At the outset, the paper briefly addresses European Union (EU) citizenship as enshrined in the Treaty on the European Union. Attention is paid on its transnational nature. The political symbolism attached to EU citizenship is also emphasised, as it tries to emulate national concepts of belonging at the EU level. Despite some achievements, flaws are nevertheless a major setback on the EU ambition for supranational citizenship’s limited scope.
European Union citizenship is addressed through a twofold conceptual lens. On the one hand, it is measured in terms of the impact on citizens’ loyalties. Eurobarometer and other statistical data are scrutinised to draw a picture on whether citizens drive their loyalties to the EU or to the national (or even regional) levels. Therefore, empirical data provide an assessment of EU citizenship outcomes. Sixteen years of EU citizenship is a considerable time span to make this assessment. On the other hand, the paper asks whether the attempt to forge a complementary citizenship is out of context, considering the common understanding that citizenship is connected with taxation and representation. Thus, a normative approach of EU citizenship is also a reason of concern. Liberal democracies are anchored (among other things) on the “no taxation without representation” principle. I draw an extension of the aforementioned principle and ask whether the absence of significant EU taxation powers is an obstacle to effective supranational citizenship. Thus...
A dissertação tem por objetivo a investigação, no âmbito da filosofia do direito, do significado da concepção de cidadania, seja ela formulada em termos teóricos ou práticos. A hipótese central é que a cidadania é uma linguagem, semelhante às linguagens naturais, que se modificam ao longo do tempo pelo uso, mas que mantém intacto o núcleo, com as modificações se processando nas camadas que o circundam. No núcleo da linguagem cidadania estão as noções de consenso e utilidade. Consenso entre pessoas significa que elas são socialmente iguais e estão aptas a exporem suas idéias e visões sobre a melhor forma do convívio social harmônico e que serão ouvidas e ouvirão as idéias e visões de seus concidadãos. Da inter-relação dessas idéias e visões estão dispostas a extraírem uma posição comum que reflita o equilíbrio alcançado como resultado do encontro de significados diferentes para a vida social. Mas, igualmente importante, estão dispostas a observarem os princípios a que chegaram em suas vidas cotidianas. A noção de utilidade repousa na necessidade de resolver os problemas que se apresentam na vida em sociedade. A cidadania não é uma noção abstrata desligada dos fatos concretos, mas expressa maneiras de...
Esta dissertação apresenta uma pesquisa de mestrado baseada na busca de esclarecimentos acerca dos possíveis significados que os conceitos de cidadania e de cidadão podem manifestar. No desenvolvimento desta pesquisa, inspirada numa concepção de terapia filosófica de cunho wittgeinsteiniano, considerou-se que os sentidos atribuídos ao conceito de cidadania estariam vinculados a situações de uso deste conceito e que somente nestas situações de uso seus diferentes significados poderiam ser compreendidos. Assim, a pesquisa foi desenvolvida a partir da análise de discursos extraídos de dois ambientes diversos. O primeiro grupo de discursos foi extraído de um ambiente correlato ao senso-comum (discursos veiculados em sites da internet e coletados em dezembro de 2008). O segundo grupo de discursos foi coletado em periódicos acadêmicos da área pedagógica veiculados entre janeiro de 1997 e dezembro de 2007; os periódicos pesquisados foram: Cadernos Cedes (UNICAMP), Cadernos de Pesquisa (Fundação Carlos Chagas) e Educação e Pesquisa (USP). A partir das análises desses discursos, verificou-se as semelhanças e as diferenças que aproximavam ou distanciavam os significados atribuídos ao conceito de cidadania em cada um deles. A partir da reflexão proporcionada pela verificação dessas aproximações e distanciamentos...
