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Modelling the effect of chilling on the occurrence of Salmonella on pig carcasses at study, abattoir and batch levels by meta-analysis

Gonzales-Barron, Ursula A.; Cadavez, Vasco; Sheridan, James; Butler, Francis
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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The effect of chilling on the occurrence of Salmonella on pig carcasses was investigated at study, abattoir and batch level by meta-analysis. Both the fixed-effects and random-effects model confirmed (p b 0.05) the significant effect of chilling in decreasing Salmonella occurrence on pig carcasses; although the random-effects solution was preferred to account for the significant variability in effect size (p b 0.001) estimated from the 13 primary studies considered, the 32 abattoirs surveyed, and the 51 sampled batches. Conservatively, it can be said that chilling reduces the Salmonella incidence on pig carcasses by a mean ratio of ~1.6 (95% CI: 1.0–2.6). Multilevel meta-analysismodels investigating study characteristics that could explain the heterogeneity (τ2) in the true effect size among primary studies (τ2 = 0.578), among surveyed abattoirs (τ2 = 0.431), and among sampled batches (τ2 = 0.373), revealed that study size (represented by the moderating variables of ‘total sample size’ and ‘number of batches sampled in an abattoir’) and ‘carcass swabbed area’ have a significant impact (p b 0.05) on the measured effect size of chilling. The fact that swabbed area explained between 56 and 62% and total sample size between 23 and 38% of the total heterogeneity in the chilling true effect size...

Efeito da encapsulação de licopeno na sua estabilidade e biodisponibilidade; Effect of encapsulation of lycopene on their stability and bioavailability

Pelissari, Julio Rafael
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/05/2014 PT
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Licopeno, um pigmento natural considerado o mais potente antioxidante dentre os carotenoides, é oque tem maior incidência no soro humano. Seu consumo regular está relacionado principalmente com a prevenção do câncer de próstata. Porém, estudos também demonstram sua relação com a prevenção de câncer de pâncreas e bexiga, doenças cardiovasculares como a aterosclerose e doenças neurodegenerativas. Todavia, por ser altamente insaturado o licopeno é susceptível à degradação, sendo degradado na presença de luz, oxigênio e se exposto a altas temperaturas. A microencapsulação entra como uma alternativa para tentar garantir maior estabilidade a este carotenoide. A técnica de spray-chilling, por dispensar o emprego de altas temperaturas e solventes durante o processo de atomização, representa uma alternativa promissora na encapsulação do licopeno. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram encapsular uma solução oleosa de licopeno (10%) através da técnica de spray-chilling,utilizando gordura vegetal low trans como carreador, caracterizar as micropartículas obtidas e avaliar a biodisponibilidade do licopeno livre e encapsulado em ratos wistars. Foram formulados seis tratamentos, que diferiam pela concentração de solução comercial de licopeno...

Alterations in chlorophyll a fluorescence, pigment concentrations and lipid peroxidation to chilling temperature in coffee seedlings

Oliveira, Jurandi Gonçalves de; Aguiar Alves, Pedro Luís da Costa; Vitória, Angela Pierre
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 71-76
ENG
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Coffea arabica L. is considered to be sensitive to low temperatures throughout its life cycle. In some Brazilian regions, seedling production occurs under shade conditions and during the winter, with average temperatures of around 10 °C. The formation and functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus are strongly controlled by temperature. This study aimed to assess the changes that occurred in pigment contents, lipid peroxidation and variables of chlorophyll a fluorescence during the greening process of coffee seedlings submitted to chilling. Results indicate that saturation of the photosynthetic activity of coffee seedlings occurred before saturation of the accumulation of chloroplastid pigments. Pigment accumulation during the greening process is far beyond the metabolic needs for the maintenance of photosynthetic activity, more specifically of photosystem II. Coffee seedlings attained a quantum yield equivalent to that of the control with approximately half the chlorophyll a and b contents and around 40% of the carotenoid. Low temperature decreases the metabolism of seedlings, consequently reducing free radical production and lipid peroxidation. The chilling temperature (10 °C) used inhibited the accumulation of chloroplast pigments...

