Página 1 dos resultados de 1561 itens digitais encontrados em 0.016 segundos

## Avaliação econômica e energética da distribuição direta do etanol hidratado no Estado de São Paulo; Economic and energetic evaluation of direct distribution of hydrous ethanol in the State of São Paulo

Gama, Mateus Brito
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%

## Taxonomia, filogenia e distribuição de Cercomacra Sclater, 1858 (Aves: Thamnophilidae); Taxonomy, phylogeny and distribution of Cercomacra Sclater, 1858 (Aves: Thamnophilidae)

Cavarzere Junior, Vagner Aparecido
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.06%

## Biodiversidade, distribuição, alimentação e papel trófico de misídeos marinhos (Crustacea, Peracarida, Mysida); Biodiversity, distribution, feeding and trophic role of marine mysids (Crustacea, Peracarida, Mysida)

Miyashita, Leonardo Kenji
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.86%

## Distinctive sedimentary processes in Guanabara Bay - SE/Brazil, based on the analysis of echo-character (7.0 kHz)

Catanzaro,Leonardo F; Baptista Neto,José Antônio; Guimarães,Mauricio Souza Dias; Silva,Cleverson G
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.8%
Guanabara Bay bottom sediments and seabed characteristics were analysed using high-resolution (7 kHz) sub-bottom profiles associated with particle size analyses of 92 bottom sediment samples. Eight types of echo-characters were identified revealing the strong relation with the particle size distribution. Sandy bottom areas presented strong echo reflections, without sub-bottom penetration (Echo types I and III), while in muddy areas sub-bottom reflections showed the acoustic basement delineating buried sugar-loaf hills and infilled-valley features (Echo type IV). The presence of shallow gas within the sediments is indicated by acoustic blanket and a series of bottom-multiple reflections (Echo types Va and Vb). Erosion by bottom currents and artificial mechanical dredging are suggested by truncations of sub-bottom reflections and a wrinkled seabed surface (Echo types VI and VII). Crystalline basement outcrops on the seabed are recognized by multiple or single hyperbolae with varying elevations above the bay bottom (Echo type II).

## Raindrop distribution in the Eastern Coast of Northeastern Brazil using disdrometer data

Tenório,Ricardo Sarmento; Moraes,Marcia Cristina da Silva; Kwon,Byung Hyuk
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.82%
Usually a single literature-suggested Z-R relationship, where Z the radar reflectivity factor and R the rain rate, is used for weather radar data interpretation. It is desirable to calculate a Z-R relationship by precipitation type to improve the accuracy of quantitative rainfall rate in case of coexistence of different precipitation types, such as, in the area of precipitation produced from a Mesoscale Convective System (MCS). In general, in the MCS trailing anvil, the stratiform precipitation does not fall as drizzle. Rather, the rainfall can assume significant intensity (~10 mm h-1) with showery character. For that reason, in this study, the precipitations were classified into convective and stratiform type, to produce optimum rainfall estimates. Therefore, Z-R relationships were developed for the Eastern Coast of Northeastern Brazil (NEB) using rainfall raindrop size distribution (DSD) data collected with a disdrometer RD-69, aiming their utilization to start the operation of a weather radar system. In this study, due to operation and maintenance facilities, the disdrometer was installed in the Campus of the Universidade Federal de Alagoas (The Federal University of Alagoas) in Maceió in 2001, 12 months before the complete installation of a new radar system. The DSD was stratified by rainfall rate classes. It is found that the DSD are clearly dependent on the parameters of the analytical distribution functions are...

