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Contested dominance modifies the anovulatory consequences of social subordination in female marmosets

Alencar,A.I.; Sousa,M.B.C.; Abbott,D.H.; Yamamoto,M.E.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.73%
Dominance status among female marmosets is reflected in agonistic behavior and ovarian function. Socially dominant females receive submissive behavior from subordinates, while exhibiting normal ovulatory function. Subordinate females, however, receive agonistic behavior from dominants, while exhibiting reduced or absent ovulatory function. Such disparity in female fertility is not absolute, and groups with two breeding females have been described. The data reported here were obtained from 8 female-female pairs of captive female marmosets, each housed with a single unrelated male. Pairs were classified into two groups: "uncontested" dominance (UD) and "contested" dominance (CD), with 4 pairs each. Dominant females in UD pairs showed significantly higher frequencies (4.1) of agonism (piloerection, attack and chasing) than their subordinates (0.36), and agonistic behaviors were overall more frequently displayed by CD than by UD pairs. Subordinates in CD pairs exhibited more agonistic behavior (2.9) than subordinates in UD pairs (0.36), which displayed significantly more submissive (6.97) behaviors than their dominants (0.35). The data suggest that there is more than one kind of dominance relationship between female common marmosets. Assessment of progesterone levels showed that while subordinates in UD pairs appeared to be anovulatory...

Non-domination and Political Institutions: The Contested Concept of Republican Democracy

Silva,Ricardo
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Ciência Política Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Ciência Política
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.73%
Following the republican revival of the last few decades, the ideal of freedom as non-domination has become an important point of convergence among republican theorists, especially among those associated with neo-Roman republicanism. Furthermore, all neo-Roman theorists argue that a legitimate republican polity in contemporary societies must take a democratic form to overcome the aristocratic and elitist features pervasive in classical and modern republicanism. This study argues that the emerging concept of republican democracy remains essentially contested despite the increasing agreement on the ideal of liberty being constitutive of the republican tradition. It posits that the meaning of the concept of republican democracy becomes unstable in the transition from the normative ideal to the institutional level of neo-republican reasoning, which is evidenced by the fact that neo-Roman theorists embrace the ideal of non-domination but disagree on the characteristics of the institutional design capable of realizing that ideal. To substantiate this argument, the study compares three recent models of democracy that are somehow associated with neo-Roman republicanism—the electoral-contestatory model, the political constitutionalism model...

Socio-spatial stigmatization and the contested space of addiction treatment: Remapping strategies of opposition to the disorder of drugs

Smith, Christopher B.R.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.73%
In recent years, the Not-In-My-Back-Yard (NIMBY) phenomenon has become increasingly prevalent with regard to harm reduction sites, addiction treatment facilities and their clients. Drawing from a case study of community conflict generated by the relocation of a methadone clinic into a rapidly gentrifying neighbourhood in downtown Toronto, Canada, this article offers a unique analysis of oppositional strategies regarding the perceived (socio-spatial) ‘disorder of drugs’. Based on interviews with local residents and business owners this article suggests the existence of three interrelated oppositional strategies, shifting from a recourse to urban planning policy, to a critique of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) practice, to explicit forms of socio-spatial stigmatization that posited the body of the (methadone) ‘addict’ as abject agent of infection and the clinic as a site of contagion. Exploring the dialectical, socio-spatial interplay between the body of the addict and the social body of the city, this article demonstrates the unique aspects of opposition to the physically, ideologically and discursively contested space of addiction treatment. Representations of the methadone clinic, its clients and the larger space of the neighbourhood...

Contested psychiatric ontology and feminist critique: ‘Female Sexual Dysfunction’ and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual

Angel, Katherine
Fonte: SAGE Publications Publicador: SAGE Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.73%
In this article I discuss the emergence of Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD) within American psychiatry and beyond in the postwar period, setting out what I believe to be important and suggestive questions neglected in existing scholarship. Tracing the nomenclature within successive editions of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM), I consider the reification of the term ‘FSD’, and the activism and scholarship that the rise of the category has occasioned. I suggest that analysis of FSD benefits from scrutiny of a wider range of sources (especially since the popular and scientific cross-pollinate). I explore the multiplicity of FSD that emerges when one examines this wider range, but I also underscore a reinscribing of anxieties about psychogenic aetiologies. I then argue that what makes the FSD case additionally interesting, over and above other conditions with a contested status, is the historically complex relationship between psychiatry and feminism that is at work in contemporary debates. I suggest that existing literature on FSD has not yet posed some of the most important and salient questions at stake in writing about women’s sexual problems in this period, and can only do this when the relationship between ‘second-wave’ feminism...

