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O beber alcoolizado: uma análise semântico-histórica de comerciais de bebidas alcoólicas; The alcoholic drinks: a semantic-historical analisis of the advertising discourse about alcohol

Cortopassi, Leonardo Luiz Figueira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/03/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.44%
Esta dissertação busca analisar processos de produção de sentidos sobre bebidas alcoólicas, utilizando os princípios da Semântica Histórica da Enunciação e da Análise de Discurso. Os usos da língua e os sentidos relacionados às bebidas alcoólicas são socialmente relevantes porque a produção e o consumo de bebidas alcoólicas constituem um setor significativo da economia, além de seus aspectos culturais, ou seja, o consumo tradicional de bebidas alcoólicas em certas ocasiões sociais, a polêmica sobre saúde e álcool e o simbolismo de algumas bebidas como bebidas nacionais. Para realizar nosso objetivo, selecionamos e analisamos um corpus de comerciais brasileiros e britânicos de bebidas alcoólicas para TV. Notando que os comerciais constituem sentidos evidentemente positivos para as bebidas, também incluímos um corpus de textos jurídicos brasileiros e britânicos, cujos sentidos tendem a apresentar as bebidas alcoólicas como perigosas. Para a Semântica Histórica da Enunciação, o sentido é constituído numa interação social que é historicamente determinada. Assim, os conceitos de designação (o sentido de um nome como relação histórico-lingüística) e enunciação (o acontecimento constituído pelo uso da língua)...

Injuries among female army recruits: a conflict of legislation

Gemmell, Ian M M
Fonte: The Royal Society of Medicine Publicador: The Royal Society of Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.45%
In the final decade of the 20th century, the British Armed Forces came under intense pressure to open up traditionally male roles to female recruits. For training, women were initially given lower entry and exit standards, but it became apparent that many did not possess the strength necessary for their work. This ‘gender fair’ policy was therefore changed to a ‘gender free’ policy, whereby identical physical fitness tests were used for selection of male and female recruits and the training programme made no allowances for gender differences. To determine the effects of this policy change, data from medical discharges were examined for the periods before and after implementation, with reference to musculoskeletal injuries of the lower limbs. In the first cohort there were 5697 men and 791 women, in the second 6228 men and 592 women.

Social work and general practice: A report of a three-year attachment

Graham, Hilary; Sher, Mannie
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1976 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.45%
Much has been written about social worker/general-practitioner collaboration, particularly about conflict of roles, differing functions, avenues of accountability, and problems of distributing scarce resources.

Conflict of Interest in the Evaluation and Dissemination of “Model” School-based Drug and Violence Prevention Programs

Gorman, Dennis M.; Conde, Eugenia
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.6%
Conflict of interest refers to a set of conditions in which professional judgment concerning the validity of research might be influenced by a secondary competing interest. The competing interest that has received most attention in the literature addressing the prevalence and effects of such conflicts on the practice of empirical research has been that of financial relationships between investigators and research sponsors. The potential for conflicts of interest to arise in the evaluation of drug prevention programs was raised by Moskowitz in this journal in 1993, but to date there has been no attempt made to estimate the scope of this problem. The present study addressed this issue using a sample of “model” school-based drug and violence prevention interventions by first, identifying the types or relationships that exist between program developers and program distributors, and, second, by assessing how many of the evaluations of these programs published in peer-reviewed journals had been conducted by the developers of the programs compared to independent evaluation teams. The data presented indicate that there are relatively few published evaluations that do not involve program developers and that there are few instances in which there is complete separation between the program developer and program distributor. Using the open systems model of the Institute of Medicine Committee on Research Integrity as a framework...

The role of the Balanced Scorecard for improvement of management systems in Japanese companies; Role of the BSC for improvement of management systems in Japanese companies

Abe, Taiji
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 92 leaves
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.52%
The concept of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) was first developed by R.S. Kaplan and D.P. Norton in 1992 and since that time has been implemented in thousands of organizations worldwide. While many tools that were proposed in the past tend to emphasize only one of values an organization has to realize, the Balanced Scorecard proposes that what is the most important for an organization be to balance these values for discrete stakeholders, ultimately for improvement of corporate value. This thesis considers the role of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) in solving issues faced by management in Japanese companies. During the period when BSC was introduced to Japanese organizations, most recognized the need to change their strategies in order to overcome the recession and to challenge emerging new competitors, When an organization decides to change its strategies dramatically, it needs to renew or improve how it develops those strategies. Even if the company formulates an excellent strategy, it will not produce the desired results without implementation. In reality, then, most companies seek not only new ways of developing strategy but also new ways of implementing the strategy.; (cont.) As the number of organizations considering BSC increased...

