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As deslocalizações empresariais: a situação na UE entre 2002 e 2011

Trindade, Rui Jorge Tavares
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
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O processo de deslocalização empresarial analisado à luz do conhecimento geral fundamenta-se em pressupostos comuns como a procura da redução de custos, sendo a redução do custo da mão-de-obra o motivo mais divulgado. A procura das empresas de melhores condições de produção nem sempre se sustenta em razões económicas ou mesmo razões isoladas. A oferta de novos mercados e a abertura das fronteiras na União Europeia (UE), adicionou novas variáveis à decisão da deslocalização empresarial. A UE entre 2002 e 2011 sofreu consideráveis mudanças na estrutura empresarial, quer pelo abandono deste território por parte de algumas empresas, quer pelas alterações geográficas desencadeadas neste período. Desta forma, as razões motivadoras deste movimento empresarial são também determinadas por acontecimentos geográficos e políticos. A tomada de decisão das empresas em se deslocalizarem tornou-se um processo mais complexo, dada a dificuldade de análise de todos os fatores intervenientes neste processo.; The process of delocalization analyzed in the light of general knowledge is based on common assumptions as the demand for cost reduction, the reduction of the cost of hand labor is the main reason disclosed. The search by firms for better production conditions do not always support or even on economic grounds alone. The supply of new markets and open borders in the European Union (EU)...

Assessing the Economic Impact of an Oil and Gas Firm’s Head Office Relocation to Calgary, AB

Huffman, John F
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Relatório
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Corporate head offices serve as the figureheads and decision-making cores of firms. For a variety of reasons, these head offices tend to locate in major cities. Cities themselves compete to attract head offices for their presumed positive economic impact, but what is the impact? Calgary, Alberta, is Canada’s energy centre and an emerging leader in head office counts that is expected to further grow its share of Canadian corporate head offices. This report seeks to estimate the economic impact of an oil and gas (O&G) firm relocating to Calgary, AB. Based on decades of theory and using data from a variety of sources, two multipliers are calculated: the economic base multiplier and the H.C. Davis income multiplier. By applying these multipliers to data regarding head office employment and O&G industry wages, estimates of the employment and income effects of the relocation are found. The results emphasize the importance of both the O&G industry and attracting head offices to Calgary. Based on these conclusions, two key policy avenues are recommended to encourage further expansion of Calgary’s head office counts.

Poverty and Regional Development in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Dillinger, William
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
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This paper is focused only on this objective: the alleviation of regional concentrations of poverty. There are several reasons. First, judging from the public documents of multilaterals and governments, poverty reduction is often the primary objective of regional development efforts in the ECA region. It is also the primary objective of the World Bank, the sponsor of this paper. Second, the environmental and social objectives of regional development are difficult to analyze through an economic lens. While some may argue that cities are too big, others argue that large cities are crucial to economic growth and merely need to be better managed. By the same token, the social costs of out-migration are difficult to weigh against the economic benefits of labor mobility. The analysis of the tradeoffs between the environmental and social objectives of regional development on one hand, and economic objectives of regional development on the other, is better done on a case-by-case basis than in a regional survey paper. This report is the first of a series of papers on regional issues in the ECA region.

Creating shared value : the relationship between business and development

Larsen, Marianne Heier
Fonte: Universidade Católica Portuguesa Publicador: Universidade Católica Portuguesa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 26/05/2015 ENG
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The purpose of this study is to better understand the relationship between business and development by looking particularly at the textile and garment industry in Bangladesh. Previous research shows that Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), or what today is better known as creating shared value, is often seen as a bridge connecting the arenas of business and development. This report raises and seeks to answer questions centered on the idea of ‘Decent Work’ as propounded by the International Labour Organization (ILO). What is the quality of life of workers in factories in Bangladesh who produce clothing’s that are exported to Europe? Can we call the conditions of employment of these workers as what ILO terms ‘Decent Work’? An exploratory research design is used to understand the different aspects of the research question. Data collection is performed through secondary data, and the research is divided into a quantitative and qualitative part. A statistical database is used to try to understand ILOs indicators of ‘Decent Work’ from the perspective of the local textile and garment worker in Bangladesh. Furthermore, five companies’ sustainability approach has been analyzed, all outsourcing their manufacturing to Bangladesh. The findings indicate that there are areas for improvement. Through relocation of supply chains...

Restructuring in the New EU Member States. Social Dialogue, Firms Relocation and Social Treatment of Restructuring

Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Livro
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This book presents a series of extremely stimulating analyses of the process of corporate restructuring in the new Member States of the EU. Particularly noteworthy is the book's focus on the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) that have joined the EU since 2004, an area which has not been prominent in the research on corporate restructuring conducted in Western Europe in the last twenty years. As with their Asian counterparts, these States have generally been perceived as a threat to employment in Western Europe due to the former's benefiting from outsourcing away from the latter. By moving east, the book allows for a different perspective on the restructuring process, by placing it in the context of both Europe and the numerous changes affecting the CEECs. The book seeks to understand the impact of European- and national-level policies on the concept of restructuring, the role of the «acquis communautaire», and the place of social and political actors in the process of change in the context of new Member States, where multinational firms have developed mobility and establishment strategies within the context of broader European and global ones. The density of this collection, its wealth in terms of substantive teachings...

