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Cigarette smoke exposure impairs respiratory epithelial ciliogenesis

TAMASHIRO, Edwin; XIONG, Guoxiang; ANSELMO-LIMA, Wilma T.; KREINDLER, James L.; PALMER, James N.; COHEN, Noam A.
Fonte: OCEAN SIDE PUBLICATIONS INC Publicador: OCEAN SIDE PUBLICATIONS INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
Background: Cigarette smoke exposure is considered an important negative prognostic factor for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients. However, there is no clear mechanistic evidence implicating cigarette smoke exposure in the poor clinical evolution of the disease or in the maintenance of the inflammatory state characterizing CRS. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of cigarette smoke exposure on respiratory cilia differentiation. Methods: Monse nasal septal epithelium cultures grown at an air-liquid interface were used as a model of respiratory epithelium. After 5 days of cell growth, cultures were exposed to air on the apical surface. Additionally, cigarette smoke condensate (CSC; the particulate phase of tobacco smoke) or cigarette smoke extract (CSE; the volatile phase) Were diluted in the basolateral compartment in different concentrations. After 15 days of continuous exposure, scanning electron microscopy and immunofluorescence for type IV tubulin were used to determine presence and maturation of cilia. Transepithelial resistance was also recorded to evaluate confluence and physiological barrier integrity. Results: CSC and CSE impair ciliogenesis in a dose-dependent manner with notable effects in concentrations higher than 30 mu g/mL...

Deposition of Lead and Cadmium Released by Cigarette Smoke in Dental Structures and Resin Composite

TAKEUCHI, Cristina Yoshie Garcia; CORREA-AFONSO, Alessandra Marques; PEDRAZZI, Hamilton; DINELLI, Welingtom; PALMA-DIBB, Regina Guenka
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.84%
Cigarette smoke is a significant source of cadmium, lead, and toxic elements, which are absorbed into the human organism. In this context, the aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the presence of toxic elements, cadmium, and lead deriving from cigarette smoke in the resin composite, dentine, and dental enamel. Eight cylindrical specimens were fabricated from resin composite, bovine enamel, and root dentin fragments that were wet ground and polished with abrasive paper to obtain sections with 6-mm diameter and 2-mm thickness. All specimens were exposed to the smoke of 10 cigarettes/day during 8 days. After the simulation of the cigarette smoke, the specimens were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. In the photomicrographic analysis in SEM, no morphological alterations were found; however, the microanalysis identified the presence of cadmium, arsenic, and lead in the different specimens. These findings suggest that the deposition of these elements derived from cigarette smoke could be favored by dental structures and resin composite. Microsc. Res. Tech. 74:287-291, 2011. (C) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.; CNPq[476930/2004-9]

Aerobic exercise attenuates pulmonary injury induced by exposure to cigarette smoke

Toledo, A. C.; Magalhaes, R. M.; Hizume, D. C.; Vieira, R. P.; Biselli, Paolo José Cesare; Moriya, H. T.; Mauad, Thais; Lopes, F. D. T. Q. S.; Martins, M. A.
Fonte: EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD; SHEFFIELD Publicador: EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD; SHEFFIELD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
It has recently been suggested that regular exercise reduces lung function decline and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among active smokers; however, the mechanisms involved in this effect remain poorly understood. The present study evaluated the effects of regular exercise training in an experimental mouse model of chronic cigarette smoke exposure. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups (control, exercise, smoke and smoke+exercise). For 24 weeks, we measured respiratory mechanics, mean linear intercept, inflammatory cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, collagen deposition in alveolar walls, and the expression of antioxidant enzymes, matrix metalloproteinase 9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) 1, interleukin (IL)-10 and 8-isoprostane in alveolar walls. Exercise attenuated the decrease in pulmonary elastance (p<0.01) and the increase in mean linear intercept (p=0.003) induced by cigarette smoke exposure. Exercise substantially inhibited the increase in ROS in BAL fluid and 8-isoprostane expression in lung tissue induced by cigarette smoke. In addition, exercise significantly inhibited the decreases in IL-10, TIMP1 and CuZn superoxide dismutase induced by exposure to cigarette smoke. Exercise also increased the number of cells expressing glutathione peroxidase. Our results suggest that regular aerobic physical training of moderate intensity attenuates the development of pulmonary disease induced by cigarette smoke exposure.; Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP); Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq); Laboratorios de Investigacao Medica da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (LIMHC-FMUSP); Laboratorios de Investigacao Medica da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (LIMHCFMUSP); Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES); Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES)

