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Indeterminismo e liberdade em Hume

Pereira Junior, Alfredo
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Departamento de Filosofia Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Departamento de Filosofia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 29-41
POR
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Embora Hume eventualmente pareça supor que os processos naturais ocorrem de modo determinístico, sua concepção da causalidade proíbe que os conheçamos enquanto tais, pois, para ele, toda idéia de conexão necessária entre eventos é de natureza psicológica. em nossa análise dessa questão, argumentamos que: a) nas suas principais passagens sobre a causalidade, Hume não assume um compromisso forte com o determinismo; b) certas partes de seus textos sugerem que o indeterminismo é ineliminável, no conhecimento da natureza; e c) sua concepção causal da liberdade supõe o indeterminismo dos processos naturais, e não apenas o indeterminismo em nível de seu conhecimento.; Although Hume seems to suppose that natural processes occur in a deterministic way, his conception of causality prohibits us from knowing them as deterministic. The reason is that for him the idea of a necessary connection between events is purely psychological. In our analysis of this question, we argue that: a) in his main references about causality, Hume does not assume a strong ontological commitment with determinism; b) certain parts of his texts suggest that indeterminism is non eliminable, in the knowledge of nature; and c) his causal conception of freedom supposes indeterminism in natural processes...

A imaginação cega: mecanismos de indeterminação na prática artística contemporânea

Miguel Leal
Fonte: Universidade do Porto Publicador: Universidade do Porto
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
POR
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This is a study about a certain unthought in art which is associated with the presence of chance and indetermination. Its subject is therefore the instant in which the artist#8217;s intention and the precision of his tools cease to define the predictability of his own actions #8212; even if only as a gesture of enunciation or artificialisation of chance. Focusing on those visual arts that bring together random elements and planned actions, unpredictability and determinism, chance and control, we try to question the aporetic nature of an aesthetic game that combines absolute surprise with its methodological and processual anticipation.How should we approach the results of what is unthought and unexpected in art and its thought? What are the distinctive features in contemporary artistic practice of the presence of chance and indetermination in the processual mechanisms of art?Assuming that art is something made from its own making, our first step is to propose the notion of almost-ideal game #8212; based on a rereading of Deleuze #8212; to define chance in art as operative, coordinating plasticity, experimentation and imagination as its motors. Blind imagination thus emerges simply as another name for the hesitant experimentation through which the unthought in art is accessed. As the operative blindness of art results from the unpredictability of its media...

Community inertia of Quaternary small mammal assemblages in North America

McGill, Brian J.; Hadly, Elizabeth A.; Maurer, Brian A.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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16.1%
One of the longest running debates in ecology is whether chance or determinism structures biotic communities, and this question is often studied by looking for the presence or absence of community inertia (lack of change) over time or space. Results have been equivocal. We adopted three tactics for a fresh approach: (i) allowing the answer to vary with the geographic, temporal, and taxonomic scale of study, (ii) using appropriate reference points for the amount of inertia in random biological systems, and (iii) using a robust approach for measurement of inertia. We examined fossil assemblages of mammalian communities across almost 1,000,000 years and at sites spanning ≈3,500 km. We showed that in general there is good evidence for inertia but that the results change in a quantifiable fashion with taxonomic, spatial, and temporal scales. By using neutral theory we place a reference point on the degree of inertia and demonstrate that empirical mammalian communities show greater inertia than neutral communities over time scales >3,000 year. Although our results do not specifically reveal mechanism, they emphasize that deterministic forces are at work in structuring communities over millennia.

IDIOTYPY OF RABBIT ANTIBODIES : I. COMPARISON OF IDIOTYPY OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST SALMONELLA TYPHI WITH THAT OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST OTHER BACTERIA IN THE SAME RABBITS, OR OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST SALMONELLA TYPHI IN VARIOUS RABBITS