Sheltering in place : the limits of integrative bargaining following industrial accidents

Macey, Gregg P
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 289 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.44%
This study grew out of an interest in environmental justice and the unique problems faced by neighborhoods located near petrochemical facilities. It also focuses on negotiation theory and how it can be applied under an increasingly diverse array of circumstances. I sketch the roots of the concept of integrative bargaining and how it emerged as a powerful yet limited tool for meeting the interests of stakeholders in multi-party contexts. Specifically, I demonstrate how research into the structure of conflict, with origins in contract and game theory, encouraged a new profession that focuses much of its time, paradoxically, on matters of agency, such as the strategic elements widely viewed as conducive to a Pareto efficient outcome. In an effort to encourage a renewed focus on structure, I show how in a highly institutionalized setting, which for my dissertation included the causes and immediate consequences of an accidental toxic emission by a chemical processing facility, much of the integrative potential of the negotiations that follow is removed from potential discussion or even discovery before mediators and the parties involved begin to address root causes.; (cont.) New roles for mediators, and why it is as important to focus on limiting the narrowing effects of structuration as it is to try and expand the initial offer space...

Moldova Financial Sector Assessment Program; Corporate Governance Review of the Moldovan Banking Sector

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.55%
The banking sector in Moldova is in the midst of structural changes with worrisome corporate governance issues at the core. Corporate governance is at the center of a stable and profitable banking sector which is essential to support economic growth and productivity. However, the banking system in Moldova suffers from critical governance weaknesses which the National Bank of Moldova (NBM) has been unable to effectively address. The illicit schemes used to gain control of the majority of the banking sector’s assets have involved raider attacks by unidentified individuals whose subsequent, de facto, related party transactions have caused the deterioration of bank balance sheets. The recent changes in controlling ownership have resulted in nontransparent appointments of board members and Chief Executive Officers (CEOs). This has led to substantial blurring of the roles and responsibilities of ownership, oversight (board), and management, resulting in no clear accountability. The legal and institutional corporate governance framework in Moldova is weak. Sound corporate governance is first and foremost dependent upon the motivations of owners and the resultant business culture they instill through their selection and appointment of board members. In Moldova...

Conflicts of interest in divisions of general practice

Palmer, N.; Braunack-Mayer, A.; Rogers, W.; Provis, C.; Cullity, G.
Fonte: British Med Journal Publ Group Publicador: British Med Journal Publ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.53%
Community-based healthcare organisations manage competing, and often conflicting, priorities. These conflicts can arise from the multiple roles these organisations take up, and from the diverse range of stakeholders to whom they must be responsive. Often such conflicts may be titled conflicts of interest; however, what precisely constitutes such conflicts and what should be done about them is not always clear. Clarity about the duties owed by organisations and the roles they assume can help identify and manage some of these conflicts. Taking divisions of general practice in Australia as an example, this paper sets out to distinguish two main types of conflicts of interest, so that they may be more clearly identified and more effectively managed.; N Palmer, A Braunack-Mayer, W Rogers, C Provis and G Cullity; Copyright © 2006 by the BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & Institute of Medical Ethics.

'Jihad for construction' the role of non-state armed groups in post-conflict reconstruction

Haig, Clara
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.93%
This paper examines three contemporary cases of official post-conflict reconstruction (PCR) processes: the first taking place in Lebanon after the 2006 Israeli-Hezbollah war; the second undertaken in East Timor following that state's independence; and the third occurring in the Indonesian province of Aceh following the 2005 peace agreement ending conflict in that region. These cases have major differences, since Lebanon's PCR process is occurring in an established state, while the equivalent process in East Timor provides an example of 'state forming', and the Acehnese process is an instance of sub-state reconstruction occurring in a self-governing province. Within these post-conflict contexts, the various roles played by non-state armed groups (NSAGs) are explored, and particular focus is given to Hezbollah in Lebanon, Falintil in East Timor, and GAM in Aceh. The paper demonstrates that there is a significant gap between the actual roles played by NSAGs during PCR processes and the potential roles that such groups are currently denied. The paper analyses the various roles played by NSAGs in PCR processes in terms of three major elements: physical reconstruction, social reconstruction, and political reconstruction. By identifying the physical...