## Effect of overall phenotypic selection on genetic change at individual loci.

Kimura, M; Crow, J F
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.08%
The selective advantage of an allele Gi (relative to the mean of alleles at this locus) is given by (formula: see text) in which Ai is the average excess of the allele on the character, X; W(X) is the fitness function; F(X) is the frequency function; W is the mean fitness; and the prime denotes differentiation. With truncation selection si = AaF(C)/w in which F(C) is the ordinate at the culling level and w is the proportion saved; this does not depend on any assumption about the distribution of F(X). If the character is normally distributed, si = AiI/sigma2, in which I is the selection differential and sigma2 is the variance of the character distribution. Finally, if the logarithm of the fitness is proportional to the squared deviation from the optimum and the character is distributed normally, si = AiK(Xop--m), in which Xop is the optimum value of the character, m is the mean value, and K is a constant determined by the variances of the fitness function and the frequency function. Truncation is the most efficient form of directional selection in the sense of producing the maximum gene frequency change for a given effect of the gene on the character, but fitness functions can depart considerably from sharp truncation without greatly reducing the efficiency.

## Frequency- and Density-Dependent Selection on a Quantitative Character

Slatkin, Montgomery
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.16%
The equilibrium distribution of a quantitative character subject to frequency- and density-dependent selection is found under different assumptions about the genetical basis of the character that lead to a normal distribution in a population. Three types of models are considered: (1) one-locus models, in which a single locus has an additive effect on the character, (2) continuous genotype models, in which one locus or several loci contribute additively to a character, and there is an effectively infinite range of values of the genotypic contributions from each locus, and (3) correlation models, in which the mean and variance of the character can change only through selection at modifier loci. It is shown that the second and third models lead to the same equilibrium values of the total population size and the mean and variance of the character. One-locus models lead to different equilibrium values because of constraints on the relationship between the mean and variance imposed by the assumptions of those models.——The main conclusion is that, at the equilibrium reached under frequency- and density-dependent selection, the distribution of a normally distributed quantitative character does not depend on the underlying genetic model as long as the model imposes no constraints on the mean and variance.

## Die evolutive Transformation der Oticalregion der Sarcopterygii beim Übergang vom Wasser- zum Landleben; Evolutionary Transformations of the Otical Region in Sarcopterygians during the Transition from Water to Land

Bernstein, Peter
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.06%
Die Oticalregion der Wirbeltiere war beim Übergang vom Wasser- zum Landleben erheblichen anatomischen Umgestaltungen unterworfen. Ausgehend vom Quastenflosser Latimeria chalumnae wird in dieser Arbeit der Versuch unternommen, durch die Analyse der entsprechenden Strukturen bei rezenten Sarcopterygiern die Verhältnisse im Innen- und Mittelohr im Grundplan der Sarcopterygier und der Tetrapoden zu ermitteln. Ein besonderer Schwerpunkt liegt auf der Beschreibung der embryonalen Oticalregion von Latimeria, da zum einen zur Ontogenese dieser Art nur wenige Daten vorhanden sind und zum anderen in der jüngeren Vergangenheit im Innenohr des Quastenflossers abgeleitete Verhältnisse beobachtet wurden, die von besonderer Bedeutung für die Systematik der Sarcopterygii sind. Weiterhin werden die Ohrregionen aller Gattungen der rezenten Lungenfische, sowie ausgewählter Vertreter der Lissamphibia untersucht und mit den Verhältnissen bei Latimeria verglichen. Im Innenohr von Latimeria befindet sich eine besondere Sinnesendstelle, die aber entgegen früherer Studien nicht als Basilarpapille angesehen werden kann. Wie der Canalis communicans und die spezielle Kiefermechanik unterstreicht das Vorhandensein dieser Sinnesendstelle die isolierte Stellung der Actinistia innerhalb der Sarcopterygii. Die Lungenfische weisen im Innenohr relativ zu anderen Sarcopterygiern plesiomorphe Zustände auf...