Genotoxicity and Fetal Abnormality in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Exposed to Cigarette Smoke Prior to and during Pregnancy

Damasceno, Débora Cristina; Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu; Sinzato, Y. K.; Lima, P. H. O.; Souza, M. S. S.; Iessi, I. L.; Kiss, A. C. I.; Takaku, M.; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha; Calderon, Iracema de Mattos Paranhos
Fonte: Johann Ambrosius Barth Verlag Medizinverlage Heidelberg Gmbh Publicador: Johann Ambrosius Barth Verlag Medizinverlage Heidelberg Gmbh
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 549-553
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Processo FAPESP: 04/01077-8; Background: Maternal hyperglycemia during early pregnancy is associated with increased risk of abnormalities in the off spring. Malformation rates among the off spring of diabetic mothers are 2-5-fold higher than that of the normal population, and congenital malformations are the major cause of mortality and morbidity in the off spring of diabetic mothers. Metabolic changes, such as hyperglycemia and the metabolites obtained from cigarettes both increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the embryo or fetus, causing DNA damage.Objective: To evaluate the maternal and fetal genotoxicity, and to assess the incidence of fetal anomaly in diabetic female rats exposed to cigarette smoke at different stages of pregnancy in rats.Material and Method: Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin administration and cigarette smoke exposure was produced by a mechanical smoking device that generated mainstream smoke that was delivered into a chamber. Female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to: non-diabetic (ND) and diabetic (D) groups exposed to filtered air; a diabetic group exposed to cigarette smoke prior to and during pregnancy (DS) and a diabetic group only exposed to cigarette smoke prior to pregnancy (DSPP). on pregnancy day 21...

Oxidative stress status and lipid profiles of diabetic pregnant rats exposed to cigarette smoke

Souza, Maricelma da Silva Soares de; Sinzato, Yuri Karen; Lima, Paula Helena Ortiz; Calderon, Iracema de Mattos Paranhos; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha; Damasceno, Débora Cristina
Fonte: Reproductive Healthcare Ltd Publicador: Reproductive Healthcare Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 547-552
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Processo FAPESP: 04/01077-8; This study aimed to evaluate the oxidative stress status and the concentrations of triglycerides, cholesterol and total proteins of pregnant rats exposed to the association of diabetes and cigarette smoke. Female Wistar rats were randomly distributed in four experimental groups, according to presence or not of diabetes and the exposure or not to cigarette smoke. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (40 mg/kg i.v.) and exposure to cigarette smoke was for 30 min, twice a day, for 2 months. At day 21 of pregnancy, blood was collected for total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol and oxidative stress determinations. Data were analysed by ANOVA followed by Student-Newman-Keuls test (P < 0.05). The association of diabetes and exposure to cigarette smoke was related to the indidence of hypertriglyceridaemia, and this result was due to the severe diabetes and not to exposure to smoke. There was no alteration to protein metabolism in pregnant rats. Diabetes and cigarette smoke exposure led to the activation of the antioxidant system in an attempt to detoxify the organism in face of high lipid peroxidation, which can be characterized by the determination of reactive substances to thiobarbituric acid. (C) 2010...

