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On ‘Middle Ground’. The European Community and Public International Law

SCHUTZE, Robert
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 288402 bytes; application/pdf; digital
EN
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Does the Community legal order constitute a closed ‘self-contained regime’ or will it be an ‘open system’? While founded on the basis of an international treaty, the European Community still had to determine – not unlike national legal orders – the effects of public international law in its ‘domestic’ sphere. Has the Community legal order thus assumed an ‘autonomous’ position vis-à-vis general international law? And if so, what is the status and effect of international norms in the Community legal order? This chapter discusses these issues by analysing the constitutional regime developed for international treaties concluded by the Community and customary international law. The second part changes perspective and investigates when the Community has considered itself materially bound by international agreements concluded by its Member States via the doctrine of functional succession. In general, the Community’s constitutional choice vis-à-vis public international law has a federal dimension: placed on systemic ‘middle ground’, the EC legal order may potentially operate as a conduit for the incorporation of international law in the national legal orders of its Member States.

A Farewell to Constitutional Authorship? A Critique of the Presentist Turn in the Legitimacy of Constitutional Democracy

KUO, Ming-Sung
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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“We the People” and the corresponding concept of constitutional authorship have gripped our imagination of the legitimacy of constitutional democracy since the American and French Revolutions. In contrast to this Big Bang scenario of constitutionmaking, the constitutionalization of the European Union (EU) as a supranational entity is the product of a decades-long process, departing from the Revolutionary tradition of constitutionalism. Whether this “presentist” project of constitutionalization without making a constitution, which is characterized by polyarchical everyday policy negotiations and apolitical judicial decisions in the normality of the constitutional order, will succeed in reconstructing our imagination of political order as an alternative to constitutional authorship remains to be seen. This paper aims to answer this question through a close inspection of Frank Michelman’s critical engagement with theories of constitutional legitimacy. My investigation shows that Michelman arrives at a presentist view of constitutional democracy after pointing out the inadequacy of theories of constitutional legitimacy rooted in the Revolutionary tradition of constitutionalism. I argue, however, that Michelman’s presentist view cannot fully account for the legitimacy of public institutions in constitutional democracy without presupposing a transtemporal view of identity...

Divided in Diversity: National Legal Scholarship(s) and the European Convention of Human Rights

HENNETTE-VAUCHEZ, Stéphanie
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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The present article looks at the history and features of legal academic discourse on the European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR). It first establishes that people from inside the Convention system have been the first ones to posit ECHR law as a worthwhile object of study within academic arenas. It then compares French and Italian legal scholarship devoted to the ECHR and evidences that whereas the former is mostly due to human rights law specialists (among which both international and domestic lawyers), the latter was until recently mostly the result of studies by international lawyers. The paper then formulates some hypotheses as to the impact of the academic profile of ECHR law specialists in both countries on the discourse they actually produce, and suggests that this relationship may account for a greater receptivity of French legal audiences to the notion of the ECHR as a constitutional justice system / vector of a European public order compared to the Italian ones. However, the paper also insists that there is a very different understanding of the allegedly ‘constitutional’ dimension of the ECHR system according to whether the rationale is used by domestic lawyers or by insiders of the Convention system and/or international legal scholarship.; This paper was orignally presented at the Conference “The European Legal Field-Le champ juridique européen” organized by Bruno de Witte and Antoine Vauchez with the Robert Schuman Centre and the Academy of European Law (European University Institute...

Judging Judges: From Principal-Agent Theory to Constitutional Justice in Multilevel Judicial Governance of Economic Cooperation Among Citizens

PETERSMANN, Ernst-Ulrich
Fonte: Oxford Univ Press Publicador: Oxford Univ Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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How should citizens evaluate the ever more important case law of international economic courts and their sometimes inadequate responses (e.g. by investor-state arbitration) to the governance gaps created by globalization (which) provide the permissive environment for wrongful acts by companies of all kinds without adequate sanctioning or reparation(1)Section I recalls that the customary law requirement (as codified in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties) of settling disputes concerning treaties, like other international disputes, in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, including universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all (Preamble VCLT), reflects the constitutional functions of courts to interpret and apply law in conformity with rule of law, justice and human rights as constitutional restraints on the rule of men and their rule by law. Section II explains why some of the governance problems of the World Trade Organization (WTO) are due to power-oriented conceptions of principal-agent relationships as member-driven governance without regard to the constitutional functions of WTO bodies to provide collective public goods with due respect for citizens as democratic principals. Sections III and IV recall how the European Court of Justice (ECJ)...

