No planejamento da assistência de enfermagem, uma das etapas fundamentais é a elaboração do diagnóstico de enfermagem, temática complexa e pouco explorada na área de Enfermagem Neonatal. Vislumbrando o potencial de uso da informática no ensino e na educação permanente em enfermagem, motivou-se realizar o presente estudo com o objetivo de desenvolver e avaliar um objeto virtual de aprendizagem interativo sobre o raciocínio diagnóstico em enfermagem aplicado ao recém-nascido pré-termo em unidade de cuidado intermediário neonatal. Trata-se de estudo descritivo que utilizou o referencial pedagógico da problematização e da instrução assistida por computador, a metodologia de desenvolvimento de software de Bernardo e o modelo de raciocínio de Risner para elaboração do diagnóstico de enfermagem, segundo taxonomia da NANDA-I. As simulações para ensino e exercícios de aprendizagem sobre o raciocínio diagnóstico em enfermagem incluíram casos reais de recém-nascidos pré-termo, adaptados, elaborados a partir de referencial para desenvolvimento de casos clínicos com finalidade educacional e organizados segundo as necessidades humanas básicas, os quais foram validados por cinco enfermeiros docentes experts em enfermagem neonatal e raciocínio diagnóstico. Para criação do software utilizou-se a ferramenta de autoria de multimídia Macromedia Authorware®...
The Leon S. McGoogan Library of Medicine at the University of Nebraska received a grant from the University of Nebraska Computer Network to study management aspects of providing computer-assisted instruction (CAI) resources. The library wished to determine: (1) faculty and student receptiveness to CAI as a library resource and (2) user response to CAI library services. A user questionnaire was designed to ascertain the appropriateness of initial management decisions regarding CAI access. The methodology employed in implementing this pilot project, the results of the questionnaire, and the future of CAI at the University of Nebraska are addressed in this paper.
A list of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) vendors and programs was compiled as a resource for medical librarians who are building a nonprint collection. It includes only computer-assisted instruction for clinical education in medicine and nursing. The very brief description of each program is followed by price, audience, and hardware requirements.
A computer-assisted instruction program was evaluated that used a constant time-delay procedure to teach 5 students 18 spelling words. In addition to delivering the instructional procedure, the program managed the presentation of training content based on individual student responding and collected instructional data on individual student performance. The procedure was effective at teaching 4 of the 5 students the words, and generalization occurred from the computer-delivered keyboard response format to a teacher-delivered hand-written response format. Maintenance data varied among the students. The study demonstrated the feasibility of using microcomputers to deliver time-delay instruction in special education classrooms and suggested several research questions related to specific features of microcomputer-delivered time-delay instruction.
This study compared the relative effectiveness of two
computerized remedial reading programs in improving the
reading word recognition, rate, and comprehension of
adolescent readers demonstrating significant and longstanding
reading difficulties. One of the programs
involved was Autoskill Component Reading Subskills Program,
which provides instruction in isolated letters, syllables,
and words, to a point of rapid automatic responding. This
program also incorporates reading disability subtypes in
its approach. The second program, Read It Again. Sam,
delivers a repeated reading strategy. The study also
examined the feasibility of using peer tutors in
association with these two programs.
Grade 9 students at a secondary vocational school who
satisfied specific criteria with respect to cognitive and
reading ability participated. Eighteen students were
randomly assigned to three matched groups, based on prior
screening on a battery of reading achievement tests. Two I I
groups received training with one of the computer
programs; the third group acted as a control and received
the remedial reading program offered within the regular
classroom. The groups met daily with a trained tutor for
approximately 35 minutes, and were required to accumulate
twenty hours of instruction. At the conclusion of the program...