Oudin, Jacques; Michel, Mauricette
Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/09/1969 EN
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Sera of rabbits immunized against Salmonella typhi have been studied for the idiotypy of certain of their components, i.e., the property of these components to possess an antigenic specificity which is different in individual rabbits, and which varies with the antigens against which these rabbits have been immunized. The reagent used (precipitating anti-idiotypic sera) have been prepared by injecting rabbits with bacteria agglutinated by anti-S. typhi sera (immunizing sera) as was done in the first observations by the authors of the phenomenon in the rabbit. These first observations have been confirmed and extended. In contrast to allotypy, the anti-idiotypic sera precipitate the corresponding immunizing sera, but not the sera taken in the immunizing rabbits prior to their immunization against S. typhi, nor the immunizing sera absorbed with the somatic antigen of S. typhi, demonstrating that idiotypes are antibodies. The idiotypic specificities of the antibodies of one rabbit against S. typhi are not detected in the antibodies of the same rabbit against another noncross-reacting Salmonella (S. tranoroa) and vice versa; nor are they detected in the anti-pneumococcal antibodies of the same rabbit. Each anti-idiotypic serum fails to precipitate anti-S. typhi sera of rabbits other than the immunizing one except for certain extremely faint reactions...

Morphological Diversity and the Roles of Contingency, Chance and Determinism in African Cichlid Radiations

Young, Kyle A.; Snoeks, Jos; Seehausen, Ole
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/03/2009 EN
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Why Do Phage Play Dice?▿

Avlund, Mikkel; Dodd, Ian B.; Semsey, Szabolcs; Sneppen, Kim; Krishna, Sandeep
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Phage lambda is among the simplest organisms that make a developmental decision. An infected bacterium goes either into the lytic state, where the phage particles rapidly replicate and eventually lyse the cell, or into a lysogenic state, where the phage goes dormant and replicates along with the cell. Experimental observations by P. Kourilsky are consistent with a single phage infection deterministically choosing lysis and double infection resulting in a stochastic choice. We argue that the phage are playing a “game” of minimizing the chance of extinction and that the shift from determinism to stochasticity is due to a shift from a single-player to a multiplayer game. Crucial to the argument is the clonal identity of the phage.

Larger female fish contribute disproportionately more to self-replenishment

Beldade, R.; Holbrook, S. J.; Schmitt, R. J.; Planes, S.; Malone, D.; Bernardi, G.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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While chance events, oceanography and selective pressures inject stochasticity into the replenishment of marine populations with dispersing life stages, some determinism may arise as a result of characteristics of breeding individuals. It is well known that larger females have higher fecundity, and recent laboratory studies have shown that maternal traits such as age and size can be positively associated with offspring growth, size and survival. Whether such fecundity and maternal effects translate into higher recruitment in marine populations remains largely unanswered. We studied a population of Amphiprion chrysopterus (orange-fin anemonefish) in Moorea, French Polynesia, to test whether maternal size influenced the degree of self-recruitment on the island through body size–fecundity and/or additional size-related maternal effects of offspring. We non-lethally sampled 378 adult and young juveniles at Moorea, and, through parentage analysis, identified the mothers of 27 self-recruits (SRs) out of 101 recruits sampled. We also identified the sites occupied by each mother of an SR and, taking into account variation in maternal size among sites, we found that females that produced SRs were significantly larger than those that did not (approx. 7% greater total length...

Is Life Unique?

Abel, David L.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/12/2011 EN
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Is life physicochemically unique? No. Is life unique? Yes. Life manifests innumerable formalisms that cannot be generated or explained by physicodynamics alone. Life pursues thousands of biofunctional goals, not the least of which is staying alive. Neither physicodynamics, nor evolution, pursue goals. Life is largely directed by linear digital programming and by the Prescriptive Information (PI) instantiated particularly into physicodynamically indeterminate nucleotide sequencing. Epigenomic controls only compound the sophistication of these formalisms. Life employs representationalism through the use of symbol systems. Life manifests autonomy, homeostasis far from equilibrium in the harshest of environments, positive and negative feedback mechanisms, prevention and correction of its own errors, and organization of its components into Sustained Functional Systems (SFS). Chance and necessity—heat agitation and the cause-and-effect determinism of nature’s orderliness—cannot spawn formalisms such as mathematics, language, symbol systems, coding, decoding, logic, organization (not to be confused with mere self-ordering), integration of circuits, computational success, and the pursuit of functionality. All of these characteristics of life are formal...

Why do phage play dice?