## Statistical description of the error on wind power forecasts via a Lévy a-stable distribution

BRUNINX, Kenneth; DELARUE, Erik; D’HAESELEER, William
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
As the share of wind power in the electricity system rises, the limited predictability of wind power generation becomes increasingly critical for operating a reliable electricity system. In most operational & economic models, the wind power forecast error (WPFE) is often assumed to have a Gaussian or so-called B-distribution. However, these distributions are not suited to fully describe the skewed and heavy-tailed character of WPFE data. In this paper, the Lévy a-stable distribution is proposed as an improved description of the WPFE. Based on 6 years of historical wind power data, three forecast scenarios with forecast horizons ranging from 1 to 24 hours are simulated via a persistence approach. The Lévy a-stable distribution models the WPFE better than the Gaussian or so-called B-distribution, especially for short term forecasts. In a case study, an analysis of historical WPFE data showed improvements over the Gaussian and B-distribution between 137 and 567% in terms of cumulative squared residuals. The method presented allows to quantify the probability of a certain error, given a certain wind power forecast. This new statistical description of the WPFE can hold important information for short term economic & operational (reliability) studies in the field of wind power.

## Language Translation for File Paths

Rowe, Neil C.; Schwamm, Riqui; Garfinkel, Simson L.
Tipo: Conference Paper & Presentation
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.88%
This paper appeared in the Proceedings of the 2013 DFRWS Conference. Also includes powerpoint presentation.; Forensic examiners are frequently confronted with content in languages that they do not understand, and they could benefit from machine translation into their native language. But automated translation of file paths is a difficult problem because of the minimal context for translation and the frequent mixing of multiple languages within a path. This work developed a prototype implementation of a file-path translator that first identifies the language for each directory segment of a path, and then translates to English those that are not already English nor artificial words. Brown’s LA-Strings utility for language identification was tried, but its performance was found inadequate on short strings and it was supplemented with clues from dictionary lookup, Unicode character distributions for languages, country of origin, and language-related keywords. To provide better data for language inference, words used in each directory over a large corpus were aggregated for analysis. The resulting directory-language probabilities were combined with those for each path segment from dictionary lookup and character-type distributions to infer the segment's most likely language. Tests were done on a corpus of 50.1 million file paths looking for 35 different languages. Tests showed 90.4% accuracy on identifying languages of directories and 93.7% accuracy on identifying languages of directory/file segments of file paths...

## Systematics and distribution of Thorea (Thoreaceae, Rhodophyta) from central Mexico and south-eastern Brazil

Carmona J., Javier; Necchi Jr., Orlando
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 231-239
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.79%
Thirteen populations of Thorea were analyzed from central Mexico and south-eastern Brazil. All populations were considered as belonging to a single species [Thorea hispida (Thore) Desvaux], with wide variation of morphological features. Secondary branches varying in frequency were observed in several populations with an overlapping in the range of branch density for Thorea violacea Bory and T. hispida (0-9 and 11-41 per 30 mm, respectively). As this is the most distinguishing character and on the basis of the overlapping (within a same population or even a single plant), we regarded T. violacea as a synonym of T. hispida. 'Chantransia' stage in culture, as well as gametophyte and carposporophyte were described in detail. We confirmed the coexistence of asexual monosporangia with sexual reproductive structures (carpogonia and spermatangia) and carposporangia. Size, content, arrangement and chromosome number were the most distinctive characteristics among spermatangia, carposporangia and monosporangia. Monosporangia can be promptly differentiated from spermatangia by their granulated content and larger size but they are similar to carposporangia in shape and size; however, monosporangia are not arranged in fascicles. Structures resembling bisporangia were observed in female plants of some populations. Chromosome numbers were n = 4 for spermatangia and fascicle cells...

## Action Being Character: A Promising Perspective on the Solution Concept of Game Theory

Deng, Kuiying; Chu, Tianguang
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.93%
The inconsistency of predictions from solution concepts of conventional game theory with experimental observations is an enduring question. These solution concepts are based on the canonical rationality assumption that people are exclusively self-regarding utility maximizers. In this article, we think this assumption is problematic and, instead, assume that rational economic agents act as if they were maximizing their implicit utilities, which turns out to be a natural extension of the canonical rationality assumption. Implicit utility is defined by a player's character to reflect his personal weighting between cooperative, individualistic, and competitive social value orientations. The player who actually faces an implicit game chooses his strategy based on the common belief about the character distribution for a general player and the self-estimation of his own character, and he is not concerned about which strategies other players will choose and will never feel regret about his decision. It is shown by solving five paradigmatic games, the Dictator game, the Ultimatum game, the Prisoner's Dilemma game, the Public Goods game, and the Battle of the Sexes game, that the framework of implicit game and its corresponding solution concept...

