We report the first radiation hybrid map of the river buffalo X chromosome generated from a recently constructed river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) whole-genome radiation hybrid panel (BBURH5000). This map contains a total of 33 cattle-derived markers, including 10 genes, four ESTs and 19 microsatellites. The markers are distributed in two linkage groups: LG1 contains eight markers spanning 125.6 cR, and LG2 contains 25 markers spanning 366.3 cR. LG1 contains six markers in common with bovine sequence assembly BUILD 3.1. With the exception of BMS2152, the order of these markers on our BBUX map is shuffled when compared to the cow X chromosome (Bos taurus; BTAX). From LG2, two markers (AMELX and BL22) map to a more distal portion of BTAX compared to BBUX. In addition, two pairs of LG2 markers exhibit inversions compared to BTAX (ILSTS017 and ATRX; XBM38 and PPEF1). Alternatively, when compared to the most recent bovine RH map (Bov-Gen 3000rads), BL1098 and BMS2227 from LG1 as well as PLS3 and BMS1820 from LG2 showed inverted positions on the BBUX map. These discrepancies in buffalo and cattle maps may reflect evolutionary divergence of the chromosomes or mapping errors in one of the two species. Although the set of mapped markers does not cover the entire X chromosome...
Kochan, Kelli J.; Amaral, M. Elisabete J.; Agarwala, Richa; Schaeffer, Alejandro A.; Riggs, Penny K.
Fonte: Biomed Central Ltd.Publicador: Biomed Central Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista CientíficaFormato: 12
Relevância na Pesquisa
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Processo FAPESP: 02/10150-5; Background: Fluorescence of dyes bound to double-stranded PCR products has been utilized extensively in various real-time quantitative PCR applications, including post-amplification dissociation curve analysis, or differentiation of amplicon length or sequence composition. Despite the current era of whole-genome sequencing, mapping tools such as radiation hybrid DNA panels remain useful aids for sequence assembly, focused resequencing efforts, and for building physical maps of species that have not yet been sequenced. For placement of specific, individual genes or markers on a map, low-throughput methods remain commonplace. Typically, PCR amplification of DNA from each panel cell line is followed by gel electrophoresis and scoring of each clone for the presence or absence of PCR product. To improve sensitivity and efficiency of radiation hybrid panel analysis in comparison to gel-based methods, we adapted fluorescence-based real-time PCR and dissociation curve analysis for use as a novel scoring method.Results: As proof of principle for this dissociation curve method, we generated new maps of river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) chromosome 20 by both dissociation curve analysis and conventional marker scoring. We also obtained sequence data to augment dissociation curve results. Few genes have been previously mapped to buffalo chromosome 20...
We present a comprehensive radiation hybrid map of the bovine X chromosome (Chr) containing 20 new markers, including both microsatellites and expressed genes. This study was conducted with a 5000-rad whole genome RH cell panel consisting of 90 hybrid cell lines. Retention frequencies of individual markers range from 7.8% for XIST to 31.1% for TGLA325. Statistical analysis with RHMAPPER placed all the loci into five linkage groups under a LOD score criterion of 6.0. These groups could be oriented relative to each other because they included multiple microsatellite loci from the consensus linkage map of the X Chr. Markers included in both this RH map and the bovine cytogenetic map were in a consistent order. The comparative bovine-human map thus generated consists of five blocks of genes, the order of which is conserved, although in the opposite direction when presented as ideograms with p and q arms. Inversions of three blocks account for the difference in gene order across the entirety of the two X Chrs.
Background: Members of the Anostomidae family provide an interesting model system for the study of the influence of repetitive elements on genome composition, mainly because they possess numerous heterochromatic segments and a peculiar system of female heterogamety that is restricted to a few species of the Leporinus genus. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify important new repetitive DNA elements in Anostomidae through restriction enzyme digestion, followed by cloning, characterisation and chromosome mapping of this fragment. To identify repetitive elements in other Leporinus species and expand on studies of repetitive elements in Anostomidae, hybridisation experiments were also performed using previously described probes of LeSpeI repetitive elements. Results: The 628-base pair (bp) LeSpeII fragment was hybridised to metaphase cells of L. elongatus individuals as well as those of L. macrocephalus, L. obtusidens, L. striatus, L. lacustris, L. friderici, Schizodon borellii and S. isognathus. In L. elongatus, both male and female cells contained small clusters of LeSpeII repetitive elements dispersed on all of the chromosomes, with enrichment near most of the terminal portions of the chromosomes. In the female sex chromosomes of L. elongatus (Z2...