The ECJ between the Individual Citizen and the Member States: A plea for a judge-made European law on remedies

MICKLITZ, Hans-Wolfgang
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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Time and again the ECJ comes under fire, from the Member States who fear the loss of sovereignty, as well as from trade unions and public interest groups who fear the downgrading of ‘The Social’. The overall message then may be condensed into the plea for a court which takes a more cautious stance. I am arguing the exact opposite, at least with regard to remedies in the social and the citizen rights order. Only more judicial activism can overcome the lacunae which results from a rights-remedyprocedure mechanism that is too much designed to enforce economic freedoms.; Introduction..........................................................................................................1 I. The ECJ between the individual citizen and the autonomy of the Member States ......................................1 II. RRP in a ‘new’ European legal order having its ‘own’ legal system ................................................2 1. The EU legal order autonomous and/or integrated ...................................................................3 2. Three European legal orders – economic, social and citizen? .......................................................6 3. A rights based order – economic, fundamental, social, human...

Between Competition and Free Movement: The economic constitutional law of the European Community

BAQUERO CRUZ, Julio
Fonte: Hart Publisher Publicador: Hart Publisher
Tipo: Livro
EN
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This book takes as its starting point the interaction and gaps between the free movement and competition rules of the EC Treaty, and is the first book-length treatment of the topic. Competition and free movement are well known as fundamental elements of the Community legal order and are normally treated separately by different specialists. Hence their interaction has tended to receive less doctrinal analysis. This work bridges the gap and examines the interaction of these disparate rules using a framework which is defined by the author as the economic constitutional law of the European Community. The book then examines in depth specific issues such as, for example, the economic orientation of the constitution of the Community, the structure and principles of interpretation relating to it, or the gaps presented by this structure and the ways in which they have been filled by the European Court of Justice. Particular attention is given, in separate chapters, to two important topics: the possible extension of the application of the free movement rules to protectionist private conduct and that of the competition rules or principles extracted from them to State action. The problem of the public/private divide, a pressing one for contemporary constitutionalism and societies...

Democratic Legitimacy though European Conflicts-law? The case of EU administrative governance of GMOs

WEIMER, Maria
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
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This thesis aims at addressing the problem of a potential dis-embedding of the EU administration from democratic institutions. For that purpose it explores the potential of a novel approach to EU constitutionalism, namely of European conflicts-law to ensure the democratic legitimacy of EU administrative governance of GMOs. The term administrative governance is being used as referring to a system of administrative action, in which EU administrative actors implement EU law in cooperation with national administrations, as well as with scientific and private experts. In order to analyse the functioning of this system governance is employed as analytical framework. This thesis shows that the conflicts-law approach constitutes a valuable constitutional framework. It helps to identify and better understand the legitimacy problems of EU administrative governance in the field of GMOs. The existent legal rules in this area can to a certain extent be reconceived as embodying conflicts-law mechanisms and ideas. This is most visible in their aim to procedurally organise cooperation between various actors within horizontal network structures of decision-making. However, the implementation of GMO rules in practice has considerably undermined the functioning of conflicts-law mechanisms. The analysis reveals problematic shifts of authority...

Multilevel judicial governance in European and international economic law

PETERSMANN, Ernst-Ulrich
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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Law and governance need to be justified vis-à-vis citizens in order to be accepted as legitimate and supported by civil society. This contribution argues that the legal and judicial methodologies of multilevel governance for international public goods need to be changed in order to protect basic needs and human rights of citizens more effectively. I define legal methodology in terms of the conceptions of the sources and ‘rules of recognition’ of law, the methods of interpretation, the functions and systemic nature of multilevel legal systems like IEL, and of the relationships between rules, principles, political and legal institutions and related practices. Section I recalls the historical evolution from ‘good governance’ to third-party adjudication and individual rights of access to justice. Section II discusses eight models of multilevel judicial governance in Europe. Section III uses constitutional and ‘public goods’ theories in order to explain the multiple functions of courts of justice and the increasing importance of judicial cooperation (comity) in protecting transnational rule of law in European and international economic law (IEL). Section IV argues that the diverse ‘constitutional methods’ applied by the EU Court of Justice (CJEU)...

