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The Silence of Corruption : Identifying Underreporting of Business Corruption through Randomized Response Techniques

Jensen, Nathan M.; Rahman, Aminur
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.24%
Research on the economic consequences of corruption has been hampered by the inability to directly measure corruption. Using an innovative methodology that allows respondents to report individual experiences with corruption while minimizing self-incrimination and an objective diagnostic to evaluate lying (false responses), this paper explores the extent of business corruption in Bangladesh. The analysis shows that traditional measures of corruption underreport the extent of business corruption in Bangladesh and existing strategies to evaluate and elicit truthful responses have limited effectiveness. The authors identify the types of firms that are associated with false responses and nonresponses to survey questions on corruption.

The Many Faces of Corruption : Tracking Vulnerabilities at the Sector Level

Campos, J. Edgardo; Pradhan, Sanjay
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.27%
This paper explores the use of prototype road maps to identify corruption vulnerabilities, suggests corresponding warning signals, and proposes operationally useful remedial measures in each of several selected sectors and for a selected sample of cross cutting public sector functions that are particularly prone to corruption and that are critical to sector performance. Numerous technical experts have come together in this effort to develop an operationally useful approach to diagnosing and tackling corruption. The many faces of corruption is an invaluable reference for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers engaged in the business of development.

Grand Corruption in Utilities

Kenny, Charles; Søreide, Tina
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.26%
This paper discusses mechanisms of grand corruption in private sector utility provision in developing countries. By the term "grand corruption," the authors abstract from the petty corruption that consumers experience - for example, when firms and individuals pay bribes to get water delivery or an electricity connection. The paper focuses on decisions made at the government level involving private sector management, ownership, and provision of utility services. Corruption at that level may influence the pace and nature of private sector involvement and competition in utilities, as well as the level and form of investments, subsidies, and prices. On the basis of a literature review and interviews with firms and regulating authorities in two countries, Tanzania and the Philippines, this paper discusses the levels and determinants of grand corruption in utilities. The paper concludes by discussing a research program to extend this knowledge through a cross-country survey instrument.

Mauritania : Anti-Corruption Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.28%
This report provides analytic support to the National Anti-corruption Strategy (NACS) formulation, offers lessons from international experience on governance and anti-corruption (GAC) policy, and generally supports the Government and its development partners to better understand the phenomenon of corruption in Mauritania. The report is structured as follows: Chapter 2 focuses on the definition and measurement of corruption and the Mauritanian political economy. Chapter 3 focuses on corruption in public procurement. Chapter 4 concentrates on corruption in the courts of law. Chapter 5 deals with the extractive industries. Chapter 6 focuses on corruption from the perspective of the private sector, based on the results of the recent Investment Climate Assessment (ICA). On the basis of the analysis conducted in this report, the single most important message concerns the need for maintaining momentum and pressing ahead with the finalization of ongoing anti-corruption strategic thinking and legislation, and the implementation of already approved GAC laws and measures. Looking forward...

Philippines : Combating Corruption in the Philippines

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.28%
This report collects and presents available information about corruption issues facing the Philippines, ongoing anticorruption efforts in and outside the government, and suggested elements for a national anticorruption strategy, drawing on global experience. The report proposes a nine-point approach to fighting corruption in the Philippines. 1) Reducing opportunities for corruption by policy reforms and deregulations; 2) reforming campaign finance; 3) increasing public oversight; 4) reforming budget processes; 5) improving meritocracy in the civil service; 6) targeting selected departments and agencies; 7) enhancing sanctions against corruption; 8) developing partnerships with the private sector; and 9) supporting judicial reform. These initiatives, which are already underway as isolated elements, must be unified under one concerted program, a strong leadership and management structure, and a strong partnership with the private sector, civil society, donors, the congress, and judiciary.