Towards an understanding of the tax practitioner-client role relationship : a role analysis

Tan, Lin Mei
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.57%
Over the years, as tax law has increased in complexity, an increasing number of taxpayers are consulting tax practitioners for help with tax affairs. Yet many tax compliance studies have not incorporated the practitioners' impact on taxpaying behaviour. To bridge the gap in the literature, this thesis investigates the practitioners' and the business taxpayers' roles and relationship using a Tax Practitioner-Client Role Model. This Model is used as a framework for developing a mail survey sent to a sample of business taxpayers and an independent sample of tax practitioners to collect data on their role expectations, experiences and practices, and factors affecting their roles in a tax setting. The findings show that aggressive tax decisions arise from complex interplay between taxpayer and tax practitioner. Practitioners adapted their decision making to suit cautious or aggressive clients. Their assessment of the likelihood of clients being audited or sanctioned was associated with giving advice that is more conservative or more aggressive, but these effects disappeared when practitioners' own risk propensity was taken into account. Practitioners' firm size was also associated with more cautious or more aggressive advice giving. In comparison...

Voice, Choice, and Decision 2 : A Study of Local Basic Service Delivery in Cambodia

World Bank; The Asia Foundation
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.44%
The Voice, Choice and Decision (VCD): a study of local governance processes in Cambodia (VCD1) study, conducted in 2011, led to a set of useful insights into the channels through which citizens are heard in commune level decision-making. It presented the formal and informal framework for, and constraints to, citizens' voicing issues, and the overall downward accountability framework of commune and sangkats in Cambodia. The findings of this exploration provide policy makers, development partners and other stakeholders significantly more detail and in-depth understanding of commune decision-making processes and the engagement of citizens, informing both quantitative studies and the very extensive literature on decentralization reform. Voice, Choice and Decision: local basic service delivery: (VCD2) aims to generate better understanding of the platform for citizen and user voice in basic service delivery by considering, in detail, the nature, scope and role of local agents (committees, institutions, individuals) established to implement sector policies...

Political Economy of the Petroleum Sector in Nigeria

Gboyega, Alex; Soreide, Tina; Le, Tuan Minh; Shukla, G. P.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.55%
The relatively slow pace of Nigeria's development has often been attributed to the phenomenon of the resource curse whereby the nature of the state as a "rentier" dilutes accountability for development and political actors are able to manipulate institutions to sustain poor governance. The impact of the political elite's resource-control and allocation of revenues on core democratic mechanisms is central to understand the obstacles to development and governance failure. Given that problems of petroleum sector governance are extremely entrenched in Nigeria, the key question is whether and how it is possible to get out of a poor equilibrium after fifty years of oil production. This paper uses a political economy perspective to analyze the governance weaknesses along the petroleum sector value chain and attempts to establish the links between challenges in sector regulation and the following major political and economic attributes: (i) strong executive control on petroleum governance in a political environment of weak checks and balances; (ii) regulatory and operating roles bundled into one institution...

Conflicts of Interest in Self-Regulation : Can Demutualized Exchanges Successfully Manage Them?

Carson, John W.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.63%
The author examines the implications of demutualization of financial exchanges for their roles as self-regulatory organizations. Many regulators and exchanges believe that conflicts of interest increase when exchanges convert to for-profit businesses. Demutualization also changes the nature of an exchange's regulatory role as broker-dealers' ownership interests are reduced. These factors are leading to reduced regulatory roles for exchanges in many jurisdictions. The resulting changes have significant implications for regulation of financial markets, especially as exchanges are the only self-regulating organizations (SROs) in most countries. Major changes in the role of exchanges require a rethinking of the allocation of regulatory functions and the role of self-regulation, as well as stronger mechanisms to mitigate conflicts of interest. Carson looks at the views of both exchanges and regulators on these issues in Asian, European, and North American jurisdictions where major exchanges have converted to for-profit businesses. He finds that views on the conflicts of interest faced by demutualized exchanges vary widely. In addition...