Effect of temperature on the lipolytic and proteolytic activity of Bacillus cereus isolated from dairy products

Montanhini, M. T M; Montanhini, R. N.; Pinto, J. P N; Bersot, L. S.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1417-1420
ENG
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Bacillus cereus is a bacterium with deteriorating potential for dairy products, by being a psychrotrophic organism producer of lipases and proteases. This study evaluated the psychrotrophic behavior, lipolytic and proteolytic activity at 30°C, 10°C and 7°C of 86 strains of B. cereus lato sensu isolated from dairy products, marketed in Southern Brazil. It was also evaluated the optimal temperature for protease production. No strain grew at 7°C; but at 10°C, 84.9% of strains have grown. Only one strain had lipolytic activity at 30°C, and none at 7°C. At 10°C, 16.3% of strains produced lipases. All the strains presented proteolytic activity at 30°C; and at 10°C, 72.1% had this activity, and at 7°C, only 4.6%, an amount significantly lower (p < 0.05). The temperature of 20°C promoted the highest proteolytic activity, and at 10°C, the lowest activity. B. cereus can produce lipases and proteases at room and marginal chilling temperatures, causing technological defects in dairy products stored under these conditions. © 2008 IFRJ.

Chilling curves for Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) embryos stored at-8 degrees C

Lopes, Tais da S.; Streit, Danilo Pedro; Fornari, Darci Carlos; Oliveira, Diego de; Ribeiro, Ricardo Pereira; Romagosa, Elizabeth
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 345-350
ENG
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Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); The present study investigates the effect of different slow chilling curves on the storage of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) embryos submitted to chilling at -8 degrees C. Embryos at the blastopore closure stage were divided into two groups: G1 - embryos exposed to cryoprotectant solution containing methanol (10%) and sucrose (0.5M), treated as follows: (T1) taken directly from room temperature to the refrigerator without being submitted to the curve; (T2) chilling curve of 0.5 degrees C/min; and (T3) chilling curve of 1 degrees C/min; and G2 - the cryoprotectant solution alone was submitted to these same temperatures, receiving the embryos only after temperature had decreased, corresponding to treatments T4, T5 and T6, respectively. Treatments were kept at -8 degrees C for a period of 6 h. Embryo development was evaluated for each treatment, with six replicates in an entirely randomized design. Survival among embryos not submitted to refrigeration was 94.3 +/- 8.05%. Percentage of total larvae (TL) and addled eggs (AE) did not differ statistically between the groups, although percentage of swimming larvae (SL) exhibited higher values in G1 for the 1 degrees C/min curve. Furthermore...

Comportamento de misturas binarias lipidicas na produção de microparticulas por spray chilling e sua influencia na liberação de recheio hidrofilico; Behavior of binary lipid in the production of microparticles by spray chilling and its influence on the hydrophilic core release

Marilene De Mori Morselli Ribeiro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/02/2010 PT
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A facilidade de obtenção de micropartículas lipídicas e a possibilidade de produção em escala industrial aumentam o interesse do mercado alimentício de processar este tipo de material. Contudo, estas micropartículas apresentam desvantagens com relação à baixa encapsulação e à expulsão de material de recheio durante a estocagem. Assim, a finalidade deste trabalho foi estudar o comportamento das microcápsulas lipídicas produzidas pelo processo spray chilling utilizando as seguintes misturas em diferentes proporções: ácidos esteárico (AE) e oléico (AO), óleo de soja totalmente hidrogenado (STH) e ácido oléico (AO), álcool cetoestearílico (ACE) e ácido oléico (AO) como materiais de parede (matriz), lecitina de soja como tensoativo e solução de glicose como recheio. O objetivo foi aumentar a eficiência de encapsulação, verificando o efeito da composição e estrutura da matriz lipídica. Para este propósito, foram caracterizadas as matérias-primas lipídicas em composição de ácidos graxos e triacilgliceróis, bem como, as misturas lipídicas avaliadas por calorimetria diferencial de varredura (DSC), teor de gordura sólida (SFC) e curva de isosólidos. Nas micropartículas, foram avaliadas morfologia de superfície e microestrutura...