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of three student response conditions during computer-assisted instruction on the acquisition and maintenance of social-studies facts. Two of the conditions required active student responding (ASR), whereas the other required an on-task (OT) response. Participants were five fifth-grade students, with learning disabilities enrolled in a private school. An alternating treatments design with a best treatments phase was used to compare the effects of the response procedures on three major dependent measures: same-day tests, next-day tests, and maintenance tests. ^ Each week for six weeks, participants were provided daily one-to-one instruction on sets of 21 unknown social-studies facts using a hypermedia computer program, with a new set of facts being practiced each week. Each set of 21 facts was divided randomly into three conditions: Clicking-ASR, Repeating-ASR, and Listening-OT. Hypermedia lesson began weekly with the concept introduction lesson, followed by practice and testing. Practice and testing occurred four days per week, per set. During Clicking-ASR, student practice involved the selection of a social-studies response by clicking on an item with the mouse on the hypermedia card. Repeating-ASR instruction required students to orally repeat the social-studies facts when prompted by the computer. During Listening-OT...
Many students are entering colleges and universities in the United States underprepared in mathematics. National statistics indicate that only approximately one-third of students in developmental mathematics courses pass. When underprepared students repeatedly enroll in courses that do not count toward their degree, it costs them money and delays graduation. This study investigated a possible solution to this problem: Whether using a particular computer assisted learning strategy combined with using mastery learning techniques improved the overall performance of students in a developmental mathematics course. Participants received one of three teaching strategies: (a) group A was taught using traditional instruction with mastery learning supplemented with computer assisted instruction, (b) group B was taught using traditional instruction supplemented with computer assisted instruction in the absence of mastery learning and, (c) group C was taught using traditional instruction without mastery learning or computer assisted instruction. Participants were students in MAT1033, a developmental mathematics course at a large public 4-year college. An analysis of covariance using participants’ pretest scores as the covariate tested the null hypothesis that there was no significant difference in the adjusted mean final examination scores among the three groups. Group A participants had significantly higher adjusted mean posttest score than did group C participants. A chi-square test tested the null hypothesis that there were no significant differences in the proportions of students who passed MAT1033 among the treatment groups. It was found that there was a significant difference in the proportion of students who passed among all three groups...
(Thesis) Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1990.; (Bibliography) Includes bibliographical references (leaves 104-115); (Statement of Responsibility) by Randall Phillip Coorough.; Typescript.; Vita.
Results of the efficacy and time efficiency of computer-assisted learning (CAL) in endodontics education are mixed in the literature. The objectives of this study were to compare the efficacy and time efficiency of CAL with traditional learning methods or no instruction. The search strategy included electronic and manual searches of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) completed in English up to June 2009. The intervention comprised any method of CAL, while the control group consisted of all traditional methods of instruction including no further instructions. Various outcome measures of CAL efficacy were considered and were categorized using Kirkpatrick’s four-level model of evaluation: reaction, learning, behavior, results, with the addition of return on investment as a fifth level. The time efficiency of CAL was measured by the time spent on the learning material and the number of cases covered in a unit period. Seven RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Overall, students’ attitudes were varied towards CAL. Results from the knowledge gain outcome were mixed. No conclusions can be made about students’ performance on clinical procedures or cost-effectiveness of CAL. Better time efficiency was achieved using CAL compared to traditional methods. CAL is as efficacious as traditional methods in improving knowledge. There is some evidence to suggest that CAL is time efficient compared to traditional methods. Overall...
Currently in computer assisted instruction systems a
number of problems are presented to each student during a
problem session and each individual problem is specified by
the author of the session. A better approach might be to
provide the author with a language in which he can describe
the general type of problem he wants his students to be
taught and let the machine generate the specific problems.
This would relieve the teacher of the task of writing out
a whole series of problems for each general concept he wishes to teach. This thesis presents a subset of English and
mathematical notation which the teacher can use to describe
a general problem type. The PROBLEM DESCRIPTION PROCESSOR
accepts the general problem description and produces a low
level language which is used by the PROBLEM DESCRIPTION
INTERPRETER to produce specific problems. This system works
for fourth grade arithmetic problems and could be extended
for use in other areas of instruction.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; An interactive graphical interface helps intelligent computer- assisted instruction systems, because many applications can be well represented by graphic objects. One approach is a facility whereby a teacher constructing a tutor can associate specific graphics with specific predicate-calculus expressions describing a state in a tutoring simulation. This further requires a specification of the arrangement of graphic objects on the screen, how graphic objects can change position with simulation states. It also requires a language for teachers to specify graphic objects. This thesis addresses both. We introduce a broader applications of cartoon animation modelling ideas to tutoring, that have been limited so far by the complexity of their implementation. The special tools provided help computer-inexperienced instructors to develop their own cartoon animation modelling tutor without the need of mathematical description of shapes or activities to be represented. The tutor generator used employes means-ends analysis, and the language for the teachers is built using Prowindows, a Prolog extension for object-oriented design.
Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited.; This thesis research examines the effectiveness of a newly developed cognitive and pedagogical evaluation framework to assess computer-based instruction. All training programs must have comprehensive evaluation guidelines in place to ensure the quality of instruction from the classroom -training environment to the virtual training environment is not diminished. The application of sound cognitive and pedagogical principles helps ensure that an organization's training goals will be met. This research developed a set of practical guidelines, or a template, that should be used to evaluate the cognitive and pedagogical aspects of any given computer delivered course of instruction. This template is used to evaluate the United States Navy's newly developed CD-ROM Surface Warfare Officer (SWO) training course. The SWO course is the basic professional training for junior Ensigns that is now contained on CD-ROM and delivered by personal computer.; Lieutenant, United States Navy
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The purpose of this thesis is to develop a high-level model to create self-adapting software which teaches learning-disabled (LD) children to read. This approach identifies and discusses the fundamental concepts of learning, motivation, learning disabilities, the Theory of Multiple Intelligences, computer games, and intelligent computer-aided learning (ICAL). These concepts are then integrated into the design of a model that manipulates these concepts to teach reading skills. The result of this effort is CAPER (Computer-Assisted Personal Education Resource). It is model of a system that will: (a) identify the individual's dominant learning styles, (b) tailor the instruction and presentation to those styles, and (C) present the lessons in an interactive game-like style will retain the child's interest and enhance the learning process.; http://archive.org/details/developmentofint00ande; Captain, United States Army
This study discusses the design and implementation of an Intelligent Computer-Assisted Instruction system for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Utilizing artificial-intelligence techniques, the system combines a learning-while-doing environment with effective guidance of tutorial interactions. The user's knowledge of CPR procedures is tested at one of three experience levels, utilizing a randomly generated scenario. Using means-ends analysis, the recommended action is determined for each successive state in the scenario. This action is compared with the user's selection. If a difference exists, an hypothesis guides the tutoring module in the selection of a tutoring strategy. An on-line review of CPR procedures is available, as is a help function to provide direction to the user if needed. At the end of a session, a summary of the user's actions is provided. Keywords: Theses, Artificial intelligence, Expert systems, Intelligent computer assisted instruction, Computer based instruction. (jhd); http://archive.org/details/intelligentcompu00camp; U.S. Navy (U.S.N.) author.
The use of computer assisted instruction (CAI) simulations as an instructional strategy provides nursing students with a critical thinking approach for evaluating risks and benefits and choosing correct alternatives in "safe" patient care situations. It was hypothesized that using CAI simulations during an upper level nursing review course would have a positive effect on the students' posttest scores. Subjects (n = 36) were senior nursing students enrolled in a nursing review course in an undergraduate baccalaureate program. A limitation of the study was the small sample size. The study employed a modified group experimental design using the t test for independent samples. The group who received the CAI simulations during the physiological system review demonstrated a significant increase (p $<$.01) in the posttest score mean when compared to the lecture-discussion group score mean. There was no significant difference between high and low clinical grade point average (GPA) students in the CAI and lecture-discussion groups and their score means on the posttest. However, score mean differences of the low clinical GPA students showed a greater increase for the CAI group than the lecture-discussion group. There was no significant difference between the groups in their system content subscore means on the exit examination completed three weeks later. It was concluded that CAI simulations are as effective as lecture-discussion in assisting upper level students to process information for clinical decision making. CAI simulations can be considered as an instructional strategy to supplement or replace lecture content during a review course...