Supernumerary chromosomes (B chromosomes) occur in approximately 15% of eukaryote species. Although these chromosomes have been extensively studied, knowledge concerning their specific molecular composition is lacking in most cases. The accumulation of repetitive DNAs is one remarkable characteristic of B chromosomes, and the occurrence of distinct types of multigene families, satellite DNAs and some transposable elements have been reported. Here, we describe the organization of repetitive DNAs in the A complement and B chromosome system in the grasshopper species Abracris flavolineata using classical cytogenetic techniques and FISH analysis using probes for five multigene families, telomeric repeats and repetitive C0t-1 DNA fractions. The 18S rRNA and H3 histone multigene families are highly variable and well distributed in A. flavolineata chromosomes, which contrasts with the conservation of U snRNA genes and less variable distribution of 5S rDNA sequences. The H3 histone gene was an extensively distributed with clusters occurring in all chromosomes. Repetitive DNAs were concentrated in C-positive regions, including the pericentromeric region and small chromosomal arms, with some occurrence in C-negative regions, but abundance was low in the B chromosome. Finally...
Drosophila mediopunctata belongs to the tripunctata group, and is one of the commonest Drosophila species collected in some places in Brazil, especially in the winter. A standard map of the polytene chromosomes is presented. The breakpoints of the naturally occurring chromosomal rearrangements are marked on the map. The distribution of breaking points through the chromosomes of D. mediopunctata is apparently non-random. Chromosomes X, II and IV show inversion polymorphisms. Chromosome II is the most polymorphic, with 17 inversions, 8 inversions in the distal region and 9 in the proximal region. Chromosome X has four different gene arrangements, while chromosome IV has only two.
We describe an integrated approach to large-scale physical mapping using an Alu-PCR hybridization screening strategy in conjunction with direct PCR-based screening to construct a continuous yeast artificial chromosome map covering >20 mb in human chromosome 3, bands p14-p21, composed of 205 loci, connected by 480 yeast artificial chromosomes, with average interlocus distance of approximately equal to 100 kb. We observe an inverse distribution of Alu-PCR and (CA)n markers. These results suggest that the two screening methods may be complementary and demonstrate the utility of Alu-PCR hybridization screening in the closure of high-resolution human physical maps.
A physical map of the 9.2-Mbp Myxococcus xanthus DK1622 chromosome at a resolution of 25 kbp was constructed by using a strategy that is applicable to virtually all microorganisms. Segments of the chromosome were used as hybridization probes to subdivide a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library into groups of linked clones. The clones were aligned by comparing their EcoRI restriction patterns. The groups of YAC clones ("contigs") were oriented and aligned with the genomic restriction map by means of common genetic and physical markers such as rare restriction sites and transposon insertions. Over 95% of the genome is represented by cloned DNA. Sixty genetic loci including > 100 genes, many of which play a role in fruiting body development, have been mapped in this way. Additional genes can now be located on the chromosome map by hybridization of their sequences to the ordered set of YAC chromosomes. The mapped genetic loci account for approximately 2% of the genome.
Using a genomic approach, we have identified a new Salmonella pathogenicity island, SPI-4, which is the fourth Salmonella pathogenicity island to be identified. SPI-4 was located at 92 min on the chromosome map and was flanked by the ssb and soxSR loci. The DNA sequence covering the entire SPI-4 and both boundaries was determined. The size of SPI-4 was about 25 kb and it contains 18 putative open reading frames (ORFs). Three of these ORFs encode proteins that have significant homology with proteins involved in toxin secretion. Another five ORFs encode proteins that have significant homology with hypothetical proteins from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 or Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. The rest of the ORFs encode novel proteins, one of which has five membrane-spanning domains. SPI-4 is likely to carry a type I secretion system involved in toxin secretion. Furthermore, a previously identified locus (ims98), which is required for intramacrophage survival, was also mapped within the SPI-4 region. These findings suggested that SPI-4 is needed for intramacrophage survival.