McCloskey versus McIntyre: Implications of Contested Elections in a Federal Democracy

Herzberg, Roberta
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.98%
The 1984 election in the Eighth Congressional District of Indiana produced an unclear result. Election night totals gave the victory to the Democratic incumbent Francis McCloskey. Subsequent recounts by state and local officials gave the victory to Republican Richard McIntyre. A further recount by the U.S. House of Representatives returned the victory to McCloskey by a four-vote margin. Partisanship was important in all phases of deciding the outcome of the election, in part, because unclear rules and inconsistent counting procedures created ample opportunities for partisan interpretations of electoral rules. This contested election raised questions about the legitimacy of the outcomes produced by various counting rules and about the problems of assuring majority rule where counting rules are inconsistent. The election also raised questions about the propriety of U.S. House intervention into local electoral administration and about the roles of local, state, and federal officials in deciding the outcome of a federal contested election.

Contested Boundaries. Psychiatry, Disease, and Diagnosis

Rosenberg, Charles
Fonte: University of Chicago Press Publicador: University of Chicago Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.98%
Since the 19th century, we have come to think of disease in terms of specific entities—entities defined and legitimated in terms of characteristic somatic mechanisms. Since the last third of that century, we have expanded would-be disease categories to include an ever-broader variety of emotional pain, idiosyncrasy, and culturally unsettling behaviors. Psychiatry has been the residuary legatee of these developments, developments that have always been contested at the ever-shifting boundary between disease and deviance, feeling and symptom, the random and the determined, the stigmatized and the value-free. Even in our era of reductionist hopes, psychopharmaceutical practice, and corporate strategies, the legitimacy of many putative disease categories will remain contested. The use of the specific disease entity model will always be a reductionist means to achieve necessarily holistic ends, both in terms of cultural norms and the needs of suffering individuals. Bureaucratic rigidities and stakeholder conflicts structure and intensify such boundary conflicts, as do the interests and activism of an interested lay public.; History of Science

Contested dominance modifies the anovulatory consequences of social subordination in female marmosets

Alencar, A. I.; Sousa, Maria Bernardete Cordeiro de; Abbott, D.H.; Yamamoto, Maria Emília
Fonte: Braz J Med Biol Res Publicador: Braz J Med Biol Res
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.73%
Dominance status among female marmosets is reflected in agonistic behavior and ovarian function. Socially dominant females receive submissive behavior from subordinates, while exhibiting normal ovulatory function. Subordinate females, however, receive agonistic behavior from dominants, while exhibiting reduced or absent ovulatory function. Such disparity in female fertility is not absolute, and groups with two breeding females have been described. The data reported here were obtained from 8 female-female pairs of captive female marmosets, each housed with a single unrelated male. Pairs were classified into two groups: “uncontested” dominance (UD) and “contested” dominance (CD), with 4 pairs each. Dominant females in UD pairs showed significantly higher frequencies (4.1) of agonism (piloerection, attack and chasing) than their subordinates (0.36), and agonistic behaviors were overall more frequently displayed by CD than by UD pairs. Subordinates in CD pairs exhibited more agonistic behavior (2.9) than subordinates in UD pairs (0.36), which displayed significantly more submissive (6.97) behaviors than their dominants (0.35). The data suggest that there is more than one kind of dominance relationship between female common marmosets. Assessment of progesterone levels showed that while subordinates in UD pairs appeared to be anovulatory...

Mainstreaming and neoliberalism: a contested relationship

Bacchi, C.; Eveline, J.
Fonte: Faculty of Economics and Business, Government and International Relations, University of Sydney Publicador: Faculty of Economics and Business, Government and International Relations, University of Sydney
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.73%
The paper offers a comparative analysis of dominant mainstreaming and gender analysis frameworks to consider the nature of the relationship between these equality initiatives and neoliberalism. We challenge the portrayal of mainstreaming as necessarily resistant to neoliberalism, and show how dominant forms of mainstreaming illustrate characteristics congruent with neoliberal premises and policy agendas. Our particular concern is the extent to which some forms of mainstreaming and gender analysis are unable to put in question neoliberal premises because of their ex post character. For this reason we describe the relationship as contested. Our goal is to identify ways to strengthen the potential of mainstreaming initiatives to step outside of and critique neoliberalism’s strategic norms. To advance this objective we offer some first steps towards producing gender analysis as an ex ante intervention. Significantly, we suggest that effective implementation requires a focus on policy’s creative (active) role in constructing “problems” and in shaping gender relations.; http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/714836/description#description; Carol Bacchi and Joan Eveline; Copyright © 2003 Policy and Society Associates (APSS) Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Co-management and protected area management: Achieving effective management of a contested site, lessons from the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA)

