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Expression Profile and Distribution of Efhc1 Gene Transcript During Rodent Brain Development

CONTE, Fabio F.; RIBEIRO, Patricia A. O.; MARCHESINI, Rafael B.; PASCOAL, Vinicius D. B.; SILVA, Joelcimar M.; OLIVEIRA, Amanda R.; GILIOLI, Rovilson; SBRAGIA, Lourenco; BITTENCOURT, Jackson C.; LOPES-CENDES, Iscia
Fonte: HUMANA PRESS INC Publicador: HUMANA PRESS INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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One of the putative causative genes for juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is EFHC1. We report here the expression profile and distribution of Efhc1 messenger RNA (mRNA) during mouse and rat brain development. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that there is no difference in the expression of Efhc1 mRNA between right and left hemispheres in both species. In addition, the highest levels of Efhc1 mRNA were found at intra-uterine stages in mouse and in adulthood in rat. In common, there was a progressive decrease in Efhc1 expression from 1-day-old neonates to 14-day-old animals in both species. In situ hybridization studies showed that rat and mouse Efhc1 mRNAs are expressed in ependymal cells of ventricle walls. Our findings suggest that Efhc1 expression is more important during initial phases of brain development and that at this stage it could be involved in key developmental mechanisms underlying JME.; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo-FAPESP-Sao Paulo, Brazil; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico-CNPq-Brazil; Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior-CAPES-Brazil

Padrões de expressão gênica de proteínas marcadoras neurais e dos sistemas purinérgico e cininérgico durante o desenvolvimento encefálico de camundongos Knockout para o receptor B2 de cininas; Gene expression patterns of neural marker proteins and of purinergic and kininergic systems during embryonic brain development of kinin-B2 receptor knock-out mice

Souza, Hellio Danny Nobrega de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/05/2013 PT
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65.88%
O sistema nervoso central é o mais complexo de todos os sistemas de órgãos dos vertebrados. Células progenitoras neurais ao se diferenciarem em neurônios e outros tipos celulares, desenvolvem um padrão altamente organizado de conexões, criando uma rede neuronal que forma o cérebro e o restante do sistema nervoso. Para que se possa gerar os diferentes tipos de neurônios e glias deste sistema, as células embrionárias proliferam-se e diferenciam-se através de processos altamente controlados. Este estudo visou avaliar a importância do receptor B2BkR durante o desenvolvimento encefálico do camundongo. Como modelo estudo, foram utilizados animais knockout (B2BkR-/-) para o gene do receptor B2BKR como modelo para avaliação do padrão de expressão de proteínas marcadoras neurais e dos sistemas purinérgicos e de cininas durante o desenvolvimento encefálico de camundongos B2BkR-/-. Há evidências que mostram que o sistema nervoso de mamíferos contém todos os componentes do sistema calicreína-cininas e que as cininas podem atuar como neuromediadores. Os transcritos do receptor B2BkR foram encontrados em células localizadas em regiões neurogênicas a partir do dia 9.5 do desenvolvimento, esta expressão ampliou-se para toda a extensão do sistema nervoso a partir do dia 12...

Avaliação do desenvolvimento do sistema nervoso central de camundongos Balb/c expostos à fumaça do cigarro no início do período pós-natal; Evaluation of the brain development in BALB/c mice exposed to environmental tobacco smoke in the early postnatal period.

Torres-Pacheco, Larissa Helena Lobo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/10/2013 PT
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Diversos estudos relatam os efeitos da exposição à nicotina nos períodos pré e pós-natal, contudo, pouco se sabe a respeito dos efeitos da fumaça do cigarro na cascata de eventos que caracteriza o desenvolvimento do sistema nervoso central (SNC). Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi esclarecer se a exposição à fumaça do cigarro no início do período pós-natal induz prejuízo ao desenvolvimento do SNC na infância, e as possíveis consequências na adolescência e na fase adulta. Camundongos BALB/c foram expostos a uma mistura de fumaça central e lateral do cigarro referência 3R4F (Universidade de Kentucky, EUA), desde o 3° dia de vida pós-natal (P) até P14 por duas horas diárias. Nossos resultados indicam que a exposição à fumaça do cigarro no início do período pós-natal induz prejuízo ao processo de aprendizado e memória e aumento na ansiedade em todas as idades avaliadas, além de induzir diminuição da atividade locomotora na infância e na adolescência. Ainda, observamos diminuição dos níveis de BDNF e das proteínas sinápticas sinapsina e sinaptofisina no hipocampo, cerebelo, córtex pré-frontal e estriado. A fumaça do cigarro também induz diminuição na porcentagem de fibras mielinizadas no nervo óptico e aumento da proteína básica de mielina (PBM) no cerebelo na infância...