Um estudo de caso: o Direito ao Esquecimento contra a Liberdade de Imprensa

SIERRA, Joana de Souza
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: 89 f.
PT_BR
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TCC(graduação) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Centro de Ciências Jurídicas. Direito.; Por meio de estudos de caso e da análise da legislação pertinente a monografia objetiva examinar o cabimento na nossa ordem jurídica do “Direito ao Esquecimento”, recentemente reconhecido em duas decisões independentes do Superior Tribunal de Justiça, especialmente em relação aos já garantidos direitos à vida privada, à liberdade de imprensa e à dignidade da pessoa humana. Esse novo direito foi introduzido ao debate nacional primeiramente pelo Enunciado 531 da VI Jornada de Direito Civil do Conselho da Justiça Federal, o qual proclamou que entre os direitos da personalidade protegidos no artigo 11 do Código Civil, encontra-se o de ser esquecido, baseado por sua vez em entendimentos das cortes superiores norte-americana e alemã, além de Diretivas editadas pela União Européia. Como consequência, considera-se que a pessoa possui o direito de fugir para o anonimato, mesmo tendo participado de eventos de interesse público, desde que a passagem do tempo tenha retirado a notícia de circulação. Imediatamente, faz-se necessário estudar a interpretação que se deu aos conceitos nas decisões, a saber, a vida privada...

Control of chilling tendency in grey cast iron reuse

Seidu,Saliu Ojo; Ogunniyi,Iyiola Olatunji
Fonte: ABM, ABC, ABPol Publicador: ABM, ABC, ABPol
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2013 EN
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In grey cast iron remelt and recycling, white iron can result in the cast product if careful control of the chilling tendency is not ensured. Many jobbing foundries are constrained in furnace types and available foundry additives that the operation always results in white irons. This study is towards ensuring grey iron is reproduced from cast iron scrap auto engine blocks, when using a diesel fired rotary furnace and a FeSi alloy for structural modification (inoculation). With varying addition rate of the FeSi alloy to the tapped molten metal, chill wedge tests were performed on two different wedge samples of type W (according to ASTM A367- wedge test) with cooling modulus of 0.45 cm (W3½) and 0.54 cm (W4). The carbon equivalents for the test casts were within hypoeutectic range (3.85 wt. (%) to 4.11 wt. (%)). In the W4 wedge sample, at 2.0 wt. (%) addition rate of the FeSi alloy, the relative clear chill was totally reduced to zero from 19.76%, while the relative mottled chill was brought down to 9.59% from 33.71%. The microstructure from the cast at this level of addition was free of carbidic phases; it shows randomly oriented graphite flakes evenly distributed in the iron matrix. Hardness assessment shows that increasing rate of FeSi addition results in decreasing hardness...

Differential water uptake kinetics in axes and cotyledons during seed germination of Vigna radiata under chilling temperature and cycloheximide treatment

Chakraborty,R.; Kar,R.K.
Fonte: Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology Publicador: Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2008 EN
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Water uptake kinetics of axes and cotyledons of Vigna radiata seeds has been studied during incubation at chilling temperature (4°C) and under cycloheximide treatment. Germination rate of scarified seeds was faster than intact seeds, which can be correlated with their comparative water uptake kinetics. Chilling temperature during incubation significantly slowed down water uptake by both intact and scarified seeds. Treatment with cycloheximide was also somewhat effective in retarding water uptake, but only in scarified seeds. Water uptake by axes isolated from intact seeds (attached or detached from the cotyledons) was inhibited completely by chilling temperature as well as by cycloheximide treatment while these treatments were ineffective in preventing water uptake by cotyledons. In the case of scarified seeds, such treatments again inhibited water uptake by axes only, the effect being more prominent in attached ones. Preincubation of intact seeds with cycloheximide for 6 h also inhibited water uptake by isolated axes, but not by cotyledons, during subsequent incubation in water.