Nursey-Bray, M.; Rist, P.
Fonte: Elsevier Sci Ltd Publicador: Elsevier Sci Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.73%
Marine protected management has gained acceptance as a way forward to achieve enhanced biodiversity outcomes. Simultaneously, co-management has gathered momentum as a mechanism to incorporate indigenous cultural aspirations within environmental management domains. Each management process has its own methodologies; when the two models intersect, they present a number of challenges to overall management outcomes. We review the journey of an indigenous co-management initiative within a marine protected area (MPA), the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA), Australia, to explore how different management paradigms intersect with both negative and positive results. We argue that lessons learned from this initiative will help participants to adapt and innovate, so as to implement effective on ground management despite the region being a contested site.; Melissa Nursey-Bray and Phillip Rist

Fighting in a contested space environment: training Marines for operations with degraded or denied space-enabled capabilities

Garcia, David M.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.14%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Space is an increasingly congested, contested and competitive environment. At the same time, the Marine Corps is becoming increasingly reliant on the capabilities space-based assets provide. This includes each of the space force enhancement capabilities, but particularly satellite-based voice and data communication; position, navigation, and timing information; and battlefield intelligence. Space capabilities are vulnerable to both space-based and terrestrial-based countermeasures. This study was conducted to determine the extent to which the Marine Corps educates and trains warfighters to operate in a battlefield where space-centric enabling capabilities are degraded or denied. The study surveyed the systems and capabilities on which the Marine Corps relies in order to enhance its execution of the highly dynamic range of military operations as well as the threats to those systems and capabilities. Furthermore, the study examined to what levels and extent related training and education should take place, and which venues would best host that training. Based on the analysis, this thesis recommends leveraging internal Marine Corps expertise, increasing integration of space-related education and training into schoolhouse curricula and training exercises...

Preventing ethnic conflict, securing ethnic justice? The Council of Europe, the EU and the OSCE high commissioner on national minorities' use of contested concepts in their responses to the Hungarian minority policies of Hungary, Romania and Slovakia

SKOVGAARD, Jakob
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: paper; application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.14%
Defence date: 23 May 2007; Examining board: Prof. Michael Keating (EUI, supervisor) ; Prof. Frank Schimmelfennig (ETH Zürick)(External supervisor) ; Prof. Will Kymlicka (Quenn's University, Ontario) ; Prof. Rainer Bauböck (EUI); This thesis analyses the policies aimed at influencing the situation of the Hungarian minorities in Romania and Slovakia undertaken by three European organisations, the Council of Europe, the EU and the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities. The focus is on the way in which the organisations have conceptualised contested concepts concerning national minorities, minority rights and minority policy in general, when reacting to the policies of the Hungarian, Romanian and Slovak states that have been directed at the Hungarian minorities. Starting with the assumption that many of the concepts upon which minority policies are based are essentially contested, the thesis sets up a framework for analysing the use of specific interpretations of such concepts in argumentation. More specifically, the framework makes it possible to look at how specific interpretations or conceptualisations of such concepts have been used as implicit warrants. By analysing the use of warrants in the texts issued by the organisations in the arguments reacting to the Hungarian minority policies of the three organisations...

'Half-pregnant with Bartlett's baby': contested policies in Tasmanian post-secondary education - 2007-2010 - through the lens of Kingdon's 'agendas'

Rodwell, G.
Fonte: University of Western Australia, Dept of Education Publicador: University of Western Australia, Dept of Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.98%
Tasmania Tomorrow was highly politicised, and Tasmanian post-secondary education policy became a central issue in the 2010 state elections. The purpose of this paper was to analyse the dynamics of Tasmanian post-secondary education policy, and determine what education policy analysts can learn from this episode in Tasmanian education history. Tasmania Tomorrow was positioned in relation to United Kingdom research into a similar event of contested education policy. The veracity of a number of elements of John Kingdon‟s theory of public policy evolution was then examined as a lens through which to analyse contested Tasmanian post-secondary education policy.; http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=491495811272686;res=IELHSS; Grant Rodwell