The modulatory effect of estradiol benzoate on superoxide dismutase activity in the developing rat brain

Pejic,S.; Kasapovic,J.; Cvetkovic,D.; Pajovic,S.B.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2003 EN
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The sensitivity of copper,zinc (CuZn)- and manganese (Mn)-superoxide dismutase (SOD) to exogenous estradiol benzoate (EB) was investigated in Wistar rats during postnatal brain development. Enzyme activities were measured in samples prepared from brains of rats of both sexes and various ages between 0 and 75 days, treated sc with 0.5 µg EB/100 g body weight in 0.1 ml olive oil/100 g body weight, 48 and 24 h before sacrifice. In females, EB treatment stimulated MnSOD activity on days 0 (66.1%), 8 (72.7%) and 15 (81.7%). In males, the stimulatory effect of EB on MnSOD activity on day 0 (113.6%) disappeared on day 8 and on days 15 and 45 it became inhibitory (40.3 and 30.5%, respectively). EB had no effect on the other age groups. The stimulatory effect of EB on CuZnSOD activity in newborn females (51.8%) changed to an inhibitory effect on day 8 (38.4%) and disappeared by day 45 when inhibition was detected again (48.7%). In males, the inhibitory effect on this enzyme was observed on days 0 (45.0%) and 15 (28.9%), and then disappeared until day 60 when a stimulatory effect was observed (38.4%). EB treatment had no effect on the other age groups. The sensitivity of MnSOD to estradiol differed significantly between sexes during the neonatal and prepubertal period...

Defective Brain Development in Mice Lacking the Hif-1α Gene in Neural Cells

Tomita, Shuhei; Ueno, Masaki; Sakamoto, Masami; Kitahama, Yuki; Ueki, Masaaki; Maekawa, Nobuhiro; Sakamoto, Haruhiko; Gassmann, Max; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Ueda, Natsuo; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Takahama, Yousuke
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2003 EN
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Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is essential for vascular development during embryogenesis and pathogenesis. However, little is known about its role in brain development. To investigate the function of HIF-1α in the central nervous system, a conditional knockout mouse was made with the Cre/LoxP system with a nestin promoter-driven Cre. Neural cell-specific HIF-1α-deficient mice exhibit hydrocephalus accompanied by a reduction in neural cells and an impairment of spatial memory. Apoptosis of neural cells coincided with vascular regression in the telencephalon of mutant embryos, and these embryonic defects were successfully restored by in vivo gene delivery of HIF-1α to the embryos. These results showed that expression of HIF-1α in neural cells was essential for normal development of the brain and established a mouse model that would be useful for the evaluation of therapeutic strategies for ischemia, including hypoxia-mediated hydrocephalus.

Regulation of Protein Tyrosine Kinase Signaling by Substrate Degradation during Brain Development

Arnaud, Lionel; Ballif, Bryan A.; Cooper, Jonathan A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2003 EN
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Disabled-1 (Dab1) is a cytoplasmic adaptor protein that regulates neuronal migrations during mammalian brain development. Dab1 function in vivo depends on tyrosine phosphorylation, which is stimulated by extracellular Reelin and requires Src family kinases. Reelin signaling also negatively regulates Dab1 protein levels in vivo, and reduced Dab1 levels may be part of the mechanism that regulates neuronal migration. We have made use of mouse embryo cortical neuron cultures in which Reelin induces Dab1 tyrosine phosphorylation and Src family kinase activation. We have found that Dab1 is normally stable, but in response to Reelin it becomes polyubiquitinated and degraded via the proteasome pathway. We have established that tyrosine phosphorylation of Dab1 is required for its degradation. Dab1 molecules lacking phosphotyrosine are not degraded in neurons in which the Dab1 degradation pathway is active. The requirements for Reelin-induced degradation of Dab1 in vitro correctly predict Dab1 protein levels in vivo in different mutant mice. We also provide evidence that Dab1 serine/threonine phosphorylation may be important for Dab1 tyrosine phosphorylation. Our data provide the first evidence for how Reelin down-regulates Dab1 protein expression in vivo. Dab1 degradation may be important for ensuring a transient Reelin response and may play a role in normal brain development.