Effects of exposure to cigarette smoke prior to pregnancy in diabetic rats

Damasceno, Débora Cristina; Sinzato, Yuri K.; Lima, Paula H.; Souza, Maricelma S. de; Campos, Kleber Eduardo de; Dallaqua, Bruna; Calderon, Iracema de Mattos Paranhos; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha; Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu
Fonte: Biomed Central Ltd. Publicador: Biomed Central Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 8
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Processo FAPESP: 04/01077-8; Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cigarette smoke exposure before pregnancy on diabetic rats and their offspring development.Methods: Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin and cigarette smoke exposure was conducted by mainstream smoke generated by a mechanical smoking device and delivered into a chamber. Diabetic female Wistar rats were randomly distributed in four experimental groups (n minimum = 13/group): nondiabetic (ND) and diabetic rats exposed to filtered air (D), diabetic rats exposed to cigarette smoke prior to and into the pregnancy period (DS) and diabetic rats exposed to cigarette smoke prior to pregnancy period (DSPP). At day 21 of pregnancy, rats were killed for maternal biochemical determination and reproductive outcomes.Results: The association of diabetes and cigarette smoke in DSPP group caused altered glycemia at term, reduced number of implantation and live fetuses, decreased litter and maternal weight, increased pre and postimplantation loss rates, reduced triglyceride and VLDL-c concentrations, increased levels of thiol groups and MDA. Besides, these dams presented increased SOD and GSH-Px activities. However...

Semen and reproductive parameters during some abstinence periods after cigarette smoke exposure in male rats

Sankako, Michele Kimie; Garcia, Patricia Carvalho; Piffer, Renata Carolina; Pereira, Oduvaldo Câmara Marques
Fonte: Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology Publicador: Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 93-100
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Cigarette smoking is very widespread globally and can also be implicated in male and female infertility. This study aimed to evaluate the testicular function throughout a complete spermatic cycle during abstinence from cigarette smoke exposure in order to identify a possible residual damage and whether the parameters could recover spontaneously. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control and cigarette smoke-exposed (20 cigarettes/day/2 months) groups. After finishing the treatment, according to the number of days after the last cigarette exposure (0, 15, 30, or 60 days), the rats were euthanized and analyzed for compromised sperm count and quality. Results showed residual damage on sperm concentration, motility and morphology; the recovery of these parameters occurred only at 60th days of abstinence. The study showed that cigarette smoke exposure damaged the semen and reproductive parameters and that the spontaneous recovery of some parameters occurred only after a complete spermatic cycle subsequent to stopping smoke exposure.

Sidestream cigarette smoke and cardiac autonomic regulation

Valenti, Vitor Engrácia; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M.; Ferreira, Celso; Fonseca, Fernando L. A.; Oliveira, Fernando R.; Sousa, Fernando H.; Rodrigues, Luciano M.; Monteiro, Carlos B. M.; Adami, Fernando; Wajnsztejn, Rubens; Abreu, Luiz Carlos de
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Revisão
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
Background: The literature has already demonstrated that cigarette influences the cardiovascular system. In this study, we performed a literature review in order to investigate the relationship between sidestream cigarette smoke (SSCS) and cardiac autonomic regulation. Methods. Searches were performed on Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane databases using the crossing between the key-words: cigarette smoking, autonomic nervous system, air pollution and heart rate variability. Results: The selected studies indicated that SSCS exposure affects the sympathetic and parasympathetic responses to changes in arterial blood pressure. Moreover, heart rate responses to environmental tobacco smoke are increased in smokers compared to non-smokers. The mechanism involved on this process suggest increased oxidative stress in brainstem areas that regulate the cardiovascular system. Conclusion: Further studies are necessary to add new elements in the literature to improve new therapies to treat cardiovascular disorders in subjects exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke. © 2013 Valenti et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Semen and reproductive parameters during some abstinence periods after cigarette smoke exposure in male rats