Avlund, M.; Dodd, I.; Semsey, S.; Sneppen, K.; Krishna, S.
Fonte: Amer Soc Microbiology Publicador: Amer Soc Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.1%
Phage lambda is among the simplest organisms that make a developmental decision. An infected bacterium goes either into the lytic state, where the phage particles rapidly replicate and eventually lyse the cell, or into a lysogenic state, where the phage goes dormant and replicates along with the cell. Experimental observations by P. Kourilsky are consistent with a single phage infection deterministically choosing lysis and double infection resulting in a stochastic choice. We argue that the phage are playing a "game" of minimizing the chance of extinction and that the shift from determinism to stochasticity is due to a shift from a single-player to a multiplayer game. Crucial to the argument is the clonal identity of the phage.; Mikkel Avlund, Ian B. Dodd, Szabolcs Semsey, Kim Sneppen, and Sandeep Krishna; Copyright © 2009, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Ursprung sozialen Altruismus' : Politikwissenschaftliches Experiment und evolutionstheoretischer Erklärungsansatz; Understanding social altruism

Crämer, Thomas
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Dissertation; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis
DE_DE
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Werden politische Entscheidungen grundsätzlich individuell eigennützig getroffen oder basieren sie auf sozialen Überlegungen? Diese Frage wurde in einem USA-weiten computerunterstützten Feldversuch untersucht, in dem politischer Altruismus nachgewiesen werden konnte. Der gemessene Altruismus ist nicht auf Spielarten des Eigeninteresses zurückführbar wie etwa in der Spieltheorie oder in der group selection theory angenommen. Es wird daher von authentischem Altruismus gesprochen. Als Ursache dieses Altruismus wird die natürliche Empathie vorgeschlagen, die auf der logischen Unmöglichkeit basiert, den Begriff 'individuelles Eigeninteresse' konsequent auf einen einzelnen Organismus zu beziehen. Der Befund authentischen, nicht auf Eigennutzen zurückführbaren Altruismus widerspricht der Evolutionstheorie, deren 'natürliche Selektion' auf Eigennutzmaximierung basiert. Es wird gezeigt, dass die Evolutionstheorie auch ohne Selektionsannahme zurechtkommt, wenn sie alleine auf Fortpflanzung mit zufälliger Mutation basiert. Die Theorie der Zufallsevolution (C-Evolution oder chance evolution) ist in der Lage, eine in ihrer Durchschnittstendenz gerichtete Evolution von einfachen zu komplexen Organismen zu erklären. Darüber hinaus vermag sie ein 'relativ' hohes Maß (relativ = ca. 50 Prozent) gegenseitiger Anpassung in der Natur allein durch bedingte Zufallsprozesse zu erklären. Der Begriff des Zufalls...

Does Chance hide Necessity? : a reevaluation of the debate ‘determinism - indeterminism’ in the light of quantum mechanics and probability theory

Vervoort, Louis
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
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36.99%
Dans cette thèse l’ancienne question philosophique “tout événement a-t-il une cause ?” sera examinée à la lumière de la mécanique quantique et de la théorie des probabilités. Aussi bien en physique qu’en philosophie des sciences la position orthodoxe maintient que le monde physique est indéterministe. Au niveau fondamental de la réalité physique – au niveau quantique – les événements se passeraient sans causes, mais par chance, par hasard ‘irréductible’. Le théorème physique le plus précis qui mène à cette conclusion est le théorème de Bell. Ici les prémisses de ce théorème seront réexaminées. Il sera rappelé que d’autres solutions au théorème que l’indéterminisme sont envisageables, dont certaines sont connues mais négligées, comme le ‘superdéterminisme’. Mais il sera argué que d’autres solutions compatibles avec le déterminisme existent, notamment en étudiant des systèmes physiques modèles. Une des conclusions générales de cette thèse est que l’interprétation du théorème de Bell et de la mécanique quantique dépend crucialement des prémisses philosophiques desquelles on part. Par exemple, au sein de la vision d’un Spinoza, le monde quantique peut bien être compris comme étant déterministe. Mais il est argué qu’aussi un déterminisme nettement moins radical que celui de Spinoza n’est pas éliminé par les expériences physiques. Si cela est vrai...