Graffiti, memory and contested space : mnemonic initiatives following trauma and/or repression in Buenos Aires, Argentina

Kaipainen, Erin E. Armi.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.98%
Graffiti, Memory and Contested Space: Mnemonic Initiatives Following Periods of Trauma and/or Repression in Buenos Aires, Argentina This thesis concerns the popular articulation ofmemory following periods or incidents of trauma in Argentina. I am interested in how groups lay claim to various public spaces in the city and how they convert these spaces into mnemonic battlegrounds. In considering these spaces of trauma and places of memory, I am primarily interested in how graffiti writing (stencils, spray-paint, signatures, etchings, wall-paintings, murals and installations) is used to make these spaces transmit particular memories that impugn official versions of the past. This thesis draws on literatures focused on popular/public memory. Scholars argue that memory is socially constructed and thus actively contested. Marginal initiatives such as graffiti writing challenge the memory projects of the state as well as state projects that are perceived by citizens to be 'inadequate,' 'inappropriate,' and/or as promoting the erasure of memory. Many of these initiatives are a reaction to the proreconciliation and pro-oblivion strategies of previous governments. I outline that the history of silences and impunity, and a longstanding emphasis on reconciliation at the expense of truth and justice has created an environment of vulnerable memory in Argentina. Popular memory entrepreneurs react by aggressively articulating their memories in time and in space. As a result of this intense memory work...

Contested Terrains: Visualizing the Nation within Global Military Conflict

Cahill, Susan Elizabeth
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.98%
In this study, I use visual and material culture that addresses the contemporary war in Afghanistan to critically assess the ways in which national conflict history is envisioned. I focus in particular on cultural production related to the involvement of Australia and Canada in the conflict. I do so to question the ways in which Australia’s and Canada’s engagements with this particular conflict are visualized in relation to their official narratives, which posit their military activities in Afghanistan as undertaken in the name of security, peacekeeping, and rebuilding. Such a query is important, because it allows me to investigate which visualizations contribute to the history and narrative of national engagements with conflict, and which are ignored. Moreover, it allows me to ask how visual and material culture not only constitutes, but also legitimates national conflict narratives. And finally, it allows me to locate examples within this field of cultural production that renegotiate, contest, subvert, and resist state representations. These lines of inquiry help to situate my study of visual and material culture by suggesting that such objects can act as lenses through which to address what Jon Stratton and Ien Ang describe as the “unstable...

Mountains of Controversy: Narrative and the Making of Contested Landscapes in Postwar American Astronomy

Swanner, Leandra Altha
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.98%
Beginning in the second half of the twentieth century, three American astronomical observatories in Arizona and Hawai'i were transformed from scientific research facilities into mountains of controversy. This dissertation examines the histories of conflict between Native, environmentalist, and astronomy communities over telescope construction at Kitt Peak, Mauna Kea, and Mt. Graham from the mid-1970s to the present. I situate each history of conflict within shifting social, cultural, political, and environmental tensions by drawing upon narrative as a category of analysis. Astronomers, environmentalist groups, and the Native communities of the Tohono O'odham Nation, the San Carlos Apaches, and Native Hawaiians deployed competing cultural constructions of the mountains--as an ideal observing site, a "pristine" ecosystem, or a spiritual temple--and these narratives played a pivotal role in the making of contested landscapes in postwar American astronomy.; History of Science

Caring for medically unexplained physical symptoms after toxic environmental exposures: effects of contested causation.

Engel, Charles C; Adkins, Joyce A; Cowan, David N
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.45%
Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) are persistent idiopathic symptoms that drive patients to seek medical care. MUPS syndromes include chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia syndrome, and multiple chemical sensitivities. When MUPS occur after an environmental exposure or injury, an adversarial social context that we call "contested causation" may ensue. Contested causation may occur publicly and involve media controversy, scientific disagreement, political debate, and legal struggles. This adversarial social context may diminish the effectiveness of the provider-patient relationship. Contested causation also may occur privately, when disagreement over the causes of MUPS takes place in the patient-provider context. These patient-provider disagreements over causation often occur because of the enigmatic nature of MUPS. We suggest that a context of contested causation may have serious negative effects on healthcare for individuals with MUPS. Context plays a larger role in MUPS care than it does for most medical care because of the uncertain nature of MUPS, the reliance of standard MUPS therapies on a potentially tenuous patient-provider partnership, and the clinical need to rely routinely on subjective MUPS assessments that often yield discordant patient and provider conclusions. Contested causation may erode patient-provider trust...