Three essays on corruption and auctions

PAPIOTI, Katerina Chara
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.25%
This thesis contributes to the understanding of corruption and auctions. It consists of three chapters focusing on diverse aspects of these two general topics as well as their combinations, from an applied microeconomic theory perspective: (i) the effects of corruption on bidding behaviour in all-pay auctions and the auctioneer’s decisions, (ii) the use of central bank bond auctions as tools to measure banks’ liquidity risk, and (iii) the persistence of corruption and corruption differences between similar economies. As discussed in recent bibliography, auctions performed by an intermediary between the seller of the good and buyers can be penetrable by corruption. Furthermore, corruption can enter auctions in different forms. In the first chapter of this thesis, entitled Corruption in All-Pay Auctions, we compare the effects of pure pecuniary corruption and favouritism on bidding behaviour and the auctioneer’s expected revenue, in the context of All-Pay Auctions, used to model lobbying, labour-market tournaments and competition for monopoly power. We provide conditions under which favouritism makes bidders more or less aggressive than in the benchmark model without corruption, and prove that bidders are always more aggressive when faced with a non favouritist corrupt auctioneer. In both cases...

Policing in the South Pacific Islands: dealing with serious and entrenched corruption

Parry, Stephen
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.3%
As Australia's closest neighbours, countries in the South Pacific directly engage Australia's national interests. A number of these nations such as Fiji, the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea continue to face significant challenges, including law and order problems, weak institutions, economic decline, lack of employment opportunities, social dysfunction which are heightened by the serious corruption within Government agencies and civil society. Left unattended, these problems present a significant security challenge to Australia and possible destabilisation in the broader region. Such difficulties could also have international implications. Weak governance, poor security infrastructure and general instability make the South Pacific a potentially attractive base for international criminal operations such as drug trafficking, weapons trading, money laundering, and even identity fraud. Developing solutions to curb corruption which can contributes to these serious problems is the purpose of this research report. Corruption in the South Pacific is endemic and infiltrates every level of society . It is present in parliaments, political parties, governments, the public and private sectors and the civil service. However...

"What statistical measures are available for accurately determining levels of corruption in Papua New Guinea?"

Gillespie, Robbie
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.31%
Corruption is a significant problem globally, representing a substantial barrier to development in many of the world's poorest nations and Papua New Guinea (PNG) is no exception. This paper reviews the approaches to corruption measurement around the world and makes some evaluation of their suitability for use in PNG. Despite the attention given to corruption there is no universally accepted definition. The Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) and other agencies define corruption as 'the abuse of public office for private gain'. Given this definition, this paper disaggregates public sector corruption into five categories; administrative or bureaucratic corruption; grand corruption; state capture or influence peddling; abuse of discretion; and improper political contributions. Corruption is inherently difficult to measure, due to its variable and covert nature, but different approaches have been successfully employed to measure aspects of corrupt practices. Of these approaches those of Transparency International (TI) are the most famous. Tl's Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) has rated PNG among the most corrupt countries in the world. The CPI is determined by the perceptions of four panels of country experts and thus reveals little specific information regarding corruption in PNG. The CPI is a useful tool in raising awareness of corruption but it is of limited direct use to AusAID activities. Citizen Report Card surveys are another approach to corruption measurement which track citizens experiences of public services. The underlying principle behind Citizen Report Cards is that citizens can provide useful information on the quality of public services as well as problems associated with service providers. The Citizen Report Card methodology is a powerful tool which can reveal administrative/bureaucratic corruption and also energise a populace to demand better services. However most citizens of PNG have little or no experience of public services thus a Citizen Report Card study would be inappropriate in PNG at this stage. Crime victimisation surveys are a bottom up approach to corruption measurement which can be used to capture levels of petty corruption. Community Crime Surveys are already undertaken in PNG but presently only ask respondents their perceptions of corruption. It is recommended that future crime victimisation surveys include questions concerning direct experience of corruption. Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys (PETS) and Quantitative Service Delivery Surveys (QSDS) are also popular tools for measuring corruption. PETS are an audit o the movement of funding through public service providers...