David Hume on probability and the Gambler’s fallacy

Tilli, Michele Orazio
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
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Cette présentation examinera le degré de certitude qui peut être atteint dans le domaine scientifique. Le paradigme scientifique est composé de deux extrêmes; causalité et déterminisme d'un côté et probabilité et indéterminisme de l'autre. En faisant appel aux notions de Hume de la ressemblance et la contiguïté, on peut rejeter la causalité ou le hasard objectif comme étant sans fondement et non empirique. Le problème de l'induction et le sophisme du parieur proviennent d’une même source cognitif / heuristique. Hume décrit ces tendances mentales dans ses essais « Of Probability » et « Of the Idea of Necessary Connexion ». Une discussion sur la conception de la probabilité de Hume ainsi que d'autres interprétations de probabilité sera nécessaire. Même si la science glorifie et idéalise la causalité, la probabilité peut être comprise comme étant tout aussi cohérente. Une attitude probabiliste, même si elle est également non empirique, pourrait être plus avantageuse que le vieux paradigme de la causalité.; This presentation examines the degree of certainty which can be attained in science. The scientific paradigm is composed of two extremes; causality and determinism on one end and probability and indeterminism on the other. By appealing to Hume’s notions of resemblance and contiguity...

Entrepreneurs, Chance, and the Deterministic Concentration of Wealth

Fargione, Joseph E.; Lehman, Clarence; Polasky, Stephen
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/07/2011 EN
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In many economies, wealth is strikingly concentrated. Entrepreneurs–individuals with ownership in for-profit enterprises–comprise a large portion of the wealthiest individuals, and their behavior may help explain patterns in the national distribution of wealth. Entrepreneurs are less diversified and more heavily invested in their own companies than is commonly assumed in economic models. We present an intentionally simplified individual-based model of wealth generation among entrepreneurs to assess the role of chance and determinism in the distribution of wealth. We demonstrate that chance alone, combined with the deterministic effects of compounding returns, can lead to unlimited concentration of wealth, such that the percentage of all wealth owned by a few entrepreneurs eventually approaches 100%. Specifically, concentration of wealth results when the rate of return on investment varies by entrepreneur and by time. This result is robust to inclusion of realities such as differing skill among entrepreneurs. The most likely overall growth rate of the economy decreases as businesses become less diverse, suggesting that high concentrations of wealth may adversely affect a country's economic growth. We show that a tax on large inherited fortunes...

Darwin's greatest discovery: Design without designer

Ayala, Francisco J.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/05/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.1%
Darwin's greatest contribution to science is that he completed the Copernican Revolution by drawing out for biology the notion of nature as a system of matter in motion governed by natural laws. With Darwin's discovery of natural selection, the origin and adaptations of organisms were brought into the realm of science. The adaptive features of organisms could now be explained, like the phenomena of the inanimate world, as the result of natural processes, without recourse to an Intelligent Designer. The Copernican and the Darwinian Revolutions may be seen as the two stages of the one Scientific Revolution. They jointly ushered in the beginning of science in the modern sense of the word: explanation through natural laws. Darwin's theory of natural selection accounts for the “design” of organisms, and for their wondrous diversity, as the result of natural processes, the gradual accumulation of spontaneously arisen variations (mutations) sorted out by natural selection. Which characteristics will be selected depends on which variations happen to be present at a given time in a given place. This in turn depends on the random process of mutation as well as on the previous history of the organisms. Mutation and selection have jointly driven the marvelous process that...

Deterministic probability: neither chance nor credence

Lyon, Aidan
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.52%
Some have argued that chance and determinism are compatible in order to account for the objectivity of probabilities in theories that are compatible with determinism, like Classical Statistical Mechanics (CSM) and Evolutionary Theory (ET). Contrarily, som

Determinism plus chance in random matrix theory

Zee, Anthony
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/05/1995
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.1%
We study Hamiltonians consisting of a deterministic term plus a random term. Using a daigrammatic approach and introducing the concept of "gluon connectedness," we calculate the density of energy levels for a wide class of probability distributions governing the random term, thus generalizing a result obtained recently by Br\'ezin, Hikami, and Zee. The method used here may be applied to a broad class of problems involving random matrices.; Comment: 12 pages, hard-copy figures available from mason@itp.ucsb.edu