Benefits of Docosahexaenoic Acid, Folic Acid, Vitamin D and Iodine on Foetal and Infant Brain Development and Function Following Maternal Supplementation during Pregnancy and Lactation

Morse, Nancy L.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/07/2012 EN
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Scientific literature is increasingly reporting on dietary deficiencies in many populations of some nutrients critical for foetal and infant brain development and function. Purpose: To highlight the potential benefits of maternal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and other important complimentary nutrients, including vitamin D, folic acid and iodine during pregnancy and/or breast feeding for foetal and/or infant brain development and/or function. Methods: English language systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, cross-sectional and case-control studies were obtained through searches on MEDLINE and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials from January 2000 through to February 2012 and reference lists of retrieved articles. Reports were selected if they included benefits and harms of maternal supplementation of DHA, vitamin D, folic acid or iodine supplementation during pregnancy and/or lactation. Results: Maternal DHA intake during pregnancy and/or lactation can prolong high risk pregnancies, increase birth weight, head circumference and birth length, and can enhance visual acuity, hand and eye co-ordination, attention, problem solving and information processing. Vitamin D helps maintain pregnancy and promotes normal skeletal and brain development. Folic acid is necessary for normal foetal spine...

Importance of the matriline for genomic imprinting, brain development and behaviour

Keverne, E. B.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/01/2013 EN
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Mammalian brain development commences during foeto-placental development and is strongly influenced by the epigenetic regulation of imprinted genes. The foetal placenta exerts considerable influence over the functioning of the adult maternal hypothalamus, and this occurs at the same time as the foetus itself is developing a hypothalamus. Thus, the action and interaction of two genomes in one individual, the mother, has provided a template for co-adaptive functions across generations that are important for maternal care and resource transfer, while co-adaptively shaping the mothering capabilities of each subsequent generation. The neocortex is complex, enabling behavioural diversity and cultural learning such that human individuals are behaviourally unique. Retrotransposons may, in part, be epigenetic mediators of such brain diversity. Interestingly some imprinted genes are themselves retrotransposon-derived, and retrotransposon silencing by DNA methylation is thought to have contributed to the evolutionary origins of imprint control regions. The neocortex has evolved to be adaptable and sustain both short-term and long-term synaptic connections that underpin learning and memory. The adapted changes are not themselves inherited, but the predisposing mechanisms for such epigenetic changes are heritable. This provides each generation with the same ability to make new adaptations while constrained by a transgenerational knowledge-based predisposition to preserve others.

Discovery of New Candidate Genes Related to Brain Development Using Protein Interaction Information

Chen, Lei; Chu, Chen; Kong, Xiangyin; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/01/2015 EN
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Human brain development is a dramatic process composed of a series of complex and fine-tuned spatiotemporal gene expressions. A good comprehension of this process can assist us in developing the potential of our brain. However, we have only limited knowledge about the genes and gene functions that are involved in this biological process. Therefore, a substantial demand remains to discover new brain development-related genes and identify their biological functions. In this study, we aimed to discover new brain-development related genes by building a computational method. We referred to a series of computational methods used to discover new disease-related genes and developed a similar method. In this method, the shortest path algorithm was executed on a weighted graph that was constructed using protein-protein interactions. New candidate genes fell on at least one of the shortest paths connecting two known genes that are related to brain development. A randomization test was then adopted to filter positive discoveries. Of the final identified genes, several have been reported to be associated with brain development, indicating the effectiveness of the method, whereas several of the others may have potential roles in brain development.