Is Better Information Always Good News? International Corporate Strategy and Regulation

Kitzmuller, Markus
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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This paper develops a simple model to analyze the interaction between strategic corporate public good provision, international firm location and national regulation. An information-based strategic corporate public good provision mechanism is proposed to shed light on recent firm behavior within different regulatory environments. The main insight derived is that in the presence of firms with geographic flexibility (multinational enterprises) and market provision of an international public credence good, unilateral (non-cooperative) regulatory scope depends on (1) the absolute probabilities to verify firms' corporate public good provision levels within different geographic and institutional environments, and (2) the differential between these probabilities across countries. The relative information asymmetry determines not only the market levels of the public good produced under autarky, but also the relocation incentives of multinational enterprises. A firm trades off lower production costs, which increase its competitiveness in pricing...

The Unexpected Global Financial Crisis : Researching Its Root Cause

Lin, Justin Yifu; Treichel, Volker
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
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The world is currently still struggling with the aftermath of the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression. Following a description of the eruption, evolution and consequences of the global crisis, this paper reviews alternative hypotheses for the causes of the global financial crisis as well as their empirical evidence. The paper refutes the frequently voiced view that the global crisis was caused by global imbalances that reflected economic policies of East Asian countries. Instead, it argues that global imbalances were the result of excess demand in the United States, resulting from both the public debt in the United States arising from the Afghanistan and Iraqi wars and tax cuts and the overconsumption by households supported by the wealth effect from the housing bubble in the United States. The housing bubble itself was the outcome of the Federal Reserve's low interest rate policy in the aftermath of the burst of the "dot-com" bubble in 2001, the lack of appropriate financial regulation, and housing policies aimed at expanding the mortgage market to low-income borrowers. It was possible to maintain the large trade deficits of the United States for such a long period of time because of the dollar's reserve currency status. When the housing bubble in the United States burst...

Crise du secteur manufacturier au Québec : ampleur et nature des restructurations impliquant des licenciements collectifs entre 2003 et 2008

Prudent, Natacha
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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Des données de Statistique Canada montrent que le Québec a perdu 86 700 emplois manufacturiers nets entre 2004 et 2008, ce qui représente un recul de 13,8% (Bernard, 2009). Un dollar canadien fort, la concurrence internationale, les délocalisations de la production et les consolidations globales d'opérations sont souvent mentionnés comme étant les causes des difficultés du secteur manufacturier canadien - principalement concentré au Québec et en Ontario. La crise financière amorcée à l’été 2007, a contribué à aggraver la crise propre au secteur manufacturier dont les origines remontent au début des années 2000 (Weir, 2007; AgirE, 2008; Pilat et al., 2006). Cette recherche examine le processus de restructuration du secteur manufacturier québécois de manière détaillée au niveau des établissements afin d’en évaluer l’ampleur et la nature entre 2003 et 2008. Les données colligées permettent de poser un regard unique et original sur les restructurations ayant impliqué des licenciements collectifs au Québec. Ces données sont issues de deux sources. D'abord, nous avons utilisé une liste d‘entreprises qui ont envoyé un avis de licenciement collectif au Ministère de l’Emploi et de la Solidarité sociale du Québec entre 2003 et 2008. En second lieu...

Responsabilidade social corporativa : a memória do Programa de Reassentamento dos Atingidos pela Barragem da Usina Hidrelétrica Luiz Gonzaga (ex-Itaparica)

Cunha, Pedro Paulo da
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Dissertação
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No Brasil, água e energia têm uma forte e histórica nterdependência, de forma que a contribuição da energia hidráulica ao desenvolvimento econômico do País tem sido expressiva, seja no atendimento às diversas demandas da economia, ou da própria sociedade, melhorando o conforto das habitações e a qualidade de vida das pessoas. Também desempenha papel importante na integração e desenvolvimento de regiões distantes dos grandes centros urbanos e industriais. A década de 70 registrou um crescimento elevado da demanda por energia elétrica no Brasil; reflexo de políticas desenvolvimentistas de governos anteriores que promoveram o crescimento industrial do País atraindo e criando indústrias de uso alto intensivo da letricidade. No caso da região Nordeste, o crescimento econômico trouxe consigo o risco de um grave racionamento de energia. Para eliminar tal risco, o Estado por intermédio do Sistema Eletrobras realizou a construção de grandes usinas hidrelétricas interligando-as ao sistema nacional. Não há como negar que esta solução provocou um grande benefício para grande parte da população brasileira, mas trouxe, para uma parcela do povo brasileiro, um custo social bastante elevado. Essas pessoas ficaram então conhecidas como os “atingidos por barragens”. Para eles...

Corporate Relocation in Venture Capital Finance

Cumming, Douglas; Fleming, Grant; Schwienbacher, Armin
Fonte: John Wiley & Sons Inc Publicador: John Wiley & Sons Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This paper introduces an analysis of international relocation decisions of venture capital (VC)-backed companies. Relocations to the United States are motivated by economic conditions as well as an improvement in the laws of the country in which the entre

Australia as a branch office economy

Garnaut, Ross
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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There has been a recent tendency for the location of executive leadership of companies engaged in natural resource-based production to shift from Australia to the Northern Hemisphere cities. What is the cause of this tendency? Does it matter to Australian welfare? If it matters, is there any action by Government that can weaken the tendency or reduce its negative effects? Direct regulatory intervention to prevent relocation of corporate headquarters is unlikely to increase Australian welfare. However, reforms to reduce transport and telecommunications costs and to increase the attractions of residence in Australia of people with skills that are important in executive leadership would have positive effects.