Página 1 dos resultados de 4893 itens digitais encontrados em 0.213 segundos

Cobertura florestal e custo do tratamento de águas em bacias hidrográficas de abastecimento público: caso do manancial do município de Piracicaba.; Forest cover and the cost of water treatment in municipal watershades: the case of the Piracicaba municipal watershed.

Reis, Lúcia Vidor de Sousa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/10/2004 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.7%
A sociedade necessita de indicadores capazes de medir a susceptibilidade ao risco de degradação de um manancial de abastecimento público. O percentual de cobertura florestal de uma bacia hidrográfica pode ser utilizado como um dos indicativos na avaliação da qualidade de um manancial de abastecimento público. O custo do tratamento de águas provenientes de bacias hidrográficas com diferentes percentuais de cobertura florestal é um componente que pode subsidiar discussões sobre a importância da cobertura florestal em mananciais de abastecimento público, como recurso ambiental a ser priorizado pelo poder público e exigido pela sociedade, tendo em vista os benefícios econômicos e de minimização de riscos à saúde humana. O trabalho determinou os custos do tratamento da água proveniente de bacias hidrográficas com diversos percentuais de cobertura florestal através da análise das características operacionais de diversas Estações de Tratamento de Água (ETAs) e suas respectivas captações. Para seis dos sete sistemas e ETAs estudadas, o custo específico com produtos químicos na ETA eleva- se com a redução do percentual de cobertura florestal da bacia de abastecimento. Não se pretendeu situar e associar a localização das áreas de cobertura florestal a outros fatores como...

Provision of Water to the Poor in Africa : Experience with Water Standposts and the Informal Water Sector

Keener, Sarah; Luengo, Manuel; Banerjee, Sudeshna
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.65%
Standpipes that dispense water from utilities are the most common alternatives to piped water connections for poor customers in the cities of Sub-Saharan Africa. Fifty-five percent of the unconnected urban population relies on standpipes as their first water source. Other informal water providers include household resellers and a variety of water tankers and vendors, which are the first water source of 1 percent and 3 percent of the urban population, respectively. In the cities studied, the percentage of unconnected households ranges from 12 percent to 86 percent of the population. The percentage of unconnected people covered by standpipes is substantially higher for countries with higher rates of household connection, while the percentage of unconnected people covered by water tankers or water vendors is higher for countries with lower rates of household connection. Water prices in the informal market are much higher than for households with private connections or yard taps. Although standpipes are heavily subsidized by utilities...

The Full Economic Cost of Groundwater Extraction

Strand, Jon
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.75%
When a groundwater basin is exploited by a large number of farmers, acting independently, each farmer has little incentive to practice conservation that would primarily benefit other farmers. This can lead to excessive groundwater extraction. When farmers pay less than the full cost of electricity used for groundwater pumping, this problem can be worsened; while the problem can be somewhat relieved by rationing the electricity supply. The research in this paper constructs an analytical framework for describing the characteristics of economically efficient groundwater management plans, identifying how individual water use decisions by farmers collectively depart from efficient resource use, and examining how policies related to both water and electricity can improve on the efficiency of the status quo. It is shown that an optimal scheme for pricing electricity used for pumping groundwater includes two main elements: 1) the full (marginal) economic cost of electricity must be covered; and 2) there must be an extra charge...

Estimation of Water Demand in Developing Countries

Nauges, Céline; Whittington, Dale
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.56%
A better understanding of household water use in developing countries is necessary to manage and expand water systems more effectively. Several meta-analyzes have examined the determinants of household water demand in industrialized countries, but little effort has been made to synthesize the growing body of literature evaluating household water demand in developing countries. This article reviews what is known and what is missing from that literature thus far. Analysis of demand for water in developing countries is complicated by abundant evidence that, contrary to what is observed in most developed countries, households in developing countries have access to, and may use more than one of several types of, water sources. The authors describe the different modeling strategies that researchers have adopted to estimate water demand in developing countries and discuss issues related to data collection. The findings from the literature on the main determinants of water demand in these countries suggest that, despite heterogeneity in the places and time periods studied, most estimates of own-price elasticity of water from private connections are in the range from −0.3 to −0.6, close to what is usually reported for industrialized countries. The empirical findings on decisions relating to household water sources are much less robust and should be a high priority for future research.

Micro and Macro-Level Approaches for Assessing the Value of Irrigation Water

Johansson, Robert C.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.77%
Many countries are reforming their economies and setting macroeconomic policies that have direct and indirect impact on the performance of the irrigation sector. One reason for the movement toward reform in the water sector across countries is that water resources are increasingly becoming a limiting factor for many human activities. Another reason for increased pressures to address water policy issues is that many countries are in the process of removing barriers to trade, particularly in agricultural commodities. Therefore, knowledge of the value of water when crafting domestic and macroeconomic policies is important to compare the variable impacts of reform across sectors of the economy and populations within the country. Researchers have used many methods for assessing the value of irrigation water. This survey reviews a broad literature to ascertain how two basic questions have been addressed by research over the past few decades. First, what is the value of water across different sectors and levels? Second, how will this value change under different macroeconomic and domestic policies? This survey details a number of methods for approaching these two questions. The literature has been organized according to a progression from theoretical underpinnings to empirical approaches to how the value of irrigation services are relevant to the link between globalization and poverty.