A Critical Role of GIT1 in Vertebrate and Invertebrate Brain Development

Hong, Sung-Tae; Mah, Won
Fonte: The Korean Society for Brain and Neural Science Publicador: The Korean Society for Brain and Neural Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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GIT1, a multifunctional signaling adaptor protein, is implicated in the development of dendritic spines and neuronal synapses. GIT1 forms a signaling complex with PIX, RAC, and PAK proteins that is known to play important roles in brain development. Here we found that Git1-knockout (Git1-/-) mice show a microcephaly-like small brain phenotype, which appears to be caused by reduced neuronal size rather than number. Git1-/- mice also show decreased dendritic spine number without morphological alterations in the hippocampus. Behaviorally, Git1-/- mice show impaired motor coordination and learning and memory. In addition, adult dGit Drosophila mutants show decreased brain size and abnormal morphology of the mushroom body. These results suggest that GIT1 is important for brain development in both rodents and flies.

Roles of mTOR Signaling in Brain Development

Lee, Da Yong
Fonte: The Korean Society for Brain and Neural Science Publicador: The Korean Society for Brain and Neural Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase composed of multiple protein components. Intracellular signaling of mTOR complexes is involved in many of physiological functions including cell survival, proliferation and differentiation through the regulation of protein synthesis in multiple cell types. During brain development, mTOR-mediated signaling pathway plays a crucial role in the process of neuronal and glial differentiation and the maintenance of the stemness of neural stem cells. The abnormalities in the activity of mTOR and its downstream signaling molecules in neural stem cells result in severe defects of brain developmental processes causing a significant number of brain disorders, such as pediatric brain tumors, autism, seizure, learning disability and mental retardation. Understanding the implication of mTOR activity in neural stem cells would be able to provide an important clue in the development of future brain developmental disorder therapies.

Early Childhood Development Operations in Latin and Caribbean Region (LCR) : Jamaica, Mexico, and Brazil in Focus

Holland, Peter; Evans, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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The rationale and evidence of the effectiveness of investing early in children is compelling: early childhood is the most rapid period of development in a human life, with incredible brain development occurring (85 percent of the brain is wired by age 5). Investments in Early Childhood Development (ECD) are among the most effective and cost-effective investments a country can make in its people. Simply put, investing in ECD is an investment for life. Children who participate in ECD programs demonstrate improved school readiness, success, and completion; improved health; reduced risky behavior and crime; and higher productivity and income. Perhaps most importantly for public policy, delays in early childhood are difficult and costly to reverse later in life. The World Bank is particularly well-poised to help clients further the ECD agenda in their countries and improve medium and long-term development for generations to come. Given the inherently multi-sectoral nature of ECD interventions, including inter alia health...

Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1), a gene involved in X-linked intellectual disability, undergoes RNA editing and alternative splicing during human brain development

Barresi, Sabina; Tomaselli, Sara; Athanasiadis, Alekos; Galeano, Federica; Locatelli, Franco; Bertini, Enrico; Zanni, Ginevra; Gallo, Angela
Fonte: PLOS Publicador: PLOS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/03/2014 ENG
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Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1) encodes for a Rho-GTPase-activating protein, important for dendritic morphogenesis and synaptic function. Mutations in this gene have been identified in patients with X-linked intellectual disability associated with cerebellar hypoplasia. ADAR enzymes are responsible for A-to-I RNA editing, an essential post-transcriptional RNA modification contributing to transcriptome and proteome diversification. Specifically, ADAR2 activity is essential for brain development and function. Herein, we show that the OPHN1 transcript undergoes post-transcriptional modifications such as A-to-I RNA editing and alternative splicing in human brain and other tissues. We found that OPHN1 editing is detectable already at the 18th week of gestation in human brain with a boost of editing at weeks 20 to 33, concomitantly with OPHN1 expression increase and the appearance of a novel OPHN1 splicing isoform. Our results demonstrate that multiple post-transcriptional events occur on OPHN1, a gene playing an important role in brain function and development.; AIRC (Associazione Italiana Ricerca sul cancro).