Effect of alternating day and night temperature on short day-induced bud set and subsequent bud burst in long days in Norway spruce

Olsen, Jorunn E.; Lee, YeonKyeong; Junttila, Olavi
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/12/2014 EN
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Young seedlings of the conifer Norway spruce exhibit short day (SD)-induced cessation of apical growth and bud set. Although different, constant temperatures under SD are known to modulate timing of bud set and depth of dormancy with development of deeper dormancy under higher compared to lower temperature, systematic studies of effects of alternating day (DT) and night temperatures (NT) are limited. To shed light on this, seedlings of different provenances of Norway spruce were exposed to a wide range of DT-NT combinations during bud development, followed by transfer to forcing conditions of long days (LD) and 18°C, directly or after different periods of chilling. Although no specific effect of alternating DT/NT was found, the results demonstrate that the effects of DT under SD on bud set and subsequent bud break are significantly modified by NT in a complex way. The effects on bud break persisted after chilling. Since time to bud set correlated with the daily mean temperature under SD at DTs of 18 and 21°C, but not a DT of 15°C, time to bud set apparently also depend on the specific DT, implying that the effect of NT depends on the actual DT. Although higher temperature under SD generally results in later bud break after transfer to forcing conditions...

Effect of pre-ripening chilling temperatures on ripening, shelf life and quality of bananas treated with 1-methylcyclopropene

Moradinezhad, F.; Sedgley, M.; Able, A.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
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Ethylene production, shelf life and fruit quality of Cavendish bananas (cv. Williams), held at different pre-ripening storage temperatures (5 °C, 10 °C or 15 °C) prior to ethylene and/or 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) application, were determined and compared. Levels of ethylene production during ripening were highest for control fruit that had been stored at 5 °C followed by 10 °C and then 15 °C. 1-MCP treatment (at 300 nL L−1) had no effect on ethylene production of fruit that had been stored at 10 °C by day 10 of storage, but ethylene production was significantly higher for fruit that had been stored at 15 °C and lower for those stored at 5 °C before 1-MCP treatment. 1-MCP also increased shelf life to a greater extent when applied to fruit that had been stored at 10 °C or 15 °C. Even though 1-MCP had no significant effect on under peel chilling injury, it increased discolouration significantly, regardless of storage temperature. Firmness of 1-MCP-treated fruit decreased significantly compared to the control when fruit were held at 5 °C or 15 °C prior to ripening (and 1-MCP application) but had no effect on fruit stored at 10 °C before ripening. These results indicate that pre-ripening storage temperature affects ripening...

287 (g) cross-delegating state and local law enforcement officers with federal immigration authority -- homeland security remedy or rue?

Lines, Jonathan L.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: x, 115 p. ;
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CHDS State/Local; As a result of the federal government's shortcomings in thwarting illegal immigration, state and local law enforcement agencies are now largely shouldering the problem of criminal activity associated with illegal immigration. Section 287(g) of the INA allows state and local police to actively participate in immigration enforcement, but has raised concerns about how to balance public safety with concerns of a "chilling effect" on the immigrant community. This thesis surveyed current and prospective 287(g) participants in order to develop a model for voluntary local, state and federal immigration enforcement collaboration. The proposed model confines immigration enforcement to a small group of select officers representing agencies that volunteer based on the needs of their communities; ICE agents would be active participants. The enforcement would target serious crimes that support illegal immigration such as alien smuggling, fraudulent documents, transnational gang activity and drug trafficking. Enforcement efforts would be supplemented by community outreach and efforts to mitigate the chilling effect that deters many state and local police from engaging in immigration enforcement.; Resident Agent In Charge - Ogden...