Sankako,Michele Kimie; Garcia,Patricia Carvalho; Piffer,Renata Carolina; Pereira,Oduvaldo Câmara Marques
Fonte: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar Publicador: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
Cigarette smoking is very widespread globally and can also be implicated in male and female infertility. This study aimed to evaluate the testicular function throughout a complete spermatic cycle during abstinence from cigarette smoke exposure in order to identify a possible residual damage and whether the parameters could recover spontaneously. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control and cigarette smoke-exposed (20 cigarettes/day/2 months) groups. After finishing the treatment, according to the number of days after the last cigarette exposure (0, 15, 30, or 60 days), the rats were euthanized and analyzed for compromised sperm count and quality. Results showed residual damage on sperm concentration, motility and morphology; the recovery of these parameters occurred only at 60th days of abstinence. The study showed that cigarette smoke exposure damaged the semen and reproductive parameters and that the spontaneous recovery of some parameters occurred only after a complete spermatic cycle subsequent to stopping smoke exposure.

Preventive effects of physical exercise on the inhibition of creatine kinase in the cerebral cortex of mice exposed to cigarette smoke

Fraga,Daiane Bittencourt; Nesi,Renata Tiscoski; Scaini,Giselli; De-Nês,Bruna Tramontin; Schuck,Patricia Fernanda; Streck,Emilio Luiz; Pinho,Ricardo Aurino
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
Recent studies have shown the health benefits of physical exercise, increasing the oxidative response of muscle. However, the effects of exercise on the brain are poorly understood and contradictory. The inhibition of creatine kinase (CK) activity has been associated with the pathogenesis of a large number of diseases, especially in the brain. The objective of this study was to determine the preventive effects of physical exercise in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of mice after chronic cigarette smoke exposure. Eight to 10-week-old male mice (C57BL-6) were divided into four groups and submitted to an exercise program (swimming), 5 times a week, for 8 weeks. After this period, the animals were passively exposed to cigarette smoke for 60 consecutive days, 3 times a day (4 Marlboro red cigarettes per session), for a total of 12 cigarettes. CK activity was measured in cerebral cortex and hippocampal homogenates. Enzyme activity was inhibited in the cerebral cortex of animals submitted to the inhalation of cigarette smoke. However, exercise prevented this inhibition. In contrast, CK activity remained unchanged in the hippocampus. This inhibition of CK by inhalation of cigarette smoke might be related to the process of cell death. Physical exercise played a preventive role in the inhibition of CK activity caused by exposure to cigarette smoke.

Time Trends and Predictors of Initiation for Cigarette and Waterpipe Smoking Among Jordanian School Children: Irbid, 2008-2011

McKelvey, Karma L, PhD
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Smoking prevalence among adolescents in the Middle East remains high while rates of smoking have been declining among adolescents elsewhere. The aims of this research were to (1) describe patterns of cigarette and waterpipe (WP) smoking, (2) identify determinants of WP smoking initiation, and (3) identify determinants of cigarette smoking initiation in a cohort of Jordanian school children. Among this cohort of school children in Irbid, Jordan, (age ≈ 12.6 at baseline) the first aim (N=1,781) described time trends in smoking behavior, age at initiation, and changes in frequency of smoking from 2008-2011 (grades 7 – 10). The second aim (N=1,243) identified determinants of WP initiation among WP-naïve students; and the third aim (N=1,454) identified determinants of cigarette smoking initiation among cigarette naïve participants. Determinants of initiation were assessed with generalized mixed models. All analyses were stratified by gender. Baseline prevalence of current smoking (cigarettes or WP) for boys and girls was 22.9% and 8.7% respectively. Prevalence of ever- and current- any smoking, cigarette smoking, WP smoking, and dual cigarette/WP smoking was higher in boys than girls each year (p These studies reveal intensive smoking patterns at early ages among Jordanian youth in Irbid...