Sub-national challenges to Europe’s constitutional structure

FINCK, Michèle
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
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This LL.M. thesis investigates how European Union law reacts when sub-national actors behave as an autonomous level of public authority. It will look at how supranational law has traditionally dealt with sub-national actors and then examine whether Article 4(2) TEU, introduced into the European legal order by the Treaty of Lisbon, constitutes a new interpretative device having the potential to change the ways in which European Union law looks at these entities. My analysis will show firstly, that the sub-national scale has become increasingly important, both at domestic and European scales, during the past decades, something which is now also reflected by primary law since the enactment of Article 4(2) TEU. It will be seen secondly that it remains unclear whether this provision stands for the direct recognition of local and regional self-government or whether the latter is recognized only indirectly as forming part of the Member State’s national identity. Thirdly, it will be seen that the case law preceding the insertion of Article 4(2) TEU into the framework of supranational law is rather heterogeneous. This draws a picture of incoherence as in some areas of the law the Court creates space for sub-national autonomies while in others it does not. Whether this will change under the influence of Article 4(2) TEU largely depends on how this provision will be interpreted in future times. I will illustrate that the Court could opt either for a bold or a more cautious approach in this respect. While the first option would allow to gently create some space for sub-national actors within EU law without conflicting with firmly established principles of the supranational legal order...

Human rights require ‘cosmopolitan constitutionalism’ and cosmopolitan law for democratic governance of public goods

PETERSMANN, Ernst-Ulrich
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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36.07%
The more ‘globalization’ transforms ‘national public goods’ demanded by citizens into transnational ‘aggregate public goods’, the stronger becomes the need for reviewing ‘Westphalian governance failures’ and related ‘legal methodologies’ (Section I). Resolving the ‘constitutional problems’ and ‘collective action problems’ of multilevel governance (e.g. in terms of constituting, limiting, regulating and justifying multilevel governance powers, participation and representation of citizens in governance and dispute settlement, rule of law protecting cosmopolitan rights) requires supplementing national Constitutions by ‘multilevel cosmopolitan constitutionalism’ empowering citizens and multilevel governance institutions to realize their collective responsibility for protecting human rights, rule of law and other interdependent public goods across frontiers (Section II). The prevailing ‘political realism’ and ‘constitutional nationalism’ neglect the customary law requirements of interpreting international treaties and settling disputes ‘in conformity with the principles of justice and international law’, including ‘human rights and fundamental freedoms for all’, in order to limit democratic accountability of governments (Section III). Human rights and multilevel protection of ‘principles of justice’ require cosmopolitan law based on constitutional...

Constituting, limiting, regulating and justifying multilevel governance of interdependent public goods : methodological problems of international economic law research

PETERSMANN, Ernst-Ulrich
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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35.81%
This contribution discusses legal and methodological problems of multilevel governance of the international trading, development, environmental and legal systems from the perspective of “public goods theories” and related legal theories. The state-centred, power-oriented governance practices in worldwide organizations fail to protect effectively human rights, transnational rule of law and other international public goods for the benefit of citizens. Their criticism by civil society, democratic parliaments and courts of justice prompts increasing opposition to non-inclusive, intergovernmental rule-making, as in the case of the 2011 Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement rejected by the European Parliament. The “democracy deficits” and morally often unjustified power politics underlying “Westphalian intergovernmentalism” weaken the overall coherence of multilevel regulation of interdependent public goods that interact “horizontally” (e.g., the monetary, trading, development, environmental and related legal systems) as well as “vertically” (e.g., in case of “aggregate public goods” composed of local, national, regional and worldwide public goods). The “laboratory” of European multilevel governance offers lessons for reforming worldwide governance institutions dominated by executives. The integration of nation states into an interdependent...

The European court of human rights and religion: Between 'Christian' neutrality and the fear of Islam

Cebada Romero, Alicia
Fonte: New Zealand Centre for Public Law Publicador: New Zealand Centre for Public Law
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Publicado em /11/2013 ENG
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The European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, as interpreted by the European Court of Human Rights (the ECtHR), remains open to different constitutional formulae regarding the regulation of the relationship between state and religion. At the present moment non-secular, soft secular and hard secular constitutional arrangements coexist in Europe. A general pre-requisite of the European Convention order is the obligation for states to remain neutral towards religious beliefs and religious institutions. In both secular and non-secular constitutional frameworks, the states' commitment to neutrality is especially relevant to preserve pluralism. In this regard, it is especially disappointing to ascertain that the Court has fallen short of providing a consistent interpretation of the obligation of neutrality. The analysis of the case law provided in this paper demonstrates that the ECtHR offers a biased interpretation of the state's duty of neutrality which, on the one hand, better serves the interest and needs of the Christian churches and, on the other hand, shows the ECtHR's fear of Islam. With its simplistic and reductive reading of Islamic rules and traditions, the Court might be contributing to the negative stereotyping of public manifestations of the Islamic faith. The ECtHR should try to offer a more consistent construction of the state's duty of neutrality that is more respectful of religions other than Christianity...