O Programa Territórios da Cidadania foi implementado em 2008, com a proposta de dar continuidade à consolidação da abordagem territorial do desenvolvimento rural iniciada pelo Programa Nacional de Desenvolvimento Sustentável dos Territórios Rurais, lançado em 2003. O Programa Territórios da Cidadania surgiu como uma resposta às críticas em torno do viés setorial e estritamente focado na agricultura familiar promovido pelos Territórios Rurais. Assim, o Programa Territórios da Cidadania teria o importante objetivo de universalizar as políticas sociais em torno de um planejamento territorial voltado a promoção do Desenvolvimento Territorial Rural Sustentável. Os objetivos em questão seriam concretizados através da integração entre as ações ministeriais, e a coordenação da política nas três esferas de governo. Tal processo valorizaria os pressupostos da multidimensionalidade, das múltiplas escalas de poder e seria calcado na ampla participação popular. Assim, temos como objeto de estudo o Território da Cidadania Vale do Ribeira SP. O território em questão possui uma diversidade sociocultural única, marcada pelas diversas investidas de ocupação territorial tanto por migrantes brasileiros como por estrangeiros. Aliado a este fenômeno...
Esta pesquisa investiga o papel do teatro na escola e sua contribuição para a formação da cidadania. Para tanto, apresenta o histórico, as principais características e os procedimentos metodológicos do trabalho teatral desenvolvido no Instituto Educacional Imaculada, instituição da rede particular de ensino da cidade de Campinas. A dissertação busca estabelecer ligações entre as especificidades dos processos ali desenvolvidos e os valores de liberdade, igualdade e participação, entendidos, neste trabalho, como "valores cidadãos". A pesquisa se propõe, também, a entender se os valores cidadãos desenvolvidos e/ou exercitados durante as atividades teatrais são transferidos para outros campos da vida social, e como os sujeitos situam tais influências em suas trajetórias de vida. Para atingir tal meta, são apresentadas entrevistas com alunos e ex-alunos que fizeram teatro na referida instituição. Os entrevistados relatam memórias das experiências vivenciadas e refletem sobre a contribuição do teatro para a maneira como enxergam e vivenciam os valores cidadãos em diferentes contextos. No campo teórico, a dissertação explora relações entre teatro e cidadania em diferentes tempos e lugares, apresentando essa arte como linguagem artística profundamente ligada...
The notion of citizenship, while a basic human right, has come under scrutiny. It
was once assumed a liberal inspired regime of citizenship rights would reign as the
primary ideological perspective in the Western world, however this has not been the
case. Numerous competing paradigms have questioned the premise upon which liberal
guarantees of citizenship rights are based. In particular, communitarianism has subjected
liberal rights discourse to a closer examination. Communitarian theory holds that
universalist principles negate any articulation of community and its internal diversity,
such as cultural citizenship. It is this understanding of citizenship that has taken hold in
The Canadian political experience illustrates a number of attributes associated
with communitarian thought. It is a collectivist society that articulates a notion of the
common good, acknowledges the internal diversity of its citizens and possesses a highly
developed deliberative democratic process. To this end, Canada can be described as
being more communitarian than liberal in nature in the process it has adopted to address
citizenship rights. However, the type of commuIiitarianism displayed in Canada differs
from the political models examined by such scholars as Michael Sandel...
peer-reviewed; This is an empirical investigation of the processes whereby the boundaries and meaning
of citizenship are re-constituted through state-driven practices of regulating migrants and migrants’ responses to such practices. The focal point of this study is an instance of constitutional and legislative citizenship reform which occurred in the Republic of Ireland in 2004, resulting in the alteration of jus soli citizenship. This thesis explicates the
forms of power-knowledge, the discursive and enumerative practices, through which
migrant mothers were constituted as risky, irresponsible subjects.
The politics of the referendum produced judicial decisions, deportations,
legislative change, and the suspension and re-establishment of an administrative
residency programme pertaining to immigrant parents. I conceptualise this series of
legislative and administrative developments in terms of ‘technologies of citizenship’ and
‘anti-citizenship technologies’ which have cumulatively expanded the capacity of the
State to biopolitically and ethopolitically regulate the non-EEA resident immigrant
population. I argue that the technical and programmatic aspects of immigration
governance through which migrants are channelled into various governmental categories...