Determinants of Waterpipe and Cigarette Smoking Progression among a School Based Sample of Adolescents in Irbid, Jordan: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study (2008-2011)

Jaber, Rana Mohammed
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.94%
The prevalence of waterpipe smoking exceeds that of cigarettes among adolescents in the Middle East where waterpipe is believed as less harmful, less addictive and can be a safer alternative to cigarettes. This dissertation tested the gateway hypothesis that waterpipe can provide a bridge to initiate cigarette smoking, identified the predictors of cigarette smoking progression, and identified predictors of waterpipe smoking progression among a school-based sample of Jordanian adolescents (mean age ± SD) (12.7 ±0.61) years at baseline. Data for this research have been drawn from Irbid Longitudinal Study of smoking behavior, Jordan (2008-2011). The grouped-time survival analysis showed that waterpipe smoking was associated with a higher risk of cigarette smoking initiation compared to never smokers (P < 0.001) and this association was dose dependent (P < 0.001). Predictors of cigarette smoking progression were peer smoking and attending public schools for boys, siblings’ smoking for girls, and the urge to smoke for both genders. Predictors of waterpipe smoking progression were enrollment in public schools, frequent physical activity, and low refusal self-efficacy for boys, ever smoking cigarettes, friends’ and siblings’ waterpipe smoking for girls. Awareness of harms of waterpipe among boys and seeing warning labels on the tobacco packs by girls were protective against waterpipe smoking progression. In Conclusion...

Cigarette smoking and pancreatic cancer: an analysis from the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (Panc4)

Bosetti, C.; Lucenteforte, E.; Silverman, D.T.; Petersen, G.; Bracci, P.M.; Ji, B.T.; Negri, E.; Li, D.; Risch, H.A.; Olson, S.H.; Gallinger, S.; Miller, A.B.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Talamini, R.; Polesel, J.; Ghadirian, P.; Baghurst, P.A.; Zatonski, W.
Fonte: Oxford University Press (OUP) Publicador: Oxford University Press (OUP)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.92%
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the dose-response relationship between cigarette smoking and pancreatic cancer and to examine the effects of temporal variables. METHODS: We analyzed data from 12 case-control studies within the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4), including 6507 pancreatic cases and 12 890 controls. We estimated summary odds ratios (ORs) by pooling study-specific ORs using random-effects models. RESULTS: Compared with never smokers, the OR was 1.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-1.3) for former smokers and 2.2 (95% CI 1.7-2.8) for current cigarette smokers, with a significant increasing trend in risk with increasing number of cigarettes among current smokers (OR=3.4 for ≥35 cigarettes per day, P for trend<0.0001). Risk increased in relation to duration of cigarette smoking up to 40 years of smoking (OR=2.4). No trend in risk was observed for age at starting cigarette smoking, whereas risk decreased with increasing time since cigarette cessation, the OR being 0.98 after 20 years. CONCLUSIONS: This uniquely large pooled analysis confirms that current cigarette smoking is associated with a twofold increased risk of pancreatic cancer and that the risk increases with the number of cigarettes smoked and duration of smoking. Risk of pancreatic cancer reaches the level of never smokers ∼20 years after quitting.; C. Bosetti ... P. A. Baghurst ... et al.

The effects of cigarette excise taxes on health and wages

RESTREPO, Brandon
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.97%
The cigarette excise tax is viewed as an important policy tool to reduce smoking-related health problems and productivity losses. This is based on evidence that higher cigarette taxes reduce cigarette consumption and induce people to quit smoking, but there is also evidence that smokers adopt potentially health-reducing smoking behaviors to compensate for higher cigarette costs. In this paper, I exploit the substantial variation in cigarette taxes across and within U.S. states over time to examine the impact of cigarette taxes on health and wages. The analysis reveals that higher cigarette taxes cause a reduction in wages and a reduction in the number of healthy days in the past month. The negative impact on healthy days is more pronounced among individuals with low incomes and high daily intakes of nicotine and tar. These results indicate that cigarette taxes have unintended negative consequences, which may be driven in part by compensatory smoking behaviors. Alternative mechanisms related to weight gain and alcohol consumption are explored, but the analysis reveals that there is no empirical support for them.