Efecto del acondicionado previo al almacenaje refrigerado sobre la calidad de ciruelas 'Constanza'; Delayed cooling effect on the quality of ‘constanza’ plums

Seibert, Eduardo; González, Susana; Orellana, Ariel; Luchsinger, Luis; Bender, Renar João
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
SPA
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El efecto del acondicionado a 20 ºC por 6 días previo al almacenaje refrigerado sobre la calidad y el desarrollo de daños por frío fue estudiado en ciruelas ‘Constanza’. Terminado el tratamiento las ciruelas fueron almacenadas a 0 ºC por 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 y 42 días, o a 5 ºC por 7, 14 y 21 días, con evaluaciones a la cosecha, en cada salida de frío y después de madurar a 20 ºC. Como control las frutas fueron almacenadas a 0 y 5 ºC, sin acondicionar. Las pérdidas de masa fresca fueron bajas durante el almacenaje a 0 o 5 ºC y aumentaron en la maduración. La firmeza cambió poco en las ciruelas-control a 0 ºC, mientras que en las acondicionadas disminuyó hasta los 28 días a 0 ºC. El acondicionado combinado con el almacenaje a 5 ºC causó una gran pérdida de firmeza, con un 50% de frutos presentando firmeza baja para comercialización en la maduración. El contenido de jugo fue superior en los frutos acondicionados y almacenados a 0 ºC respecto a los controles, pero no existieron diferencias entre los tratamientos en las ciruelas almacenadas a 5 ºC. Harinosidad se visualizó en frutos acondicionados y controles a 0 o 5 ºC, sin diferencias entre los tratamientos. Los frutos controles, en la maduración, presentaron pardeamiento pasados 42 días a 0 ºC y retención de firmeza pasados 28...

Sorry, You Can't Have That Information: Data Holder Confusion Regarding Privacy Requirements for Personal Health Information and the Potential Chilling Effect on Health Research

Pullman, Daryl; Buehler, Sharon K.; Felt, Larry; Gallagher, Katherine; House, Jeannie; Keough, T. Montgomery; McDonald, Lucy; Power, Angela; Ryan, Ann
Fonte: Longwoods Publishing Publicador: Longwoods Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2009 EN
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This study, conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador, assessed the level of awareness, perceptions and concerns of healthcare providers, health researchers, data managers and the general public about the collection, use and disclosure of personal health information (PHI) for research purposes. Data collection involved surveys and follow-up focus groups with participants. Results indicate a poor understanding generally with regard to privacy rights and responsibilities. Many professionals are unfamiliar with the legislative environment for PHI, particularly as it pertains to the access and use of PHI for research purposes. Lack of familiarity with basic requirements for patient-based research, coupled with heightened sensitivity to privacy issues owing to various federal and provincial regulatory initiatives, could have a chilling effect on health research. Importantly, our results indicate that the public is much less concerned about the use of their PHI for health research purposes than are professionals who collect, store and share it.

Effect of controlled atmosphere on postharvest quality of 'Douradão' peaches

Santana,Ligia Regina Radomille de; Benedetti,Benedito Carlos; Sigrist,José Maria Monteiro; Sato,Helia Harumi; Anjos,Valéria Delgado de Almeida
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2011 EN
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This study was carried out with one of the most important cultivar grown in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, which has gained the preference of consumers, due to its sweet taste, intense skin color and large size; however, these fruits are susceptible to chilling injury when cold stored for long periods. The use of controlled atmosphere (CA) with elevated CO2 and reduced O2 concentrations prevent the onset of the chilling symptom. Thus, the effect of three different conditions of controlled atmosphere (CA1, CA2, CA3 and Control) was evaluated in order to extend the storage life of 'Douradão' peaches. After 14, 21 and 28 days, samples were withdrawn from CA and kept in fresh air at 25 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% RH to complete ripening. On the day of removal and after 4 days, were the peaches quality characteristics were evaluated. The results showed that the use of CA during cold storage reduced weight loss and prevented postharvest decay. CA2 and CA3 treatments were effective in keeping good quality of 'Douradão' peaches during 28 days of cold storage, the ripe fruits showed reduced incidence of woolliness, adequate juiciness and flesh firmness. CA1 and Control treatments did not present marketable conditions after 14 days of cold storage.