On 26 May Hungary and Slovakia both amended their citizenship laws. Hungary removed a residence
requirement for naturalisation, opening thereby the door to naturalisation of ethnic Hungarian
minorities in neighbouring states, while Slovakia decided that any Slovak citizen voluntarily acquiring
the citizenship of a foreign country would be deprived of her or his Slovak citizenship. Rainer
Bauböck argues in his kickoff contribution that even if both laws do not violate EU law or the Council
of Europe’s Convention on Nationality, they ought to be seen as highly problematic and indefensible
from a democratic conception of citizenship. There is a remarkable consensus among the contributors
that the Slovak policy is indeed not acceptable. The controversy focuses therefore on assessing the
legitimacy of the Hungarian offer of dual citizenship for its kin minorities. Peter Spiro, Andrei Stavila
and Florian Bieber express various degrees of discomfort with the motivations behind the Hungarian
policy, but emphasise its democratic legitimacy or potentially beneficial effects for the members of the
minority, whereas Mária Kovács, Gábor Egry and André Liebich highlight the nationalist goals behind
the Hungarian policy or its devaluation of a democratic conception of membership. For Joachim
By tracing conceptions of citizenship in the early period of European integration until 1971, this article argues that the Maastricht Treaty was not year zero in the EU citizenship discourse. In contrast to previous research, this article contributes theoretically by studying citizenship as a status of individuals in relation to a political unit, differentiated analytically into membership, identity, rights and participation, and subsequently focuses on the interplay between them. Further, it contributes empirically by highlighting those treaties, judicial decisions, policies and practices that affected the status of individuals. The analysis finds that citizenship elements in early European integration created a frame upon which later conceptions of citizenship developed, including Union citizenship. It must, however, not be overstated as anything resembling a status akin to national citizenship. European citizenship should rather be understood as a status emerging from concrete judicial, legislative and political practices.
The comparative study of citizenship regimes has reached a new stage. Several authors and research teams have constructed indicators and compound indices that allow comparing larger numbers of countries in more systematic ways. In his kickoff contribution for the EUDO CITIZENSHIP forum debate, Marc Helbling asks whether indicators that are constructed independently from each other, but often measure similar phenomena, are really useful. He suggests to distinguish between policy outputs and outcomes, naturalisation and rejection rates as well as simple and complex indicators. Nine authors respond to this challenge. Several among them propose that citizenship indicators serve different research purposes and some challenge the very idea of indicator-based evaluation of citizenship policies. Although this debate certainly does not concluded in consensus, Helbling’s rejoinder shows that the link between research purposes and methods has been clarified to a certain extent. By social science standards, this is not insignificant progress.; Which indicators are most useful for comparing citizenship policies? Marc Helbling
We need different indicators for different research questions David Reichel
Naturalisation rates and rejection rates measure different phenomena...
The aim of this paper is to look at economic aspects of citizenship and compare states offering naturalisation to investors. By analysing different investor citizenship programs, the paper highlights the normative tension between those states that seek to maximize their economic utility and grant citizenship to investors by waiving all other naturalisation requirements, and those that uphold genuine ties with the polity as the core of citizenship by retaining them. The paper is developed as a two-level analysis of investor citizenship, starting from a global overview of facilitated access to citizenship, which is a common, yet seldom used discretionary tool of the governments. In the context of the global comparison, the paper highlights the distinction between the facilitated naturalisation for investors in countries that offer residence in the first instance (e.g., the UK, the U.S., Canada, Belgium, Australia, Singapore), and those that waive other regular naturalisation criteria (e.g., Commonwealth of Dominica and St. Christopher and Nevis). Following the global overview, the paper offers a more in-depth comparison of European countries that offer citizenship by investment while dropping other requirements, such as residence, language and knowledge of the country for these applicants.; Research for the EUDO Citizenship Observatory working papers series has been jointly supported by the European Commission grant agreement JLS/2007/IP/CA/009 and by the British Academy Research Project CITMODES (both projects co-directed by the EUI and the University of Edinburgh).