This study examined the effects of computer assisted instruction (CAI) 1 hour per week for 18 weeks on changes in computational scores and attitudes of developmental mathematics students at schools with predominantly Black enrollment. Comparisons were made between students using CAI with differing software--PLATO, CSR or both together--and students using traditional instruction (TI) only.^ This study was conducted in the Dade County Public School System from February through June 1991, at two senior high schools. The dependent variables, the State Student Assessment Test (SSAT), and the School Subjects Attitude Scales (SSAS), measured students' computational scores and attitudes toward mathematics in 3 categories: interest, usefulness, and difficulty, respectively.^ Univariate analyses of variance were performed on the least squares mean differences from pretest to posttest for testing main effects and interactions. A t-test measured significant main effects and interactions. Results were interpreted at the.01 level of significance.^ Null hypotheses 1, 2, and 3 compared versions of CAI with the control group, for changes in mathematical computation scores measured with the SSAT. It could not be concluded that changes in standardized mathematics test scores of students using CAI with differing software 1 hour per week for 18 class hours combined with TI were significantly higher than changes in test scores for students receiving TI only.^ Null hypotheses 4...
The quantitative component of this study examined the effect of computerassisted
instruction (CAI) on science problem-solving performance, as well as the
significance of logical reasoning ability to this relationship. I had the dual role of
researcher and teacher, as I conducted the study with 84 grade seven students to whom I
simultaneously taught science on a rotary-basis. A two-treatment research design using
this sample of convenience allowed for a comparison between the problem-solving
performance of a CAI treatment group (n = 46) versus a laboratory-based control group
(n = 38). Science problem-solving performance was measured by a pretest and posttest
that I developed for this study. The validity of these tests was addressed through critical
discussions with faculty members, colleagues, as well as through feedback gained in a
pilot study. High reliability was revealed between the pretest and the posttest; in this way,
students who tended to score high on the pretest also tended to score high on the posttest.
Interrater reliability was found to be high for 30 randomly-selected test responses which
were scored independently by two raters (i.e., myself and my faculty advisor). Results
indicated that the form of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) used in this study did not
significantly improve students' problem-solving performance. Logical reasoning ability
was measured by an abbreviated version of the Group Assessment of Lx)gical Thinking
(GALT). Logical reasoning ability was found to be correlated to problem-solving
performance in that...
*MEDLEARN*, a second-generation computer-assisted instruction (CAI) program available (nationally) since October 1976, provides on-line training for MEDLINE, one of the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLARS) data base. *MEDLEARN* was developed as a joint effort between NLM and The George Washington University Medical Center. Using MEDLINE formats throughout, *MEDLEARN* combines tutorial dialogue, drill and practice, testing, and simulation. The program was designed in three tracks oriented to basic methods, advanced techniques, and new developments. Each topic is presented on two levels, permitting an alternate explanation for users encountering difficulty. *MEDLEARN*, coded in the computer language PILOT, was developed with a modular structure which promotes ease of writing and revision. A versatile control structure maximizes student control. Frequent interactions check immediate recall, general comprehension, and integration of knowledge. Two MEDLINE simulations are included, providing the student an opportunity to formulate and execute a search, have it evaluated, and then perform the search in MEDLINE. Commenting, news broadcasting, and monitoring (with permission only) capabilities are also available. Subjective field appraisals have been positive and NLM plans to expand *MEDLEARN* and produce similar programs for other data bases.
We conducted a study to determine whether a computer-assisted instruction program in neuroanatomy helped first-year medical students to form biomedical concepts, and to correct their misconceptions. Using questionnaires and interviews, we elicited concepts and misconceptions held by the students, in the domain of cranial nerve anatomy. The computer program exposed the students to the information they required to answer the scenario-based questions. Our study found that the students' number and types of misconceptions did not decrease after use of the computer-assisted instruction program. Our findings suggest that designers of computer-assisted instruction programs should determine the common misconceptions that student hold, and should target the programs to correct these misconceptions.