benefits while contributing to broader public sustainability goals. However, cover crops have not been widely adopted in the United States, while the barriers to farmer adoption of cover crops have received little research attention. This study considers the relative importance of the barriers that farmers overcome to adopt cover crops in North Carolina and identifies the resources that enable successful adoption. We used an email survey of NC farmers to gather quantitative data about cover crop use and preferences, supplemented by qualitative interviews with experts on cover crop adoption. Our data show that farmers in NC overcame three broad categories of challenges to adopt cover crops: agronomic, input costs, and knowledge transfer. The level of these challenges varies depending on farm size and income, age of farmer, farming experience, and whether information to plant cover crops was obtained through extension, farmer networks, or private industry. Timing for planting, in particular, challenges farmers regardless of their demographic characteristics. We recommend a holistic policy approach that strengthens diverse knowledge transfer networks, bolsters farmer incentives through existing cost-share programs...

Policy Opportunities to Increase Cover Crop Adoption on North Carolina Farms

Miller, Lee; Zook, Katy; Chin, Jennifer
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 27/04/2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
Cover cropping is an agricultural practice that produces on-farm benefits while contributing to broader public sustainability goals. However, cover crops have not been widely adopted in the United States, while the barriers to farmer adoption of cover crops have received little research attention. This study considers the relative importance of the barriers that farmers overcome to adopt cover crops in North Carolina and identifies the resources that enable successful adoption. We used an email survey of NC farmers to gather quantitative data about cover crop use and preferences, supplemented by qualitative interviews with experts on cover crop adoption. Our data show that farmers in NC overcame three broad categories of challenges to adopt cover crops: agronomic, input costs, and knowledge transfer. The level of these challenges varies depending on farm size and income, age of farmer, farming experience, and whether information to plant cover crops was obtained through extension, farmer networks, or private industry. Timing for planting, in particular, challenges farmers regardless of their demographic characteristics. We recommend a holistic policy approach that strengthens diverse knowledge transfer networks, bolsters farmer incentives through existing cost-share programs...

Cover Cropping in a sloping, non-irrigated vineyard: I - effects on weed composition and dynamics

Monteiro,A.; Lopes,C.M.; Machado,J.P.; Fernandes,N.; Araújo,A.; Moreira,I.
Fonte: INIAV - DOIS PORTOS (Ex-Estação Vitivinícola Nacional) Publicador: INIAV - DOIS PORTOS (Ex-Estação Vitivinícola Nacional)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
The influence of two sward treatments and soil cultivation on the composition, the structure, and the evolution of the biomass of vineyard weed communities was examined. The 3-year study (2002-2004) was carried out in a sloping, non-irrigated vineyard, cv. ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’, in the Estremadura winegrowing region of Portugal. The experimental treatments were: soil tillage (control); permanent sown cover crop - Lolium perenne ‘Nui’, L. multiflorum ‘Bartíssimo’, Festuca ovina ‘Ridu’, F. rubra ssp. rubra ‘Echo’, Trifolium incarnatum. ‘Red’, T. repens ‘Huie’ and T. subterraneum ‘Claire’; and permanent resident vegetation. Total weed biomass in the spring did not reveal significant differences between treatments, but varied annually. The management practices - e.g. time and number of soil cultivations and inter-row mowing - were determinant in weed biomass evolution. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed significant treatment effects on community structure. Three years after the experiment was set up, in the soil tillage treatment weed composition was dominated by annual broad-leaved species, namely five Geraniaceae species, Medicago polymorpha and Sonchus oleraceus. The perennial broad-leaved species Oxalis pes-caprae was also a dominant species in soil tillage. In both sward treatments there was an increase in the perennial broad-leaved and grass species. Compared to soil tillage...

Cover cropping in a slopping non-irrigated vineyard: II - effects on vegetative growth, yield, berry and wine quality of "cabernet sauvignon" grapevines

Lopes,C.M.; Monteiro,A.; Machado,J.P.; Fernandes,N.; Araújo,A.
Fonte: INIAV - DOIS PORTOS (Ex-Estação Vitivinícola Nacional) Publicador: INIAV - DOIS PORTOS (Ex-Estação Vitivinícola Nacional)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.48%
Grapevine vegetative growth, yield, fruit composition and wine quality were studied in the Estremadura Winegrowing Region of Portugal in a ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ slopping non-irrigated vineyard. During three seasons three treatments were compared: soil tillage (control), permanent resident vegetation, and permanent sown cover crop. When compared to soil tillage, the inter-row sward treatments displayed a lower predawn leaf water potential from bloom to mid-ripening. These differences in vine water status did not affect vine yield or berry sugar accumulation; however, in the third season after experiment setup it induced a significant reduction in vegetative growth in the sward treatments, compared to soil tillage. This vegetative growth reduction had a positive effect on grape composition by reducing titratable acidity and increasing berry skin total phenols and anthocyanins. Those differences were also detected in the wines by the judges who gave a better classification to the wines from the sward treatments. Our results indicate that cover cropping can be a valuable tool for controlling vigour and enhancing wine quality in this winegrowing region.