Fostering Institutions to Contain Corruption

Diamond, Larry
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.24%
Corruption can never be completely or permanently eliminated. The question is, how can it be controlled? How can a country move from a situation where corruption may be the norm to a situation where corruption is morally intolerable and behaviorally rare? To control corruption, the expected costs of engaging in corruption must be dramatically increased. Public officals must perceive a substantial risk that if they engage in corrupt conduct they will lose their offices, forfeit illegally acquired wealth, and even go to prison. Implementing such sanctions aganist corruption requires an institutional framework to control corruption. Effective and durable corruption control requires multiple, reinforcing, and overlapping institutions of accountability. Where corruption is endemic, these institutions need to be of three kinds: horizontal accountability, vertical accountability, and external accountability. The primary institutions of horizontal accountability are the law, anti-corruption bodies, the ombudsman's office...

Deterring Corruption and Improving Governance in Road Construction and Maintenance

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.29%
This sourcebook is part of a broader program on governance and corruption in the transport sector. The Sourcebook is meant as a resource to sector practitioners to assess the extent and risks of corruption in the sector and to improve governance in ways that reduce corruption. As this is an emerging field, the sourcebook is not intended to be a manual, nor a set of directives but rather to organize and illustrate approaches and tools which sector practitioners may find useful. This sourcebook is in seven sections. Section two provides an overview of governance and corruption, and the framework used to evaluate governance and corruption risks in transport. Section three describes a 'generic' transport sector structure and several tools for evaluating governance at the sector level. The next four sections describe how to detect corruption, and improve governance in: sector policy and planning (section four); capital works (section five); government engineering and construction units (section six); and public-private partnerships (section seven).

Combating Corruption in the Philippines : An Update

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.26%
The war against corruption in the Philippines has taken a fresh turn with the inauguration of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo on January 20, 2001, and the subsequent installation of the new government. Addressing corruption was one of the new administration's announced priorities, but a detailed anticorruption strategy and detailed action plan have yet to emerge. As this report notes, the deterioration of the governance environment in 2000 seems to have taken a heavy toll on investor confidence . The report also notes that several new initiatives were born during 2000-01 as the need for combating corruption was felt more widely and urgently. This need for concrete and visible actions to combat corruption still exists, maybe to a greater degree now than in the past. Chapter 1 discusses the 9-point approach to fighting corruption in the Philippines as proposed by the World Bank in November 1999 which comprises policy reforms and deregulation, reforming campaign finance, increasing public oversight, reforming the budget process...

Anti-Corruption Policies and Programs : A Framework for Evaluation

Huther, Jeff; Shah, Anwar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.3%
The anti-corruption strategy the World Bank announced in September 1997 defined corruption as the "use of public office for private gain" and called for the Bank to address corruption along four dimensions: 1) Preventing fraud and corruption in Bank projects; 2) Helping countries that request Bank assistance for fighting corruption; 3) Mainstreaming a concern about corruption in Bank work; and 4) Lending active support to international efforts to address corruption. The menu of possible actions to contain corruption (in both countries and Bank projects) is very large, so the authors develop a framework to help assign priorities, depending on views of what does and does not work in specific countries. Their framework, based on public officials' incentives for opportunistic behavior, distinguishes between highly corrupt and largely corruption-free societies. Certain conditions encourage public officials to seek or accept corruption: a) The expected gains from undertaking a corrupt act exceed the expected costs. b) Little weight is placed on the cost that corruption imposes on others. In a country with heavy corruption and poor governance...

Fighting Corruption in East Asia : Solutions from the Private Sector

Arvis, Jean-Francois; Berenbeim, Ronald E.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.29%
The critical need for private sector involvement in the fight against corruption is now an accepted fact, particularly in East Asia, where there is a buoyant private sector and where corruption has often been equated with cronyism. Cutting off corruption's supply side is a vital step in limiting the economic damage inflicted by corrupt practices. Despite the importance of private sector efforts in this regard, little attention has been paid to company anticorruption programs and to trying to learn from company experience. This book, which is based on research cosponsored by the World Bank and the Conference Board, provides detailed documentation of the efforts of Western and Asian companies to develop good standards of business conduct in their East Asian operations. It provides evidence that a common set of principles for resisting corruption can be established notwithstanding the rich cultural diversity and ownership structure of firms based in that region.