In this thesis, I analyse justifications for preferential admission to citizenship based upon ethno-cultural grounds. My point of departure is the puzzling observation that, in matters of membership, states not only differentiate between citizens and foreigners, but also between different categories of foreigners, as well as between different categories of citizens. In the first part of this work, I explore possible justifications for boundaries of membership. I look into arguments of justice, nationalism, liberalism and democracy in order to identify principles for demarcating boundaries and for assessing various claims of inclusion/exclusion. In the second part, I address more specific questions related to the regulation of admission to citizenship. For this purpose, I examine a set of concrete rules of citizenship presently enforced by 27 EU countries. My proposal is to overcome the boundary problem by shifting the focus from the constitution of the boundary towards policies of boundary making. I affirm the principle of general openness of membership that is intended to provide normative corrections to the actual structure of boundaries. Against the common view that perceives citizenship as a fruit that is soft on the inside and hard on the outside...
On 12 November 2013 the Maltese Parliament decided to offer Maltese and European citizenship at the price of € 650,000, but implementation of the law has been postponed due to strong domestic and international critiques. On 23 December, the Maltese government announced significant amendments, including a higher total amount of € 1,150,000, part of which has to be invested in real estate and government bonds. Several other European states have adopted ‘golden passport’ programmes. Should citizenship be for sale? In November 2013 EUDO CITIZENSHIP invited Ayelet Shachar of the University of Toronto Law School to open a debate on these controversial policies. Twelve authors have contributed short commentaries, most of which refer to the initial law adopted by the Maltese Parliament. An executive summary by Rainer Bauböck provides an overview over the main questions raised in our forum.; Summary : global, European and national questions about the price of citizenship / Rainer Bauböck. -- Dangerous liaisons : money and citizenship / Ayelet Shachar. -- Cash-for-passports and the end of citizenship / Peter Spiro. -- Citizenship for those who invest into the future of the state is not wrong, the price is the problem / Raul Magni Berton. -- The price of selling citizenship / Chris Armstrong. -- Global mobility corridors for the ultra-rich : the neoliberal transformation of citizenship / Roxana Barbulescu. -- The Maltese Falcon...
This paper has two objectives. First, by mapping investment-based the legal provisions that may result in the direct acquisition of citizenship or residence rights through a pecuniary contribution in all the 28 European Union (EU) Member States, it clears the grounds for further normative inquiries in this issue. Second, it discusses the iterative relationship between European Union (EU) citizenship and investment-based citizenship programmes, taking into account the intuitive conflict between the values inherent in EU citizenship and the opportunity structures that it creates for countries to commodify their membership by exchanging it for investment. The paper starts by a theoretical examination of membership in national and supranational polities in order to discern the links between national and EU citizenship. This is followed by an empirical classification of the different investor and residence programmes in the 28 Member States of the EU, aimed at comparing how different countries regulate access to membership on grounds of wealth. The conclusion to the paper discusses of the effects of investor citizenship and golden residence programmes in the broader EU context, taking into account the unique characteristics of European citizenship.
In this EUDO CITIZENSHIP Forum Debate, several authors discuss the growing trend in Europe and North America of using denationalisation of citizens as a counter-terrorism strategy. The deprivation of citizenship status, alongside passport revocation, and denial of re-admission to citizens returning from abroad, manifest the securitisation of citizenship. Britain leads in citizenship deprivation, but in 2014, Canada passed new citizenship-stripping legislation and France’s Conseil Constitutionnel recently upheld denaturalisation of dual citizens convicted of terrorism-related offences. In the wake of the ongoing crisis in Iraq and Syria, assorted legislators in Austria, Australia, the Netherlands, and the United States have expressed interest in enacting (or reviving) similar legislation. The contributors to the Forum Debate consider the normative justification for citizenship deprivation from a variety of disciplinary perspectives. There is relatively little disagreement among commentators about the limited instrumental value of citizenship revocation in enhancing national security, and more diversity in viewpoint about its significance for citizenship itself. The contributors discuss the characterisation of citizenship as right versus privilege...