The genome size and a partial physical and genetic map have been defined for the phage group II Staphylococcus aureus Ps55. The genome size was estimated to be 2,771 kb by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using the restriction enzymes SmaI, CspI, and SgrAI. The Ps55 chromosome map was constructed by transduction of auxotrophic and cryptic transposon insertions, with known genetic and physical locations in S. aureus NCTC 8325, into the Ps55 background. PFGE and DNA hybridization analysis were used to detect the location of the transposon in Ps55. Ps55 restriction fragments were then ordered on the basis of genetic conservation between the two strains. Cloned DNA probes containing the lactose operon (lac) and genes encoding staphylococcal protein A (spa), gamma hemolysin (hlg), and coagulase (coa) were also located on the map by PFGE and hybridization analysis. This methodology enabled a direct comparison of chromosomal organization between NCTC 8325 and Ps55 strains. The chromosome size, gene order, and some of the restriction sites are conserved between the two phage group strains.
We describe an integrated physical, genetic and cytogenetic map of human chromosome 16 comprising both a low-resolution megaYAC map and a high-resolution cosmid contig/mlnlYAC map, which provides nearly complete coverage of the euchromatic arms of the chromosome. The physical map is anchored to a high-resolution cytogenetic breakpoint map and is Integrated with genetic and gene transcript maps of the chromosome by sequence-tagged sites and clone hybridizations.
This study describes development of a consensus genetic linkage map of bovine chromosome 24 (BTA24). Eight participating laboratories contributed data for 58 unique markers including a total of 25 409 meioses. Eighteen markers, which were typed in more than one reference population, were used as potential anchors to generate a consensus framework map. The framework map contained 16 loci ordered with odds greater than 1000:1 and spanned 79.3 cM. Remaining markers were included in a comprehensive map relative to these anchors. The resulting BTA24 comprehensive map was 98.3 cM in length. Average marker intervals were 6.1 and 2.5 cM for framework and comprehensive maps, respectively. Marker order was generally consistent with previously reported BTA24 linkage maps. Only one discrepancy was found when comparing the comprehensive map with the published USDA-MARC linkage map. Integration of genetic information from different maps provides a high-resolution BTA24 linkage map.; The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com
A comparative study of human chromosome 17 (HSA17) and pig chromosome 12 (SSC12) was conducted using both somatic cell hybrid panel (SCHP) and radiation hybrid (RH) panel analysis. Sequences from an expressed sequence tag (EST) project in pig reproduction were examined and six genes and ESTs originally believed to map to HSA17 were selected for this study. The genes/ESTs were TATA box binding protein-associated factor (TAF2N/RBP56), α-2-plasmin inhibitor (SERPINF2/PLI), H3 histone family 3B (H3F3B), aminopeptidase puromycin sensitive (NPEPPS), an expressed sequence tag (ESTMI015) and P311 protein (P311). The SCHP analysis mapped five genes/ESTs (TAF2N, H3F3B, SERPINF2, NPEPPS and ESTMI015) to SSC12q11-q15 and SSC12p11-p15 with 100% concordance, and assigned P311 to SSC2 (1/2q24)-q29 with 100% concordance. Radiation hybrid analysis of all six genes confirmed the SCHP mapping results, with average retention frequency of 25%. Recent human sequence data demonstrated that P311 is actually located on HSA5q. As HSA5q and SSC2q show conserved syntenic regions predicted from bi-directional painting, our P311 mapping data is consistent with these results. An expanded comparative SSC12 RH map integrating the five new type I markers and 23 previously mapped loci was established using a LOD score threshold of 4.8. The gene order of the five genes/ESTs on the SSC12 framework RH map (H3F3B-ESTMI015-NPEPPS-TAF2N-SERPINF2) is identical to the HSA17 GB4 map but with inversion of the map as conventionally drawn.; The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com