West Bank and Gaza - Improving Governance and Reducing Corruption

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: City Development Strategy (CDS)
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.27%
In the past decade, the Palestinian Authority (PA) has worked to strengthen economic governance and combat corruption, both essential to sustained economic growth and improved delivery of public services. This report finds the PA has made significant progress in its public institutions, establishing a strong governance environment in many critical areas. But it also identifies areas where reforms are underway but incomplete or, in some areas, not yet under consideration. Major reforms have been put in place to strengthen the PA's public financial management (PFM) systems and better manage its equity holdings, two crucial components in the public finance sector. In other important areas, such as public procurement, public sector employment, regulation of the private sector, and the work of anti-corruption institutions, reforms are underway but have not been fully implemented. This analysis relies on an understanding of the relationship between good economic governance, public service delivery, and corruption. Studies show a direct correlation between weak governance systems and the quality of public service delivery. Weak governance systems...

Challenging Corruption in Asia : Case Studies and a Framework for Action

Bhargava, Vinay; Bolongaita, Emil
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.28%
At the economic level, corruption is seen as a contributing factor to the East Asian financial crisis. The crisis focused people's attention on the staggering impact of corruption, particularly in Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. The interlocking relationship of business and government were previously viewed as part of the way of doing business and practicing politics-a useful partnership crucial to strategic policymaking. As one scholar noted, "Not too many years ago, the economic successes of the countries of East Asia were attributed by some observers to a presumably positive impact of corruption in facilitating decisionmaking". Many actors justified questionable practices by explaining them to be necessary conditions for rapid economic development. Today those specific practices constitute the problematic areas of corruption. At the political level, corruption has risen in recent years in national agendas because of its role in political developments. At one point the heads of government themselves of Indonesia...

Measuring Corruption in Eastern Europe and Central Asia : A Critique of the Cross-Country Indicators

Knack, Stephen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.26%
This paper assesses corruption levels and trends among countries in the transition countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia (ECA) based on data from several sources that are both widely used and cover most or all countries in the region. Data from firm surveys tend to show improvement in most types of administrative corruption, but little change in "state capture" in the region. Broader, subjective corruption indicators tend to show somewhat greater improvement in ECA than in non-ECA countries on average. A "primer on corruption indicators" discusses definitional and methodological differences among data sources that may account in large part for the apparently conflicting messages they often provide. This discussion concludes that depending on one's purpose, it may be more appropriate to use data from a single source rather than a composite index because of the loss of conceptual precision in aggregation. A second conclusion is that the gains in statistical precision from aggregating sources of corruption data likely are far more modest than often claimed because of interdependence among data sources. The range of detailed corruption measures available in firm surveys are exploited to show that broad, perceptions-based corruption assessments appear to measure primarily administrative corruption...

Africa Development Indicators 2010 : Silent and Lethal, How Quiet Corruption Undermines Africa's Development

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.27%
The corruption that often captures newspaper headlines and provokes worldwide public disapproval is dominated by loud 'big-time corruption,' notably administrative and political corruption at the highest government levels. In response to this notoriety, the bulk of anti-corruption measures have been tailored to address this type of corruption. However, recent examinations of the level and quality of service delivery in developing countries, including the World Development Report 2004, have highlighted the need to expand the scope of the standard definition of corruption, the abuse of public office for private gain. While acknowledging the importance of big-time corruption in reducing funding for service delivery, recent research has devoted increasing attention to identifying corrupt practices downstream at the frontline of public service provision. Given the complexity of the task, the fight against quiet corruption requires tailoring policies to country circumstances, recognizing that priorities and responses may vary depending on different country conditions. This essay outlines a research agenda to identify interventions to address quiet corruption. Experimenting with various ways to empower beneficiaries and continuing the ongoing efforts to tackle big-time corruption will go a long way toward achieving this goal. Indeed...