This volume is a product of a year-long collaborative project "the European Forum on Citizenship" in the academic year 1995/96 at the European University Institute.; Is there a common ground on which a European citizenship can be constructed? This volume looks at four foundations of citizenship in Europe: the legacy of national identities, current designs and projects for social and political citizenship in Europe, a transitional public space as the basis of an active European citizenship, and a transitional collective identity as a symbolic boundary marker for European citizenship.; -- Introduction European Citizenship: An Avenue for the Social Integration of Europe, Bernhard Giesen & Klaus Eder
-- Part I. National Legacies of Belonging: The Tradition of Citizenship in Europe
-- Citizenship, Subjecthood, Nationality: Concepts of Belonging in the Age of Modern Nation States, Dieter Gosewinkel
-- National Identity and Citizenship: The Cases of Germany and France, Bernhard Giesen
-- Part II. Projects for Full Citizenship in the Euro-Polity
-- Citizenship and the European Union, Klaus Von Beyme
-- The Scope of Citizenship in a Democratized European Union: From Economic to Political to Social and Cultural?, Philippe C. Schmitter
-- Citizenship under regime Competition: The Case of the 'European Works Councils'...
Examining Board: Professor Rainer Bauböck, European University Institute (supervisor) Professor Anna Triandafyllidou, European University Institute Professor Joseph Carens, University of Toronto Professor David Owen, University of Southampton.; Defence date: 10 December 2013; First made available online on 3 February 2014.; In this thesis I try to defend the concept of residence-based citizenship. My point of departure is the puzzling observation that, in the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries, a quite large number of countries practiced ius domicilii and unconditional ius soli as the most important principles of citizenship acquisition, against a growing number of states following the 1804 French Civil Code which reinvented ius sanguinis. In less than one hundred years however, ius sanguinis became the most important principle of citizenship acquisition all over the world, ius soli was largely restricted, and ius domicilii almost disappeared. My intention is not to investigate this historical process, but to explore the ways in which normative theories and academic research in immigration studies may reveal the need to re-evaluate a residence-based citizenship theory based on ius domicilii. In this sense I am analysing four test cases which have in common the essential fact underlined by Joseph Carens that in time immigrants become members of society...
Defense date: 08/02/2008; Examining Board:
Rainer Bauböck (EUI),
Richard Bellamy (University College, London),
Fritz Kratochwil (EUI) (Supervisor),
Antje Wiener (Univ. Bath); This thesis asks what kind of conception(s) of citizenship that have emerged over time within the European integration process. The starting point for this research aim is a critique of the existing literature on European citizenship. Research on European citizenship has tended to fall into a sceptical strand relying on the nation-state model of citizenship (often called the no demos position) or a more visionary strand which interprets the developments of rights on the EU level as a postnational disconnection of citizenship from nationality. These normative strands have tended to translate the question of 'what should it be?' into factual statements on what citizenship in the EU actually is. This thesis has sought to overcome this through a theoretically informed, yet empirically oriented study of how conceptions of European citizenship have developed. Theoretically, the thesis eschews the typical model approach of citizenship studies. It does so by focusing on citizenship as a status of individuals constituted through four analytically distinct, yet potentially inter-related dimensions: membership...
Global citizenship education is becoming increasingly appreciated in Ontario as an important component of formal schooling. Although all disciplinary areas have a role to play in global citizenship education, geography, which is primarily concerned with the study of people, places, and environments at home and around the world, provides an especially important context in which to foster the values and attitudes often cited as important for global citizenship. The purpose of this qualitative study is to describe how seven secondary students in the province of Ontario make meaning of global citizenship through geography education. More specifically, this study investigates the way that Grade 12 students, who had recently completed the course titled, “Canadian and World Issues: A Geographic Analysis”, conceive of the concept of global citizenship, value its importance, and experienced its values within this course. Qualitative data was collected through an analysis of the course curriculum and though interviews with seven students. The interviews revealed four themes that were most apparent in how the students conceptualized global citizenship: global awareness, belonging, caring, and commitment to action. It was revealed that the students’ personal involvement with the issues being studied helped them learn to be global citizens...