From Early Child Development to Human Development : Investing in Our Children's Future

Eming Young, Mary
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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55.93%
Investing in every child at an early age is an investment in human, and economic development for all. Children born in poverty are far more likely to grow undeveloped in both body, and mind. Science tells us that early child development (ECD) is critical, and marks a child for life, and, young children who are well nurtured, do better in school, and develop the skills to compete in a global economy. It is in this context that the Bank hosted a conference to review the state of knowledge on brain development, the link between ECD and human development, the standards of care to improve children's educational outcomes, the qualitative and quantitative measures of effective programs, and elements of quality in ECD programs. This book contains the proceedings of the Conference on Investing in our Children's Future, which brought together leading experts, academicians, and practitioners from nongovernmental organizations, civil society, governments, and international organizations. The conference featured the benefits of investing in young children...

Impacts of Placental Growth Factor Deficiency and of Preeclampsia on Brain Development and Function

Ratsep, Matthew
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
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Preeclampsia (PE) is a significant gestational disorder affecting 3-5% of all human pregnancies. In many PE pregnancies, maternal plasma is low in the placentally-produced angiokine “placental growth factor” (PGF). Offspring of PE (PE-F1) compared to uncomplicated pregnancies have higher risks for hypertension, cognitive impairment, and stroke. However, mechanisms explaining these risks are poorly understood. This thesis aimed to explore the mechanistic links between deficient gestational PGF expression, PE, and brain structural and functional development in PE-F1s. It was hypothesized that PGF deficiency, which often manifests in PE, diminishes brain vascular development, leading to impaired cognition and elevated stroke risk postpartum. Uteroplacental angiogenesis was assessed in pregnant mice expressing or lacking maternal and/or conceptus derived PGF by whole-mount immunohistochemistry or paraffin histology. Pgf-/- and Pgf+/+ adult mouse brain vasculature and structural anatomy were examined by arterial polymer casting and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), respectively. Cognition and behaviour were assessed in these mice by standard paradigms that tested depression, spatial learning, short and long term memory, activity and anxiety. PE-F1 and control children aged 7-10 were assessed for cognitive functions through psychometric testing and eye tracking of saccadic eye movements. Brain structural and vascular anatomy were assessed in the same children through MRI. Pgf-/- mice displayed reduced and aberrant uteroplacental vascular structure...

Early adversity, brain development and emotion processing in monozygotic twins

Lévesque, Mélissa
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
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55.95%
Il existe actuellement de nombreuses preuves démontrant que des facteurs génétiques et environnementaux interagissent pendant des périodes spécifiques du développement pour rendre une personne vulnérable aux troubles psychologiques via diverses adaptations physiologiques. Cette thèse porte sur l'impact de l’adversité prénatale (représentée par le petit poids à la naissance, PPN) et de l’adversité postnatale précoce (symptômes dépressifs maternels et comportements maternels négatifs), sur le développement du cerveau, particulièrement les régions fronto-limbiques impliquées dans le traitement des émotions, pendant l'enfance et l'adolescence. Des jumeaux monozygotes (MZ) sont utilisés, lorsque possible, afin de contrôler pour les effets génétiques. Les chapitres 1 et 2 présentent les résultats de la vérification de l'hypothèse que l’adversité prénatale et postnatale précoce sont associées à une altération du fonctionnement des régions fronto-limbique tels que l’amygdale, l’hippocampe, l’insula, le cortex cingulaire antérieur et le cortex préfrontal, en réponse à des stimuli émotifs chez des enfants et des adolescents. On observe que les symptômes dépressifs maternels sont associés à une activation plus élevée des régions fronto-limbiques des enfants en réponse à la tristesse. Les résultats de l’étude avec des adolescents suggèrent que le PPN...