Climate Variability and Water Resources in Kenya : The Economic Cost of Inadequate Management

Mogaka, Hezron; Gichere, Samuel; Davis, Richard; Hirji, Rafik
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.72%
Eighty percent of Kenya is arid and semi-arid land; yet despite chronic water scarcity, the country has developed only 15 percent of its available safe water resources. Demand for water is expected to rise, owing to population increases and growing requirements for irrigated agriculture, urban and rural populations, industries, livestock, and hydropower. Meanwhile, climate variability and the steady degradation of water resources cost Kenya at least 3.3 billion Kenyan shillings (Ksh) annually. Between 1997 and 2000, the El Nino-La Nina floods and droughts cost an estimated 290 billion Ksh, or 14 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) for the period. While it is not economical to avoid all costs, many of them can be minimized by increased investments in management and infrastructure, and more efficient, accountable, and participatory management and operation of the water sector.

Economic Value of Water in the Rio Bravo Basin (Mexico) : The Case of Bajo San Juan, Juarez and Saltillo

Goicoechea, J.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.57%
This paper evaluates the economic value of water in three locations in the Rio Bravo Basin. Formally known as the Bravo-Conchos, this basin overlaps across five Mexican states, beneath the Rio Bravo in northeastern Mexico. The paper also estimates the level of economic output in terms of value added for the main economic activities, using official statistics. The evaluation of water use provides elements of analysis needed to establish priorities in a quantitative fashion, utilizing an aggregation approach, while resorting to macroeconomic concepts. In terms of efficiency, there is a need to increase the municipal water tariffs to assist with the financial deficit faced by the water operators. Whether they are public agencies or private firms, the enterprises involved in all aspects of water services must be transparent and accountable in their actions and policy.

Review of World Bank Engagement in the Irrigation and Drainage Sector in Azerbaijan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.74%
The sector review includes seven chapters and one annex. This first chapter is an overview of agriculture, irrigation and the purpose and content of this report. The second chapter provides a review of the Bank s own strategy and priorities for irrigation and drainage within its portfolio of investments, from the time of its 2004 Strategy until the present. It also includes a short summary of key lessons learned in this sector. The third chapter provides a brief situation analysis for irrigation and drainage in Azerbaijan, including a description of key parameters and changes; a description of rising challenges, needs and opportunities; and an overview of the Government s State Program (SP) for Sustainable Development of Amelioration and water management for 2008-2015. The fourth chapter describes the issues of investment and financing of irrigation and drainage priorities for infrastructure development, rehabilitation and modernization, and management. This includes investment priorities for the Government as well as needs for cost recovery by water users for the cost of irrigation and drainage system operations and maintenance. The fifth chapter describes the institutional framework and how it has emerged since independence. It also identifies outstanding issues for further institutional development...

Better Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor : Good Practice from Sub-Saharan Africa

Water Utility Partnership for Capacity Building (WUP) Africa
Fonte: Kenya: European Communities and Water Utility Partnership Publicador: Kenya: European Communities and Water Utility Partnership
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.74%
The document is structured in three parts covering the key thematic areas of water supply service delivery, sanitation service delivery, and overall policy. Each part describes a series of different actions that can be taken to improve service delivery to low-income communities, outlines key lessons and challenges and identifies the principles of good practice. This project is aimed at developing a better understanding of the conditions necessary for water and sanitation services to reach low-income communities. It sought to build on the knowledge and experience of the various actors currently involved in delivering or supporting these services. One of the main observations of the authors is that there is never just one solution to any particular problem. Within each country context, the key to a successful strategy lies in the capacity of practitioners working in the water and sanitation sector to innovate and to adapt solutions to address local constraints and opportunities. This document aims to: (i) describe the challenges facing service delivery to low-income urban communities; (ii) outline key principles that guide water and sanitation sector practitioners in the delivery of services to the urban poor; and (iii) provide tangible examples from a range of sub-saharan African countries to illustrate these principles and challenges.

An Empirical Analysis of State and Private Sector Provision of Water Services in Africa

Kirkpatrick, Colin; Parker, David; Zhang, Yin-Fang
Fonte: Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.65%
Under pressure from donor agencies and international financial institutions such as the World Bank, some developing countries have experimented with the privatization of water services. This article reviews the econometric evidence on the effects of water privatization in developing economies and presents new results using statistical data envelopment analysis and stochastic cost frontier techniques and data from Africa. The analysis fails to show evidence of better performance by private utilities than by state owned utilities. Among the reasons why water privatization could prove problematic in lower-income economies are the technology of water provision and the nature of the product, transaction costs, and regulatory weaknesses.