Effect of high-pressure treatment on microbial activity and lipid oxidation in chilled coho salmon

Rodríguez, Alicia; Tabilo Munizaga, Gipsy; Reyes, Juan E.; Pérez Won, Mario; Aubourg, Santiago P.
Fonte: Wiley InterScience Publicador: Wiley InterScience
Tipo: Artículo de revista
EN
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This work studies the effect of a previous hydrostatic high-pressure (HHP) treatment on chilled farmed coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Three different HHP conditions were applied (135 MPa-30 s, 170 MPa-30 s, and 200 MPa-30 s for treatments T-1, T-2, and T-3, respectively) and compared to untreated (control) fish throughout a 20-day chilled storage. Microbial activity and lipid oxidation development were analyzed. Assessment of aerobe, psychrotroph, Shewanella spp. and Pseudomonas spp. counts and trimethylamine formation showed a marked inhibitory effect (p ,0.05) of HHP treatment on microbial activity, with this effect increasing with the pressure value employed. Related to lipid oxidation development, higher peroxide mean values (day 10–20 period) were found in control samples and fish treated under T-1 condition when compared to their counterparts corresponding to T-2 and T-3 treatments. On the contrary, quantification of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and fluorescent interaction compounds showed higher levels (p ,0.05) in fish samples corresponding to T-2 and T-3 treatments. In spite of the lipid oxidation development found, polyene index and tocopherol isomer (a and g) content did not provide differences (p .0.05) as a result of previous HHP treatment.; This work was supported by the Universidad de Chile (Chile)-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (Spain) program (Project 2006 CL 0034) and the FONDECYT program (Chile; Project Number: 1080626).

USE OF THE DYNAMIC MODEL FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF WINTER CHILLING IN A TEMPERATE AND A SUBTROPICAL CLIMATIC ZONE OF CHILE

Ormeño N., Juan; Reynaert, Bryan; Rubio, Sebastián; Pérez, Francisco J.
Fonte: Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, INIA Publicador: Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, INIA
Tipo: Artículo de revista
EN
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Accumulated chilling was estimated by applying three different models to the hourly autumn-winter temperature records from Santiago (33°34 S lat; 625 m.a.s.l.) and Vicuña (30°02´ S lat; 643 m.a.s.l.) for the years 2005 and 2006. The model of chilling hours, currently used in Chile as an agroclimatic indicator, was of limited use for effectively contrasting a subtropical condition (Vicuña) with a temperate area such as Santiago. The application of the Utah model gave negative values from March to May, and even up to June in Vicuña, since in this model the chilling effect is “negated” by warmer temperatures. However, a modified version of the Utah model named Positive Chilling Units (PCU), in which negative values are omitted, showed differences in the accumulated chilling between both regions, although these differences were of small magnitude and were noted only from July onwards. The Dynamic Model, which considers that chilling is irreversibly accumulated as quantum or Chill Portions (CP), showed that chilling in Santiago doubled that of Vicuña, and that these differences in location were already expressed at the beginning of autumn, confirming, thus, the suitability of the model for subtropical conditions. In this work the advantages of the dynamic model over other models are discussed.; We thank FONDECYT for the funding of project 1050285

Chemical changes during farmed coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) canning: Effect of a preliminary chilled storage