Religion and the public order of the European Union

MCCREA, Ronan
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Livro
EN
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Paperback edition of the book published in 2010 (ISBN 9780199595358); Ronan McCrea offers the first comprehensive account of the role of religion within the public order of the European Union. He examines the facilitation and protection of individual and institutional religious freedom in EU law and the means through which the Union facilitates religious input and influence over law. Identifying the limitations on religious influence over law and politics that have been required by the Union, it demonstrates how such limitations have been identified as fundamental elements of the public order and prerequisites EU membership. The Union seeks to balance its predominantly Christian religious heritage with an equally strong secular and humanist by facilitating religion as a form of cultural identity while simultaneously limiting its political influence. Such balancing takes place in the context of the Union's limited legitimacy and its commitment to respect for Member State cultural autonomy. Deference towards the cultural role of religion at Member State level enables culturally-entrenched religions to exercise a greater degree of influence within the Union's public order than "outsider" faiths that lack a comparable cultural role. Placing the Union's approach to religion in the context of broader historical and sociological trends around religion in Europe and of contemporary debates around secularism...

Collected Courses of the Academy of European Law (Yearbook), 1990, Vol. I - Book 2: The Protection of Human Rights in Europe

Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publishers/Martinus Nijhoff Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publishers/Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Tipo: Livro
EN
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Recueil des cours de l'Académie de droit européen.; -- Catherine Lalumière, Conférence Winston Churchill sur le Conseil de l'Europe. Le Conseil de l'Europe et les pays de l'Europe de l'Est, 9 -- Gérard Cohen-Jonathan, Libertés fondamentales et télévision européenne, 29 -- R.St.J. Macdonald, The Margin of Appreciation in the Jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights, 95 -- Thomas Buergenthal, CSCE Human Dimension: The Birth of a System, 163 -- Gennady M. Danilenko, Soviet Constitutional Reform and International Human Rights Standards, 211 -- Jochen A. Frowein, General Course: The European Convention on Human Rights as the Public Order of Europe, 267 -- Index of Decisions by Transnational Courts, 359

Worldly ambitions : foreign policy objectives in European constitutional law

LARIK, Joris
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
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36.07%
Examining Board: Professor Loïc Azoulai, European University Institute Professor Marise Cremona, European University Institute (Supervisor) Professor Christophe Hillion, Leiden University Professor Daniel Thym, University of Konstanz.; Defence date: 3 June 2013; Constitutions of today do not merely address the salus populi anymore, the welfare of the people, but increasingly exhibit international ambitions. This is true in particular for the EU Treaties. To make sense of these developments, this thesis presents a comprehensive account of foreign policy objectives as a growing part of European constitutional law. It grasps these provisions as legal norms, discerns their legal force and functions, and situates them into the overall legal order of the state, the Union, and the composite 'European Constitutional Space’. It argues that for comparative constitutional law in general, the codification of foreign policy objectives suggests a step forward in the evolution of the role of the constitution: From limiting public authority to guiding it towards certain goals, both at home and in the world. For the EU in particular, this research advances a comparative constitutional perspective for the study of EU external relations, and adds a constitutional dimension to the 'normative power’ debate in the study of EU foreign policy. Drawing on established national doctrines on constitutional objectives from Germany...

What do we mean when we say 'folklore'? Cultural and axiological diversities as a limit for a european private law

S??nchez Lorenzo, Sixto A.
Fonte: Netherlands: Kluwer Law International Publicador: Netherlands: Kluwer Law International
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Cultural and axiological diversities between legal orders are considered as a limit for the unification or harmonisation of European private law. This assumption, as a starting point, is analysed in relation with three different cases or tests: same-sex marriages in family law, ???real seat theory??? versus ???incorporation theory??? in company law, and ???play at killing people??? against human dignity in constitutional law. The diagnosis confirms the hypothesis: some legal divergences due to various cultural or axiological options result in restrictions on free movement of persons, goods or services within the internal market. As these restrictions are often justified by the European law, they should be removed through the ???reactive??? harmonisation. Nevertheless, the proportionality principle can exclude this chance, just because the scope of some cultural or axiological differences. Finally, this understanding is applied to contractual law in order to show that there is no significant exception in this area. Accordingly, any project towards a contractual law unification must take into account the cultural and axiological diversities and try to minimize its effects, but also accept the implicit limits implementing soft and more imaginative proposals.; Las diferencias culturales y axiol??gicas entre sistemas legales constituyen un l??mite para la unificaci??n o armonizaci??n del Derecho privado europeo. Esta afirmaci??n...