Removing Impediments to Sustainable Economic Development : The Case of Corruption

López Claros, Augusto
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.27%
This paper examines causes and consequences of corruption within the process of economic development. It starts by reviewing some of the factors that, over the past couple of decades, have transformed corruption from a subject on the sidelines of economic research to a central preoccupation of policy makers and donors in many countries. Drawing on a vast treasure trove of experiences and insights accumulated during the postwar period and reflected in a growing body of academic research, the paper analyzes many of the institutional mechanisms that sustain corruption and the impact of corruption on development. This paper argues that many forms of corruption stem from the distributional attributes of the state in its role as the economy's central agent of resource allocation. What is the impact of corruption on public finances and on the characteristics and performance of the private sector? What distortions does corruption introduce in the allocation of resources and in the relationships among economic agents in the marketplace? The paper also addresses the question of what can be done about corruption and discusses the role of economic policies in developing the right sorts of incentives and institutions to reduce the incidence of corruption. Particular attention is paid to business regulation...

Corruption policière et violence : analyse de l'impact de la corruption policière sur les variations du taux d'homicide de 143 pays du monde en 2010

Landry, Marie-Hélène
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.25%
Le niveau de violence, tel que mesuré par le taux d’homicide, varie beaucoup d’un pays à l’autre. Dans certains pays, on note un taux de 0,5 par 100,000 habitants tandis que pour d’autres, ce taux se situe autour de 50 par 100,000 habitants. Parmi les facteurs évoqués dans la littérature scientifique pour expliquer cette variation, on retrouve des concepts tels que la pauvreté, les inégalités et d’autres facteurs sociaux, économiques ou démographiques. Or, il y a relativement peu d’études qui examinent le rôle éventuel de la qualité du système de justice sur l’incidence de la violence. La présente étude s’intéresse au rôle de la corruption policière sur les variations du taux d’homicide entre les pays du monde. La corruption se définit comme le fait d’agir contre son devoir. Dans le cadre de l’activité policière, la corruption peut prendre la forme d’abus du pouvoir discrétionnaire, de recours à des moyens illégaux ou d’acceptation de récompenses. Considérant que ces différentes formes de corruption policière ont pour principale conséquence de créer des inégalités, il ne fait peu de doute que ce que font les policiers influence le taux de criminalité d’un endroit donné. Cette étude tente donc de déterminer s’il existe un lien entre le niveau de corruption policière et le niveau de violence...

L’Office des Nations Unies contre la drogue et le crime et la lutte internationale contre la corruption : perceptions des professionnels

Stefanov, Ivaylo
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Travail aux cycles supérieurs / Graduate student work
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.24%
Outre les changements sociaux associés à la fin du communisme, les années 1990 marquent également une augmentation de l’intérêt à l’égard de la corruption et de ses effets néfastes sur le développement. En raison de la pression exercée par les États-Unis et l’augmentation de la visibilité de la corruption, plusieurs organisations internationales ont vu l’intérêt de s’impliquer dans la lutte anticorruption. La littérature soutient que la Convention des Nations Unies contre la corruption représente le document international anticorruption par excellence. Adopté en 2003, il compte aujourd’hui 144 pays signataires. Cependant, et malgré l’importance du document, les perceptions des professionnels demeurent cachées derrière les discours institutionnels. Par conséquent, cette étude de cas se concentre sur les perceptions des employés travaillant au sein de la Branche de corruption et crime économique de l’ONUDC. Ils révèlent plusieurs difficultés techniques reliées à leur travail. Entre autres, les professionnels évoquent la charge de travail, les moyens financiers et la considération de leur jugement lors du processus d’évaluation. Leurs fonctions sont également limitées par des défis associés à la mise en oeuvre de la convention : l’absence de sanctions directes pour les pays non conformes...