Eph Receptor and Ephrin Signaling in Developing and Adult Brain of the Honeybee (Apis mellifera)

Vidovic, Maria; Nighorn, Alan; Koblar, Simon; Maleszka, Ryszard
Fonte: John Wiley & Sons Inc Publicador: John Wiley & Sons Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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55.79%
Roles for Eph receptor tyrosine kinase and ephrin signaling in vertebrate brain development are well established. Their involvement in the modulation of mammalian synaptic structure and physiology is also emerging. However, less is known of their effects

Variations in in vivo phosphorylation at the proline-rich domain of the microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) during rat brain development

Sánchez-Somolinos, Carlos; Díaz-Nido, Javier; Ávila, Jesús
Fonte: Biochemical Society Publicador: Biochemical Society
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 1552323 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
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Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) is an in vitro substrate for MAP kinase. Part of the phosphorylation occurs at the C-terminal microtubule-binding domain of the molecule which contains a cluster of putative consensus sites for MAP kinase on a proline-rich region. A peptide with the sequence RTPGTPG-TPSY, located at this region of the molecule, is efficiently phosphorylated by MAP kinase in vitro. An antibody (972) raised against this non-phosphorylated peptide has been used to test for in vivo phosphorylation at the proline-rich domain of the MAP2 molecule. The reaction of purified MAP2 with antibody 972 diminishes after in vitro phosphorylation by MAP kinase and is enhanced after in vitro dephosphorylation by alkaline phosphatase. A fraction of brain MAP2 isolated by iron-chelation affinity chromatography appears to be phosphorylated in vivo at the site recognized by antibody 972. There is some variation in the phosphorylation of MAP2 at the proline-rich region throughout rat brain development. MAP2C is more highly phosphorylated in the developing rat brain, whereas high-molecular-mass MAP2 is more extensively phosphorylated in the adult rat brain.; This work was supported by Spanish CICYT and an institutional grant of Fundaci6n Ram6n Areces. C.S. was supported by a fellowship of Comunidad de Madrid.; Peer reviewed

Functional genomics studies of human brain development and implications for autism spectrum disorder

Ziats, Mark
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience Publicador: University of Cambridge; Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
EN_US
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Human neurodevelopment requires the coordinated expression of thousands of genes, exquisitely regulated in both spatial and temporal dimensions, to achieve the proper specialization and inter-connectivity of brain regions. Consequently, the dysregulation of complex gene networks in the developing brain is believed to underlie many neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Autism has a significant genetic etiology, but there are hundreds of genes implicated, and their functions are heterogeneous and complex. Therefore, an understanding of shared molecular and cellular pathways underlying the development ASD has remained elusive, hampering attempts to develop common diagnostic biomarkers or treatments for this disorder. I hypothesized that analyzing functional genomics relationships among ASD candidate genes during normal human brain development would provide insight into common cellular and molecular pathways that are affected in autistic individuals, and may help elucidate how hundreds of diverse genes can all be linked to a single clinical phenotype. This thesis describes a coordinated set of bioinformatics experiments that first (i) assessed for gene expression and co-expression properties among ASD candidates and other non-coding RNAs during normal human brain development to discover potential shared mechanisms; and then (ii) directly assessed for changes in these pathways in autistic post-mortem brain tissue. The results demonstrated that when examined in the context of normal human brain gene expression during early development...

Influence of omega-3 fatty acids from the flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) on the brain development of newborn rats

Lenzi Almeida,K. C.; Teles Boaventura,G.; Guzmán Silva,Mª A.
Fonte: Nutrición Hospitalaria Publicador: Nutrición Hospitalaria
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/2011 ENG
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Objectives: The importance of essential fatty acids, in particular the omega-3 family, in the central nervous system development of newborns is well documented. The flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) is considered one of the best vegetable sources of omega-3 fatty acids. The influence of omega-3 fatty acids from flaxseed on the brain development of newborn rats was evaluated. Material and methods: Pups of the F1 generation were obtained from 18 female Wistar rats divided in 3 groups (n = 6), FG: fed with diet based on Flaxseed added with casein, CG: Casein, and MCG: Modified Casein supplemented with fibers and soybean oil. Newborn pups were weighted and submitted to euthanasia; brains were collected for evaluation of weight and lipid profile through gaseous chromatography. Results: Significant increase in brain weight (39%) and relative brain weight (37%) was verified in pups from mothers fed with flaxseed diet. The omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids from the flaxseed were found in abundance in the diet made with this oleaginous and also significant increase in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (38%), as well as in total of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (62%). Conclusion: Maternal diet of flaxseed during pregnancy influences the incorporation of omega-3 fatty acid in the composition of brain tissue...