The modifications produced in allergic alveolitis and in goodpasture's syndrome due to exposure to cigarette smoke

Escolar Castellón, J.de D.; Roche Roche, P.A.; Escolar castellón, A.; Miñana Amada, C.
Fonte: Murcia : F. Hernández Publicador: Murcia : F. Hernández
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37%
Two groups of rats with experimental alveolitis were exposed to cigarette smoke. After comparing the results, the possible muffling effect of the cigarette smoke related to interstitial lung disease was discussed. 180 rats were divided into 6 groups of 30 animals each: Group 1: untreated controls; Group 2: exposed to cigarette smoke for 2 months: Group 3: sensitized with bovine albumin (BA) and exposed to an atmosphere with this antigen for two months, to reproduce a type of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA); Group 4: treated with a single daily dose of anti-lung serum for three days followed by two days without treatment, to reproduce a type of Goodpasture's syndrome; Group 5: exposed to cigarette smoke and to BA; Group 6: exposed to cigarette smoke and treated with anti-lung serum. The animals were sacrificed and their lungs were treated for: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), percentage lymphocyte count, polymorphonuclear (PMN) and alveolar macrophages (AM); semiquantitative and morphometric histological study. The semiquantitative study determined the area of the studied lung incision, affected by granulomae, increased alveolar aerial spaces, thickened alveolar walls and haemosiderine lung area. The morphometric study...

Is exposure to e-cigarette communication associated with perceived harms of e-cigarette secondhand vapour? Results from a national survey of US adults

Tan, Andy S L; Bigman, Cabral A; Mello, Susan; Sanders-Jackson, Ashley
Fonte: BMJ Publishing Group Publicador: BMJ Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.92%
Objectives: E-cigarettes are frequently advertised and portrayed in the media as less harmful compared with regular cigarettes. Earlier surveys reported public perceptions of harms to people using e-cigarettes; however, public perceptions of harms from exposure to secondhand vapour (SHV) have not been studied. We examined associations between self-reported exposure to e-cigarette advertising, media coverage, and interpersonal discussion and perceived harms of SHV. Design: Observational study. Setting: National online sample of US adults aged ≥18 years. Participants: 1449 US adults (mean age 49.5 years), 51.3% female, 76.6% non-Hispanic Caucasian, 7.5% African-American, 10.0% Hispanic and 5.9% other races. Outcomes Perceived harm measures included (1) harmfulness of SHV to one's health, (2) concern about health impact of breathing SHV and (3) comparative harm of SHV versus secondhand smoke (SHS). Predictors were (1) self-reported frequency of exposure to e-cigarette advertising, media coverage and interpersonal discussion (close friends or family) and (2) perceived valence of exposure from each source. Covariates were demographic characteristics, cigarette smoking status and e-cigarette use, and were weighted to the general US adult population. Results: More frequent interpersonal discussion was associated with lower perceived harmfulness of SHV to one's health and lower perceived comparative harm of SHV versus SHS. Frequency of e-cigarette ad and other media exposure were not significant predictors. Perceived negative valence of ad exposure and interpersonal discussion (vs no exposure) was associated with higher perceived harm across all three outcomes...

Effects of cigarette smoke inhalation and coffee consumption on bone formation and osseous integration of hydroxyapatite implant

Andrade,AR.; Sant'Ana,DCM.; Mendes Junior,JA.; Moreira,M.; Pires,GC.; Santos,MP.; Fernandes,GJM.; Nakagaki,WR.; Garcia,JAD.; Lima,CC.; Soares,EA.
Fonte: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia Publicador: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.94%
The present study aims to assess the effects of cigarette smoke inhalation and/or coffee consumption on bone formation and osseous integration of a dense hydroxyapatite (DHA) implant in rats. For this study, 20 male rats were divided into four groups (n = 5): CT (control) group, CE (coffee) group, CI (cigarette) group and CC (coffee + cigarette) group. During 16 weeks, animals in the CI group were exposed to cigarette smoke inhalation equivalent to 6 cigarettes per day; specimens in the CE group drank coffee as liquid diet; and rats in the CC group were submitted to both substances. In the 6th week a 5 mm slit in the parietal bone and a 4 mm slit in the tibia were performed on the left side: the former was left open while the latter received a DHA implant. As soon as surgeries were finished, the animals returned to their original protocols and after 10 weeks of exposure they were euthanised (ethically sacrificed) and the mentioned bones collected for histological processing. Data showed that exposure to cigarette smoke inhalation and coffee consumption did not interfere in weight gain and that solid and liquid diet consumption was satisfactory. Rats in the CC group showed a decrease in bone neoformation around the tibial DHA implant (31.8 ± 2.8) as well as in bone formation in the parietal slit (28.6 ± 2.2). On their own...