Background: Physical maps employing libraries of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones are essential for comparative genomics and sequencing of large and repetitive genomes such as those of the hexaploid bread wheat. The diploid ancestor of the D-genome of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum), Aegilops tauschii, is used as a resource for wheat genomics. The barley diploid genome also provides a good model for the Triticeae and T. aestivum since it is only slightly larger than the ancestor wheat D genome. Gene co-linearity between the grasses can be exploited by extrapolating from rice and Brachypodium distachyon to Ae. tauschii or barley, and then to wheat. Results: We report the use of Ae. tauschii for the construction of the physical map of a large distal region of chromosome arm 3DS. A physical map of 25.4 Mb was constructed by anchoring BAC clones of Ae. tauschii with 85 EST on the Ae. tauschii and barley genetic maps. The 24 contigs were aligned to the rice and B. distachyon genomic sequences and a high density SNP genetic map of barley. As expected, the mapped region is highly collinear to the orthologous chromosome 1 in rice, chromosome 2 in B. distachyon and chromosome 3H in barley. However, the chromosome scale of the comparative maps presented provides new insights into grass genome organization. The disruptions of the Ae. tauschii-rice and Ae. tauschii-Brachypodium syntenies were identical. We observed chromosomal rearrangements between Ae. tauschii and barley. The comparison of Ae. tauschii physical and genetic maps showed that the recombination rate across the region dropped from 2.19 cM/Mb in the distal region to 0.09 cM/Mb in the proximal region. The size of the gaps between contigs was evaluated by comparing the recombination rate along the map with the local recombination rates calculated on single contigs. Conclusions: The physical map reported here is the first physical map using fingerprinting of a complete Triticeae genome. This study demonstrates that global fingerprinting of the large plant genomes is a viable strategy for generating physical maps. Physical maps allow the description of the co-linearity between wheat and grass genomes and provide a powerful tool for positional cloning of new genes.; Delphine Fleury...
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) has a large and highly repetitive genome which poses major technical challenges for its study. To aid map-based cloning and future genome sequencing projects, we constructed a BAC-based physical map of the short arm of wheat chromosome 1A (1AS). From the assembly of 25,918 high information content (HICF) fingerprints from a 1AS-specific BAC library, 715 physical contigs were produced that cover almost 99% of the estimated size of the chromosome arm. The 3,414 BAC clones constituting the minimum tiling path were end-sequenced. Using a gene microarray containing ~40 K NCBI UniGene EST clusters, PCR marker screening and BAC end sequences, we arranged 160 physical contigs (97 Mb or 35.3% of the chromosome arm) in a virtual order based on synteny with Brachypodium, rice and sorghum. BAC end sequences and information from microarray hybridisation was used to anchor 3.8 Mbp of Illumina sequences from flow-sorted chromosome 1AS to BAC contigs. Comparison of genetic and synteny-based physical maps indicated that ~50% of all genetic recombination is confined to 14% of the physical length of the chromosome arm in the distal region. The 1AS physical map provides a framework for future genetic mapping projects as well as the basis for complete sequencing of chromosome arm 1AS.; James Breen...
A single mapping resource, a mouse/human somatic cell panel with average distance between breakpoints of 1.2 Mb and a potential resolution of 1 Mb, has been utilized to integrate the genetic map and a transcript map of human chromosome 16. This map includes 141 genetic markers and 200 genes and transcripts. The localization of four genes (CHEL3, TK2, TRG1, and MMP9) reported to map to chromosome 16 could not be confirmed, and for three of these localizations to other human chromosomes are reported. A correlation between genetic and physical distance over a region estimated to be 23 Mb on the short arm of chromosome 16 identified an interval demonstrating a greatly increased rate of recombination where, in females, 1 cM is equivalent to a physical distance of 100 kb.
High-frequency-of-recombination donors of P. aeruginosa strain PAO were generated using a temperature-sensitive, replication mutant of the IncP-1 plasmid R68, loaded with the transposon Tn2521. Fourteen donors so isolated mobilized the chromosome in a polarized manner from a number of different transfer origins. The donors were used to construct a time of entry map of the entire chromosome and this was achieved by determining the time of entry of 32 randomly dispersed markers in crosses using nalidixic acid to interrupt chromosome transfer. Analysis of the time of entry data enabled the recalibration of the chromosome map to 75 min.
There is much interest in the gene content of the small heterochromatic W chromosome of the chicken, on the supposition that it may contain sex-determining genes. A considerable region in the chicken genome has been assigned to the W chromosome on the bas
Marsupial, as well as eutherian, mammals are subject to X chromosome inactivation in the somatic cells of females, although the phenotype and the molecular mechanism differ in important respects. Monotreme mammals appear to subscribe at least to a form of