La Seguridad urbana : entre la seguridad ciudadana, el civismo y la convivencia en espacios públicos

Brotat, Ricard
Fonte: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014 SPA; SPA
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A lo largo de estas páginas hemos trazado un panorama de aquello que puede entenderse como seguridad en el momento actual. Partiendo de los conceptos constitucionales asociados a la misma: el orden público; la seguridad ciudadana como garantía de derechos, pero también como un derecho prestacional de los ciudadanos y un correlativo deber de la Administración Pública; y, finalmente, habríamos delimitado la seguridad pública como el conjunto de las políticas públicas de seguridad más allá de la mera competencia exclusiva estatal del artículo 149,1,29 CE. Correlativamente, se habría analizado el fenómeno de la inseguridad desgranado la mazorca de factores que se aúnan para dar lugar a la inseguridad. En efecto, se trata de nalizar los profundos cambios que las sociedades occidentales han experimentado, en tanto que Estados sociales y democráticos de Derecho de finales del siglo XX y de inicios del siglo XXI, configurando una preocupación por la inseguridad percibida, subjetiva, más que por la de carácter objetivo. Y esa inseguridad tendría un campo de cultivo abonado en las ciudades y, más concretamente, en sus espacios públicos. En el marco de la teorización de la inseguridad, se ha realizado un repaso a las teorías criminológicas surgidas en el mismo período de finales del s. XX y principios del s. XXI...

Estado social y constitución Un estudio sobre la forma jurídica del estado social y sus transformaciones a la luz de la integración europea /

Marquet Sardà, Clara
Fonte: Bellaterra : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Departament de Ciència Política i de Dret Públic, Publicador: Bellaterra : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Departament de Ciència Política i de Dret Públic,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2013 SPA; SPA
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46.01%
Descripció del recurs: el 10 juliol 2013; La tesis explora los elementos constitutivos de la forma de Estado social desde el punto de vista del Derecho constitucional, y sus transformaciones a la luz de la integración europea. La integración en un ordenamiento supranacional dotado de unas características propias plantea la cuestión acerca de la afectación por este proceso de las estructuras propias del Estado social, pero ello requiere, previamente, establecer cuáles son propiamente dichas estructuras, que no han sido definidas de forma unánime por la doctrina. La tesis se dirige, por tanto, a la resolución de estos dos objetivos, proponiendo un esquema de comprensión del Estado social en los países europeos y analizando, a partir de él, las transformaciones que produce el ordenamiento de la Unión Europea. El estudio de los elementos constitutivos de la forma de Estado social a nivel nacional se realiza a través de la confrontación de dos modelos distintos, como son el modelo escandinavo y el modelo de continental de Estado social. Son analizados sus distintos elementos materiales –las normas que orientan sustantivamente la acción pública-, los elementos formales –aquellos instrumentos y poderes que tiene el poder público- y de articulación jurídica –la forma constitucional o legislativa de su determinación-...

The open architecture of European human rights law

Krisch, Nico
Fonte: Department of Law, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Department of Law, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/2007 EN; EN
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The evolution of the European human rights regime is often described in constitutionalist terms: as the move towards an integrated order with the European Convention of Human Rights as its “constitutional instrument” at the top. In this article, I seek to show that this description is misguided and that the regime is better regarded as pluralist – as characterised by a heterarchical relationship between its constituent parts that is ultimately defined politically and not legally. The emergence and workings of this pluralist order are traced through the interaction of the European Court of Human Rights with domestic courts in Spain, France, the European Union and the United Kingdom. All these cases not only show conflicts over questions of ultimate supremacy but also significant convergence and harmony in day-to-day practice. I begin to identify factors that have led to this convergence and conclude that central characteristics of pluralism – incrementalism and the openness of ultimate authority – seem to have contributed to the generally smooth evolution of the European human rights regime in a significant way. This finding suggests a broader appeal of pluralist models as alternatives to constitutionalism in the construction of postnational authority and law.

The incorporation of public international law into municipal law and regional law against the background of the dichotomy between monism and dualism

Ferreira,G; Ferreira-Snyman,A
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
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35.79%
Monism and dualism represent two different approaches towards the relationship between public international law and municipal law. While the former views public international law and municipal law as a single legal system, the latter regards these two areas of law as separate and distinct legal systems that exist alongside each other. However, not all legal systems are clearly either monist or dualist. The dichotomy between monism and dualism no longer only concerns the relationship between public international law and municipal law, but also increasingly affects the relationship between public international law and regional law. This contribution discusses the application of the monist and dualist approaches by the South African Constitutional Court in the Glenister case and the European Court of Justice in the Kadi and Hungary cases in order to illustrate the practical application of the dichotomy between monism and dualism in a municipal system and on a regional level.