Comprehensive Assessment of the Agriculture Sector in Liberia : Volume 1, Synthesis Report

Ministry of Agriculture (Liberia)
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Rural Development Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.44%
The overall objective of the Comprehensive Assessment of the Agricultural Sector (CAAS) is to provide an evidence base to enable appropriate strategic policy responses by the Government of Liberia (GoL) and its development partners in order to maximize the contribution of the agriculture sector to the Government's overarching policy objectives. Given the strong relationship between growth in agricultural productivity and poverty reduction, future efforts in Liberia need to focus on productivity enhancing measures with a pro-poor focus that increase incomes. Growth based on extensification using traditional technologies is generally not profitable and has damaging implications for the environment. Given the low level of assets possessed by most Liberians, future efforts need to address the question of access to assets (i.e. land, knowledge and inputs) in addition to providing opportunities and an enabling environment. Liberia needs to make concerted efforts to preserve and consolidate its emerging stability by focusing on interventions to ensure food security and poverty alleviation at the community and household levels. Improving access to food and generating sustainable...

Comprehensive Assessment of the Agriculture Sector in Liberia : Volume 4, Crosscutting Issues

Ministry of Agriculture (Liberia)
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Rural Development Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.57%
The overall objective of the Comprehensive Assessment of the Agricultural Sector (CAAS) is to provide an evidence base to enable appropriate strategic policy responses by the Government of Liberia (GoL) and its development partners in order to maximize the contribution of the agriculture sector to the Government's overarching policy objectives. Given the strong relationship between growth in agricultural productivity and poverty reduction, future efforts in Liberia need to focus on productivity enhancing measures with a pro-poor focus that increase incomes. Growth based on extensification using traditional technologies is generally not profitable and has damaging implications for the environment. Given the low level of assets possessed by most Liberians, future efforts need to address the question of access to assets (i.e. land, knowledge and inputs) in addition to providing opportunities and an enabling environment. Liberia needs to make concerted efforts to preserve and consolidate its emerging stability by focusing on interventions to ensure food security and poverty alleviation at the community and household levels. Improving access to food and generating sustainable...

Salient Issues in Income and Asset Disclosure Systems : Lessons Learned from the Field in Preventing Conflict of Interest and Combating Illicit Enrichment

Burdescu, Ruxandra; Reid, Gary; Trapnell, Stephanie; Barnes, Dan; Kwapinski, Modest; Berger, Tammar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.64%
Asset disclosure (AD) systems also referred to as financial disclosure or asset declarations can play two important roles within broader anticorruption efforts prevention and enforcement. On the prevention side, AD requirements can help bring to light conflict of interest risks faced by public officials who file ADs, thereby facilitating the avoidance of conflict of interest situations. On the enforcement side, AD requirements can provide one more source of information that may be used in the investigation and prosecution of suspected illicit enrichment cases, thereby aiding asset recovery efforts. Effective collaboration, both domestically and internationally, between policy makers and practitioners is essential for such benefits to materialize. In an effort to identify how best to design and implement an AD system, the report recognizes that each country ultimately must design a system that is tailored to the environment in which it will function. As such, the study analyzes some of the tradeoffs faced by policy makers and practitioners alike in designing and implementing an optimal AD system in a particular context. The report complements the Public Sector Governance Group's development of AGI...

A matter of understanding : urban design strategies to integrate street vendors in Mumbai

Sharma, Sagree
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 51 leaves
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.61%
Resistance to informal markets appears related to a growing desire to modernize among citizens of developing countries. These markets, in their indigenous, often chaotic, form, are viewed as symbols as poverty and backwardness.Their appearance is increasingly becoming undesirable to citizens seeking to replace the local with the global, redefining their identity in a globalizing world. Street markets provide a valuable amenity to the city and it is inequitable, imprudent and impractical to remove them because they fail to fit into a newly emerging notion of what urban public space should look/be/operate like. They have thrived, often despite strong opposition from the government, and now even some citizen groups, because they provide a necessary and efficient service. This thesis explores whether, instead of absolute rejection or resigned acceptance of these markets, good design offers a better solution. It inquires into Mumbai's structure and how the street vendors use civic space to inform a new design creating an equitable integration of the informal markets into the emerging modern paradigms of urban design. The thesis presumes that small-scale street markets are an essential and effective form of retail and explores design strategies that address the concerns raised in resistance to street markets while incorporating the needs of the vendors. It proposes that an external disinterested mediator might successfully bring the stakeholders to consensus by creating a common equitable and sustainable solution through effective conflict management and good design. I generalize from this case into how designers might take on conflict mediation roles through appropriate design...