## Geographical distribution and ecological diversification of South American octodontid rodents

Ojeda, Agustina Alejandra; Novillo, Agustina; Ojeda, Ricardo Alberto; Roig Junent, Fidel Alejandro
Fonte: Wiley-blackwell Publishing, Inc Publicador: Wiley-blackwell Publishing, Inc
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.8%
Caviomorph rodents represent one of the most distinctive groups of mammals in southern South America drylands; they colonized South America from Africa via trans-oceanic dispersions in the Eocene (40-50 Ma) and underwent an extraordinary ecological radiation after their arrival, thus making this group of great interest for biogeographic and evolutionary studies. The aim of this article was to provide a working hypothesis regarding the biogeographical history and ecological diversification of one of its conspicuous families, the Octodontidae. We reconstruct the evolutionary theater where their ecological diversification took place, and potential events of dispersal, vicariance and extinctions. We analyzed the historical biogeography of the Octodontidae across the eight ecoregions where they occur, based on species phylogeny and divergence times. Four approaches were used to reconstruct ancestral area: (1) Statistical Dispersal-Vicariance Snalysis (S-DIVA); (2) Bayesian binary Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis implemented in Reconstruct Ancestral State in Phylogenies (RASP); (3) Fitch optimization method; and (d) weighted ancestral area analysis (WAAA). Parsimony ancestral state reconstructions were implemented in order to explore the evolutionary history of an ecological character...

## Grain boundary character distributions in nanocrystalline metals produced by different processing routes

Bober, David B.; Khalajhedayati, Amirhossein; Kumar, Mukul; Rupert, Timothy J.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
Nanocrystalline materials are defined by their fine grain size, but details of the grain boundary character distribution should also be important. Grain boundary character distributions are reported for ball milled, sputter deposited, and electrodeposited Ni and Ni-based alloys, all with average grain sizes of ~20 nm, to study the influence of processing route. The two deposited materials had nearly identical grain boundary character distributions, both marked by a {\Sigma}3 length percentage of 23-25%. In contrast, the ball milled material had only 3% {\Sigma}3-type grain boundaries and a large fraction of low angle boundaries (16%), with the remainder being predominantly random high angle (73%). These grain boundary character measurements are connected to the physical events that control their respective processing routes. Consequences for material properties are also discussed with a focus on nanocrystalline corrosion. As a whole, the results presented here show that grain boundary character distribution, which has often been overlooked in nanocrystalline metals, can vary significantly and influence material properties in profound ways.; Comment: 14 figures

## The distribution of short character sums

Lamzouri, Youness
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.03%
Let $\chi$ be a non-real Dirichlet character modulo a prime $q$. In this paper we prove that the distribution of the short character sum $S_{\chi,H}(x)=\sum_{x< n\leq x+H} \chi(n)$, as $x$ runs over the positive integers below $q$, converges to a two-dimensional Gaussian distribution on the complex plane, provided that $\log H=o(\log q)$ and $H\to\infty$ as $q\to\infty$. Furthermore, we use a method of Selberg to give an upper bound on the rate of convergence.; Comment: 12 pages

## The distribution of the maximum of character sums

Bober, Jonathan; Goldmakher, Leo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.03%
We obtain explicit bounds on the moments of character sums, refining estimates of Montgomery and Vaughan. As an application we obtain results on the distribution of the maximal magnitude of character sums normalized by the square root of the modulus, finding almost double exponential decay in the tail of this distribution.; Comment: 16 pages, 1 figure, new version with corrections