Contested Claims in Carpal Tunnel Surgery: Outcome Study of Worker's Compensation Factors

Olney, James R; Quenzer, Delwin E; Makowsky, Michael
Fonte: Dept. of Orthopaedics, The University of Iowa Publicador: Dept. of Orthopaedics, The University of Iowa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.24%
We retrospectively analyzed the importance of factors relating to worker's compensation for 273 wrists in 211 consecutive patients who underwent primary carpal tunnel release. Patients were divided into three groups: non-work related, worker's compensation—uncontested, and worker's compensation—contested. Contested claims were those in which the worker's compensation carrier denied authorization for surgery, and in which such authorization was given following intervention by a plaintiff's attorney. Results: there were no statistically significant differences in postoperative return of grip strength and in postoperative return to work intervals in comparing groups I and II. However, the contested worker's compensation patients were much less likely (and much slower) to return to light duty and to return to full duty work. Return of grip strength was slower and less complete in this group as well. Within worker's compensation, a contested claim portends a poorer prognosis. Uncontested worker's compensation claimants have nearly as good a prognosis as non-compensation patients.

Contested identities and the Muslim Qaum in northern India : c. 1860-1900

Zaidi, S. Akbar
Fonte: University of Cambridge Publicador: University of Cambridge
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.98%
Using primarily published sources in Urdu from the second-half of the nineteenth century, my thesis presents evidence with regard to north Indian Muslims, which questions the idea of a homogenous, centralising, entity, at times called the Muslim community, qaum, ummah or nation. Using a large number of second-tier publicists' writings in Urdu, the thesis argues that the self-perceptions and representations of many Muslims, were far more local, parochial, disparate, multiple, and highly contested. The idea of a homogenous, levelling, sense of collective identity, or an imagined community, seem wanting in this period. This line of evidence and argumentation, also has important implications for locating the moment of separatism and identity formation amongst north Indian Muslims, and argues that this happened much later than has previously been imagined. Based on this, the thesis also argues against an anachronistic or teleological strain of historiography with regard to north Indian Muslims of this period. The main medium through which these arguments are debated, is through the Urdu print world, where a large number of new sources have been presented which underscore this difference, more than this uniformity. Whether it was in religious debates...

Engagement without recognition: the limits of diplomatic interaction with contested states

Ker-Lindsay, James
Fonte: Wiley on behalf of Chatham House (the Royal Institute of International Affairs) Publicador: Wiley on behalf of Chatham House (the Royal Institute of International Affairs)
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/2015 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.98%
This article examines the extent to which states are able to interact at an official level with a contested or de facto state – a state that has unilaterally declared independence but is not a member of the United Nations – without being understood to have recognised it. This is an area of increasing interest and relevance to policy makers. As is shown, albeit with some significant provisos, legal theory and historic practice suggest that diplomatic engagement does not constitute recognition if there is no underlying intent to recognise. This means that there is a very high degree of latitude regarding the limits of state engagement with contested states, especially in bilateral contexts. Indeed, the level of engagement can even amount to recognition in all but name.

Contested water rights in post-apartheid South Africa: the struggle for water at catchment level

Kemerink,JS; Ahlers,R; van der Zaag,P
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.98%
The National Water Act (1998) of South Africa provides strong tools to redress inequities inherited from the past. However, a decade after the introduction of the Act, access to water is still skewed along racial lines. This paper analyses the various ways in which the Water Act is contested, based on empirical data detailing the interactions between smallholder farmers and commercial farmers in a case-study catchment in KwaZulu-Natal Province. The paper argues that the legacy of the apartheid era still dominates the current political and economical reality and shows how the redistribution of water resources is contested by the elite. The paper identifies several issues that prevent the smallholder farmers from claiming their rights, including the institutional arrangements in former homelands, the 'community approach' of Government and NGOs, the disconnect between land and water reform processes, and historically-entrenched forms of behaviour of the various actors. The paper concludes that the difficulties encountered in the water reform process are illustrative for what is happening in the society at large and raises the question as to what price is being paid to maintain the current status quo in the division of wealth?