Implementation Strategy for Urban Water Supply Policy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.74%
This report deals with the water sector in Cambodia, and only mentions sanitation aspects in passing. However, it is recognized that the scale of the sanitation challenge is similarly daunting to or even larger than the water challenge, and that progress in sanitation will be as crucial as expanded access to safe water in making a lasting impact on poverty incidence, in particular vulnerability to waterborne diseases. There are two main constraints to broad-based growth in the sector. First is the absence of a comprehensive strategy to channel financing into the sector and to address weak incentives to raise more own-generated funds from user revenues. Second is the capacity of the providers to absorb public funding and utilize resources efficiently towards expanded access to sustainable services. Both of these constraints will have to be addressed in the context of the country's overall policy of promoting sustainable use of water resources and considering concerns of the poor and marginalized in the pursuit of development. In the short term...

Republic of Belarus : Municipal Water Sector Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.74%
This paper offers a diagnostic of the water and wastewater sector for the Republic of Belarus, addressing the sector's institutional, organizational, technical, and economic aspects, with a specific focus on urban areas. Significant national investment programs have enabled Belarus to significantly improve the quality of water and wastewater services, but major challenges remain. Water utilities show an overall acceptable performance that could be improved upon, especially in small towns. The sector's legal and institutional framework is well-defined and functional, but an insufficient operational regulation undermines the efficiency of services. The water and wastewater sector in Belarus urgently requires modernization. This review recommends that utilities be regionalized to generate economies of scale; the capacities, means, and resources be pooled; and access to funds be facilitated. Utility regulation needs to be reinforced by the introduction of benchmarking or yardstick competition, and by the set-up of performance-based contracts with their asset-owners. Key recommendations to improve the efficiency of utility operations include the development of a performance-oriented management culture and the involvement of the private sector.

The Cost of Environmental Degradation : Case Studies from the Middle East and North Africa

Croitoru, Lelia; Sarraf, Maria
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.71%
Environmental degradation is costly, to individuals, to societies, and to the environment. This book, edited by Lelia Croitoru and Maria Sarraf, makes these costs clear by examining a number of studies carried out over the past few years by the World Bank's Middle East and North Africa region. Even more important than estimating the monetary cost of environmental degradation (COED), however, are the clear guidance and policy implications derived from these findings. This volume presents a new approach to estimating the impacts of environmental degradation. In the past, when government officials asked researchers the simple question how large are the impacts of environmental degradation? The response was often an emphatic 'large!' a rather imprecise number. The strength of this work is that it actually quantifies in economic terms how large is 'large' and thereby gains the attention of decision makers and offers specific insights for improved policy making. Finally, this book demonstrates the benefits of doing a coordinated...

Water and Sanitation to Reduce Child Mortality : The Impact and Cost of Water and Sanitation Infrastructure

Gunther, Isabel; Fink, Gunther
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.76%
Using household survey data, this paper estimates the mortality impact of improved water and sanitation access in order to evaluate the potential contribution of water and sanitation investment toward achieving the child mortality targets defined in Millennium Development Goal 4. The authors find that the average mortality reduction achievable by investment in water and sanitation infrastructure is 25 deaths per 1,000 children born across countries, a difference that accounts for about 40 percent of the gap between current child mortality rates and the 2015 target set in the Millennium Development Goals. According to the estimates, full household coverage with water and sanitation infrastructure could lead to a total reduction of 2.2 million child deaths per year in the developing world. Combining this analysis with cost data for water and sanitation infrastructure, the authors estimate that the average cost per life-year saved ranges between 65 and 80 percent of developing countries' annual gross domestic product per capita. The results suggest that investment in water and sanitation is a highly cost-effective policy option...

Evaluation of Small-Scale Providers of Water Supply and Sanitation Services in Peru

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.65%
The Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), administered by the World Bank, helps countries find sustainable solutions to ensure efficient delivery of the quality water supply and sanitation services the population demands. The WSP is carrying out a systematic analysis in several countries to identify the role of small-scale providers (SSP) of water and sanitation services to poor populations not served by public and private entities. The study also examines how these operators fit in and respond to sector policies and the organization of the sector in each country. The objective of this study is to identify the reasons for the existence of small-scale providers of water SSP in Peru and to evaluate the experience of these operators, with an emphasis on their coverage, service quality, costs and sustainability. The evaluation also includes proposals to improve service to the market traditionally served by SSP. The study was divided into three phases: (a) a sector assessment to determine why sector policies and financial and institutional resources have not produced service provision to the entire population...