## Deep Self-Taught Learning for Handwritten Character Recognition

Bastien, Frédéric; Bengio, Yoshua; Bergeron, Arnaud; Boulanger-Lewandowski, Nicolas; Breuel, Thomas; Chherawala, Youssouf; Cisse, Moustapha; Côté, Myriam; Erhan, Dumitru; Eustache, Jeremy; Glorot, Xavier; Muller, Xavier; Lebeuf, Sylvain Pannetier; Pas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.07%
Recent theoretical and empirical work in statistical machine learning has demonstrated the importance of learning algorithms for deep architectures, i.e., function classes obtained by composing multiple non-linear transformations. Self-taught learning (exploiting unlabeled examples or examples from other distributions) has already been applied to deep learners, but mostly to show the advantage of unlabeled examples. Here we explore the advantage brought by {\em out-of-distribution examples}. For this purpose we developed a powerful generator of stochastic variations and noise processes for character images, including not only affine transformations but also slant, local elastic deformations, changes in thickness, background images, grey level changes, contrast, occlusion, and various types of noise. The out-of-distribution examples are obtained from these highly distorted images or by including examples of object classes different from those in the target test set. We show that {\em deep learners benefit more from out-of-distribution examples than a corresponding shallow learner}, at least in the area of handwritten character recognition. In fact, we show that they beat previously published results and reach human-level performance on both handwritten digit classification and 62-class handwritten character recognition.

## Vertical distribution of early developmental stages in two coexisting clupeoid species, Sardinella aurita and Engraulis encrasicolus

Sabatés, Ana; Zaragoza, Nuria; Grau, Claudia; Salat, Jordi
Fonte: Inter Research Publicador: Inter Research
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 484641 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.79%
12 pages, 8 figures, 4 tables.-- Full-text version available Open Access at: http://www.icm.csic.es/files/oce/almacen/papers/AR-2008-17.pdf; In recent years a northward expansion of Sardinella aurita has been reported in the western Mediterranean. Considering the coexistence of its larvae with those of the dominant species Engraulis encrasicolus, the present study was conducted to compare their vertical distributions in 2 areas off the Catalan coast with different vertical environmental conditions. During summer, the water column was stratified with a deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) beneath the pycnocline. However, the southern area, under the influence of the Ebro River, was characterized by a secondary surface chlorophyll maximum. Vertical distribution of larval food, nauplii and copepodites showed good agreement with the high chlorophyll layers. In the earliest stages of development, larvae of both species remained in the upper levels. From 6 mm standard length on they developed a day/night migratory behaviour to search for food during the day (feeding period). Therefore, in the south, where the abundance of potential food in the upper layers was relatively high, larvae of both species remained in the upper levels during the day. However...

## Advanced correlation-based character recognition applied to the Archimedes Palimpsest

Walvoord, Derek J.
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Dissertação
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.88%
The Archimedes Palimpsest is a manuscript containing the partial text of seven treatises by Archimedes that were copied onto parchment and bound in the tenth-century AD. This work is aimed at providing tools that allow scholars of ancient Greek mathematics to retrieve as much information as possible from images of the remaining degraded text. Acorrelation pattern recognition (CPR) system has been developed to recognize distorted versions of Greek characters in problematic regions of the palimpsest imagery, which have been obscured by damage from mold and fire, overtext, and natural aging. Feature vectors for each class of characters are constructed using a series of spatial correlation algorithms and corresponding performance metrics. Principal components analysis (PCA) is employed prior to classification to remove features corresponding to filtering schemes that performed poorly for the spatial characteristics of the selected region-of-interest. A probability is then assigned to each class, forming a character probability distribution based on relative distances from the class feature vectors to the ROI feature vector in principal component (PC) space. However, the current CPR system does not produce a single classification decision...

## Tipo e caráter no discurso da arquitetura; Type and character in the discourse of architecture; Tipo y carácter en el discurso de la arquitectura

Azevedo, Ricardo Marques de