Rodríguez, Alicia; Carriles, Nicolás; Gallardo, José Manuel; Aubourg, Santiago P.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 205 bytes; text/plain
ENG
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7 pages, 2 figures.-- Available online 31 May 2008.; A relevant farmed fish species (coho salmon; Oncorhynchus kisutch) was studied as a raw material for the canning process. The effects of preliminary chilling storage and thermal treatment (cooking and sterilisation) on the chemical constituents (lipids and non-protein nitrogen compounds) of the canned fish were analysed. An increasing previous chilling time led to an important autolysis (K value) development, and to an increasing formation of free fatty acids, and interaction compounds (fluorescence and browning assessments) (p < 0.05) in the canned product. The thermal treatment led to the formation of volatile amines (total and trimethylamine), free fatty acids, secondary lipid oxidation compounds (anisidine and thiobarbituric acid values) and interaction compounds in canned fish. Interaction compound assessment was found the most useful tool to study the lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning developments, while the K value showed to be an interesting index for assessing the freshness stage of the raw material employed.; The work was realised in the Chilean University (Chile)-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (Spain) Program (Project 2006 CL 0034) and funded by the Secretaría Xeral de I+D from the Xunta de Galicia (Galicia...

Efeito de um “iodophor” na descontaminação de carcaças de frangos industrializados; Effect of an iodophor in chilling water on the bacterial counts of processed poultry

Panetta, José Cezar; Coelho, Willer Pinto
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/03/1976 ENG
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O trabalho foi conduzido com o propósito de testar a eficiência de um “iodophor” na descontaminação da água do tanque de pré-resfriamento utilizado na industrialização de carcaças de aves. Foram usadas 45 carcaças de frangos, a intervalos semanais, distribuídas em 9 grupos de carcaças cada. 8 grupos foram tratados pelo “iodophor” adicionado à água do tanque de pré-resfriamento nas seguintes diluições-. 1:250; 1:500; 1:750; 1:1000; 1:1250; 1:1500; 1:1750 e 1:2000. Um grupo foi reservado como controle. amostras para o exame bacteriológico foram colhidas por “swab” da pele das carcaças. A utilização do iodophor diluído na água do tanque resultou na descontaminação das carcaças, quando as diluições localizaram-se entre 1:250 e 1:1250. O experimento foi replicado dez vezes.; The experiment was conducted to determine whether or not the iodophor is effective in the decontamination of poultry carcases immersed in the treated chilling water. 1,5 carcases were used at weekly intervals, allocated in 9 groups of 5 each. 8 groups were treated by iodophor solutions in the chilling tank at the following dilutions: 1:250; 1:500; 1.750; 1:1000; 1:1250; 1:1500; 1:1750; 1:2000. One group remained as control. The samples for bacteriological examinations were collected by swabs. The use of iodophor in the water from the chilling tank resulted in the decontamination of the poultry carcases at dilutions from 1:250 to 1:250. The experiments were repeated 10 times.

A chilling effect? The impact of international investment agreements on national regulatory autonomy in the areas of health, safety and the environment

Côté, Christine
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf; application/zip
Publicado em /02/2014 EN; EN
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The plain packaging of tobacco products, the disposal of hazardous waste and the management of toxic chemicals are all areas of health, safety and environmental (HSE) regulation which have faced legal challenges by private corporations under international investment agreements established as a means of promoting and protecting inward investment. How these legal challenges are made possible by the international trade and investment regime, and what lasting impact they are having on the regulatory autonomy of governments is the focus of this research. This empirical work seeks to understand the impact of International Investment Agreements (IIAs) on national regulatory autonomy. By probing trends in regulation as well as the level of awareness of IIAs by government regulators, this research aims to identify the likelihood of constrained regulatory decision making or ‘regulatory chill’ amongst those governments who have faced challenges, or the threat of challenges, to their regulatory measures under IIAs. It will also consider whether any chilling effect is more likely in a developing country versus a developed country environment. This research engages with the relevant international relations literature which looks at the impact of the international integration of markets and trends in globalization on the policy autonomy of national governments. More particularly it looks not only at whether globalization leads to the erosion of national policy autonomy...