Genetic Code: The unity of the stereochemical determinism and pure chance

Rakocevic, Miloje M.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/04/2009
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It is presented that the positions of amino acids within Genetic Code Table follow from strict their physical and chemical properties as well as from a pure formal determination by the Golden mean.; Comment: 11 pages, 5 tables, 1 figure and 2 surveys

Does Chance Hide Necessity ? A Reevaluation of the Debate 'Determinism - Indeterminism' in the Light of Quantum Mechanics and Probability Theory

Vervoort, Louis
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/03/2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.77%
In this PhD thesis the ancient question of determinism ('Does every event have a cause ?') will be re-examined. In the philosophy of science and physics communities the orthodox position states that the physical world is indeterministic: quantum events would have no causes but happen by irreducible chance. Arguably the clearest theorem that leads to this conclusion is Bell's theorem. The commonly accepted 'solution' to the theorem is 'indeterminism', in agreement with the Copenhagen interpretation. Here it is recalled that indeterminism is not really a physical but rather a philosophical hypothesis, and that it has counterintuitive and far-reaching implications. At the same time another solution to Bell's theorem exists, often termed 'superdeterminism' or 'total determinism'. Superdeterminism appears to be a philosophical position that is centuries and probably millennia old: it is for instance Spinoza's determinism. If Bell's theorem has both indeterministic and deterministic solutions, choosing between determinism and indeterminism is a philosophical question, not a matter of physical experimentation, as is widely believed. If it is impossible to use physics for deciding between both positions, it is legitimate to ask which philosophical theories are of help. Here it is argued that probability theory - more precisely the interpretation of probability - is instrumental for advancing the debate. It appears that the hypothesis of determinism allows to answer a series of precise questions from probability theory...

Hume e as bases científicas da tese de que não há acaso no mundo; Hume e as bases científicas da tese de que não há acaso no mundo

Chibeni, Silvio Seno; Departamento de Filosofia, Unicamp BRASIL chibeni@unicamp.br www.unicamp.br/_chibeni
Fonte: Federal University of Santa Catarina – UFSC Publicador: Federal University of Santa Catarina – UFSC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/02/2013 POR
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2012v16n2p229 Tanto no Tratado da Natureza Humana como na Investigação sobre o Entendimento Humano, Hume mostra-se convencido de que “não há acaso no mundo”, e que “aquilo que o vulgo chama de acaso não passa de uma causa secreta e escondida”. Essa tese desempenha papel crucial em sua análise do livre-arbítrio e, conseguintemente, da responsabilidade moral; é também um elemento importante em sua discussão sobre os milagres. No entanto, o próprio Hume ofereceu, no Tratado, um argumento convincente para mostrar que o princípio de causalidade, segundo o qual tudo o que começa a existir tem uma causa, não pode ser conhecido a priori, por intuição ou demonstração. Logo, essa “opinião tem necessariamente de provir da observação e experiência”. O presente trabalho examina essa tese, mostrando, inicialmente, qual era a proposta de Hume para fundar na experiência o princípio de causalidade, e depois qual, de fato, teria sido o mais robusto fundamento para esse princípio: a mecânica newtoniana. Explica-se, por fim, como esse fundamento empírico indireto e o próprio argumento de Hume foram solapados pela física quântica, no século XX.; http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2012v16n2p229 Both in the Treatise of Human Nature and in the Enquiry concerning Human Understanding...

Free Will And The Dialectic Of Selfhood: Can One Make Sense Of A Traditional Free Will Requiring Ultimate Responsibility?

KANE,ROBERT
Fonte: Ideas y Valores Publicador: Ideas y Valores
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.34%
For four decades, I have been developing a distinctive view of free will according to which agents are required to be ultimately responsible for the creation or formation of their own wills (characters and purposes). The aim of this paper is to explain how a free will of this traditional kind -which I argue is incompatible with determinism- can be reconciled with modern developments in the sciences and philosophy. I address criticisms that a nondeterminist free will of this kind does not allow sufficient agent control, reduces to mere chance or randomness, fails to account of moral responsibility, and cannot be reconciled with modern science; and I relate such a free will to the nature of the self or person by developing what I call a "dialectic of selfhood."