Achieving Financial Sustainability and Recovering Costs in Bank Financed Water Supply and Sanitation and Irrigation Projects

McPhail, Alexander; Locussol, Alain R.; Perry, Chris
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.78%
This note is a partial response to the above mentioned 2010 Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) evaluation. It covers the specific issues to be addressed in the Water supply and Sanitation (WSS) sector and in the irrigation sector in two distinct parts, because if WSS and irrigation have some common features, there are many distinctions to be made. Among the various water-using sectors, that include navigation, fisheries, hydropower, rain fed agriculture, irrigated agriculture, WSS, and more generally 'the environment', cost recovery issues are of primary concern, and are the focus for this note, in the WSS and irrigation sectors. This preliminary background Note is divided in four parts: a 'history' of the call for financial sustainability and cost recovery and the parallel documenting of the lack of progress. This section ends with what this Note hopes to achieve in the face of what is clearly a deeply rooted problem; an outline of options to be considered for achieving financial sustainability of WSS service providers and recovering the costs of the WSS service through tariffs...

Local Financing of Water Utilities : Challenges and Opportunities - The Case of Peru

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.56%
This report identifies opportunities and challenges for local financing of water utilities in Peru and suggests recommendations for removing barriers and creating incentives for scaling-up local financing to local water utilities. It was developed with an understanding that meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in water and sanitation in Peru will require scaling up local financing for the sector and that efficiency and effectiveness can be enhanced by greater involvement of local institutional investors and other parties. This joint study exposes many of the barriers to local private financing facing the urban water supply and sewerage (WS&S) sector in Peru. In short, the majority of local water utilities cannot meet credit rating and governance standards required to access private financing. Consequently, loans from financial markets are rare. These findings are probably not specific to Peru. Accordingly, there is great value for central governments to undertake similarly detailed studies to identify the obstacles preventing access to local financing unique to their country's WS&S sector.

Blue Water and the Consequences of Alternative Food Security Policies in the Middle East and North Africa for Water Security

Larson, Donald F.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.69%
In the Middle East and North Africa, food security and water security are tightly entwined. In particular, choices about the extent to which food security policies rely on trade rather than domestically produced staples have stark consequences for the region's limited water resources. This paper builds on previous modeling results comparing the cost and benefits of policies to protect consumers against surging international wheat prices, and expands the analysis to consider the consequences of the policies for water resources. A self-sufficiency policy is analyzed as well. Results suggest that trade-based food security policies have no significant effect on the sustainability of water resources, while the costs of policies based on self-sufficiency for water resources are high. The analysis also shows that while information about the water footprint of alternative production systems is helpful, a corresponding economic footprint that fully measures the resource cost of water is needed to concisely rank alternative policies in economic terms that are consistent with sustainable outcomes.

Pricing, Subsidies, and the Poor : Demand for Improved Water Services in Central America

Walker, Ian; Ordonez, Fidel; Serrano, Pedro; Halpern, Jonathan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.77%
Reformulating tariff and subsidy policies is central to improving water and sanitation services in developing countries. The traditional model of state enterprise service provision, coupled with residential tariffs set well below the cost of service, has generally delivered unsatisfactory results. Low internal generation of funds has impeded expansion of networks into poor communities and has resulted in very poor services there. Most of the subsidy has benefited higher-income groups. Reformers have proposed private provision to improve efficiency, cost-reflective tariffs to permit the systems to meet demand, and better-targeted subsidies. But is there empirical evidence that existing subsidies are ineffective and that the poor could pay the full cost of water services? Analyzing household survey and water company data from cities of Central America and Venezuela, the authors confirm that: 1) Households without piped connections pay a lot for small amounts of water from "coping sources." 2) Most public water companies undercharge hugely...

Estimating the opportunity cost of water for the Kusile and Medupi coal-fired electricity power plants in South Africa

Inglesi-Lotz,Roula; Blignaut,James
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.69%
In South Africa, water is considered a limited source, not only because of the country's arid nature, but also because of the relatively skew distribution of the resource and the fact that 98% of the resource is already allocated. Eskom, the South African electricity supplier, commenced with the construction of two new coal-fired power stations namely Kusile and Medupi. The question is: what is the opportunity cost of investing in these power stations from a water perspective? We do not argue here against the need for power plants and additional electricity generation capacity per se, but consider the opportunity cost of using this specific technology. We estimate the shadow price of water for different power generation technologies as an indicator of the opportunity cost of water. We apply a production function approach for a baseline case (coal-fired power generation using the Medupi and Kusile parameters), and four alternative technologies. The only alternative that performs worse than the baseline case is the traditional wet-cooling coal-fired power process. The baseline case, however, does show a high opportunity cost when compared to renewable alternatives (solar, wind and biomass) ranging from R0.66/kWh (biomass) to R0.83/kWh (solar) to R1.31/kWh (wind).