Written in invisible ink : a case study on the politics of free trade reform and labor regulation in Guatemala; Case study on the politics of free trade reform and labor regulation in Guatemala

Pipkin, Seth Daniel
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 75 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.44%
This thesis makes two primary claims: first, that the US - Dominican Republic - Central America Free Trade Agreement (US-DR CAFTA, or CAFTA) has had important effects on labor regulation in Guatemala that are not contained in the explicit agreement text. These effects are referred to in the title as "invisible ink" because they constitute changes to labor law and regulation that would not have occurred without a trade deal on the table, but are nowhere mentioned in the text of the treaty. The second claim of this thesis is that the causes and meanings of invisible ink can only begin to be understood after a thorough consideration of domestic political and institutional history in countries undertaking the reforms that are the invisible ink. Based on five months of field work interviewing key actors in Guatemala and the United States, three examples are presented to illustrate these points: the first two are similar unionization efforts in Guatemalan apparel export manufacturers wherein the difference between success and failure meant tapping into the Guatemalan government's need to present itself to critics abroad, particularly in United States, as ready and competent to participate in the CAFTA.; (cont.) The third is a case of rule reform in the Guatemalan Ministry of Labor that shows how informal pressure using CAFTA as leverage resulted in the creation and expansion of a specially-trained and successful commission of Inspectors. These Inspectors have in turn used CAFTA as a source of legitimacy in expanding their roles and reaching out to other actors in the private sector and civil society to reduce labor conflict and improve conditions for workers. The implication of these cases is that more opportunities exist for labor-friendly market reform if actors are willing to think beyond the formal rules contained within trade agreements.; by Seth Pipkin.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

Dilemmas in Military Medical Ethics: A Call for Conceptual Clarity

Rochon, Christiane
Fonte: BioéthiqueOnline Publicador: BioéthiqueOnline
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.57%
Malgré l’augmentation des conflits armés et des changements qui les caractérisent, les enjeux éthiques auxquels font face les médecins militaires sont très peu traités dans la littérature en bioéthique. Les médecins militaires sont des membres du corps militaire, même s’ils sont non combattants, et ils jouent un rôle de soignant tout en pouvant être appelés à agir comme aide humanitaire. Certains auteurs se sont même interrogés sur la compatibilité morale d’être à la fois médecin et soldat. Les conflits éthiques soulevés dans la littérature sur les médecins militaires peuvent être organisés autour de trois perspectives : 1) les problèmes moraux en médecine militaire seraient particuliers compte tenu des difficultés à respecter les principes bioéthiques traditionnels; 2) les codes d’éthique médicaux et les lois internationales seraient trop restrictifs ou inadéquats pour le contexte militaire; et 3) les médecins sont des acteurs sociaux qui devraient être pacifistes, défenseurs des droits de la personne, politiquement neutres ou promoteurs de la paix. Une revue des divers dilemmes rencontrés par les médecins militaires identifiés dans la littérature nous montre que ces perspectives se situent à des niveaux d’analyse différents (micro...

Germany's social policy challenge: public integenerational transfers in light of demographic change

Wilkoszewski, Harald
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.44%
This dissertation addresses the question of to what extent growing numbers of older people who might have similar preferences regarding public intergenerational transfers (family and pension policies) will limit the scope of future social policy reforms in Germany. We are interested in to what extent the shift in the country's demography will trigger a so-called "gerontocracy." As a theoretical framework, we combine Mannheim's concept of political generations with a demographic life-course approach. According to Mannheim, growing numbers of a societal group, combine with unified preferences within the group, enhance the group's political power. To empirically test this hypothesis, we use three analytical steps: First, we analyse the future age composition of the German population, including familial characteristics, using a micro-simulation approach. The results suggest that the number of older people will grow substantially over the coming decades, particularly the share of older people who will remain childless and who will not be married. Second, we analyse preferences regarding redistributive social policies according to age, parity, and marital status, based on recent survey data. Generalised Linear Models and Generalised Additive Models are applied to examine what the effects of fdemographic indicators are on these preferences. Results show that older people are less in favour of transfers ot the younger generation than their younger counterparts. This is particularly true of childless interviewees. Third...