Cigarette smoke condensate stimulates urokinase production through the generation of reactive oxygen species and activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase pathways in human gingival fibroblasts

Arancibia, R.; Cáceres, M.; Martínez, J.; Smith, P.C.; Gonzalez, R.
Fonte: Blackwell Munksgaard Publicador: Blackwell Munksgaard
Tipo: Artículo de revista
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.99%
Artículo de publicación ISI; Background and Objective:  Tobacco smoking is a significant risk factor for periodontal disease. It has been suggested that smoking may alter connective tissue remodeling in the periodontium. In the present study, we investigated whether cigarette smoke condensate modulates the production of the serine protease urokinase in human gingival fibroblasts. Material and Methods:  Primary cultures of human gingival fibroblasts were stimulated with cigarette smoke condensate. Urokinase production was evaluated through casein zymography and western blotting. Plasmin activation was assessed by means of a radial diffusion assay. The roles of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and reactive oxygen species in cigarette smoke condensate-stimulated urokinase production were studied using distinct selective inhibitors (SP600125, PD98059, N-acetyl cysteine). Reactive oxygen species production was determined using a fluorometric assay. Activation of ERK and JNK pathways were evaluated using western blots. Results:  In gingival fibroblasts, cigarette smoke condensate potently stimulated urokinase production and plasmin activation. Cigarette smoke condensate-stimulated urokinase production was dependent on the activity of ERK/JNK pathways and was inhibited by the reactive oxygen species scavenger...

Effects of cigarette smoke and nicotine on cell viability, migration and myofibroblastic differentiation

Smith, P. C.; Cáceres, M.; Martínez Winkler, Jorge; Arancibia, R.; Silva, D.
Fonte: John Wiley & Sons A/S Publicador: John Wiley & Sons A/S
Tipo: Artículo de revista
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
Artículo de publicación ISI.; Background and Objective: Several studies have analysed the role of nicotine as a prominent agent affecting wound repair in smokers. However, tobacco smoke contains several components that may alter gingival wound healing. The present study aimed to analyse the roles of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and nicotine on cell viability, cell migration/invasion and myofibroblastic differentiation using primary cultures of human gingival fibroblasts. Material and Methods: To compare the effects of CSC and nicotine, gingival fibroblasts were stimulated with CSC (0.4–500 lg/mL) and the corresponding nicotine concentrations (0.025–32 lg/mL) present in research cigarettes (1R3F). Cell viability was evaluated through the MTS assay. Cell migration and invasion were assessed through scratch wound assays, collagen nested matrices and transwell migration. a-Smooth muscle actin production was evaluated by western blotting. Results: Cigarette smoke condensate at 50 lg/mL induced a moderate increase in cell viability, whereas the corresponding nicotine concentration (3.2 lg/mL) did not produce this response. Cigarette smoke condensate at 250 lg/mL, but not nicotine at 16 lg/mL (the corresponding nicotine concentration)...

Economic Impact of Increasing the Delaware Cigarette Tax

Brown, Daniel T.
Fonte: Center for Applied Demography & Survey Research Publicador: Center for Applied Demography & Survey Research
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.97%
This report analyzes the significance of cigarette sales in Delaware. It uses economic theory, econometric analysis, and simulation methods to answer the questions about the relevant trends in the cigarette market, the economic impact of cigarette sales to the state economy, and how the proposed increase in the cigarette excise tax would affect the cigarette market and the rest of the state's economy.