Os receptores para a bombesina (BBN), especialmente o receptor para o peptídeo liberador de gastrina (GRPr), são massivamente expressos em vários tipos de câncer, dentre eles o câncer de próstata, e podem ser uma alternativa para seu diagnóstico e tratamento por terapia radioisotópica. Modificações moleculares na estrutura da BBN vêm sendo promovidas e os derivados produzidos têm apresentado bons resultados em estudos préclínicos. No entanto, todos os derivados estudados apresentaram alta captação abdominal e esta é a principal limitação do uso clínico da BBN, devido aos efeitos adversos aos pacientes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi radiomarcar uma nova série de derivados da bombesina com lutécio-177 e avaliar a relação entre sua estrutura e o potencial diagnóstico-terapêutico do câncer de próstata. Os peptídeos estudados apresentam estrutura genérica DOTA-Phe-(Gly)n-BBN(6-14), em que DOTA é o grupamento quelante, n é o número de aminoácidos glicina do espaçador Phe-(Gly)n e BBN(6-14) é a sequência original de aminoácidos da BBN do aminoácido 6 ao aminoácido 14. Estudos preliminares foram realizados a fim de avaliar a condição que conferia maior pureza radioquímica aos derivados radiomarcados...
Uma grande variedade de moléculas já foi identificada por apresentar alta afinidade por receptores superexpressos em células tumorais, e a radiomarcação dessas moléculas oferece a possibilidade de novos compostos com aplicações diagnósticas e terapêuticas em medicina nuclear. Dentre essas moléculas, a bombesina (BBN) é uma das que despertam maior interesse, uma vez que um de seus receptores BB2 são superexpressos em células de tumores de próstata, mama, cólon, pâncreas e pulmão, além de glioblastomas e neuroblastomas. Derivados da bombesina, agonistas e antagonistas dos receptores BB2 já foram propostos para essa finalidade e apresentaram resultados promissores em estudos pré-clínicos. Entretanto, a maioria deles apresenta o incoveniente da alta captação em tecidos sadios, como pâncreas e intestino, o que pode prejudicar a eficiência diagnóstica e causar efeitos adversos na terapia. Nesse contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a marcação de uma nova série de derivados da bombesina com índio-111 (111In) e gálio-68 (68Ga), de modo a avaliar seu potencial para diagnóstico de tumores que superexpressam BB2 por tomografia computadorizada por emissão de fóton único (SPECT) ou por emissão de pósitrons (PET). Os peptídeos estudados apresentam estrutura genérica YGn-BBN(6-14)-Q...
Têm sido estudadas novas modalidades para o diagnóstico e tratamento de câncer de próstata avançado baseado em peptídeos. Receptores para o peptídeo liberador de gastrina (GRPr) são superexpressos em vários tipos de células cancerígenas, incluindo câncer de mama e próstata. A bombesina é um análogo do peptídeo GRP de mamíferos que se liga com alta especificidade e afinidade a GRPr. Várias pesquisas têm sido realizadas para desenvolver e radiomarcar um análogo da bombesina com lutécio-177 com interesse para terapia de tumores pequenos ou metástases, devido às características físicas e viabilidade comercial do radionuclídeo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o processo de marcação e controle de qualidade de derivados da bombesina, usando como agente quelante DTPA e DOTA e espaçador aminoacídico Gly5, e realizar estudos de estabilidade e de biodistribuição de modo a avaliar o potencial de aplicação em estudos clínicos. Os estudos demonstraram que os análogos da bombesina estudados podem ser marcados com 177Lu com alto rendimento de marcação e alta atividade específica. Os estudos de estabilidade in vitro sugerem que os derivados DOTA-conjugados apresentam maior estabilidade que o DTPA-conjugados quando armazenados sob refrigeração e em soro humano. O coeficiente de partição do PG5N-DOTA-177Lu indicou maior lipofilicidade quando comparado com o derivado PG5M-DOTA-177Lu ...
Bombesin (BN) elicits in the rat important behavioural modifications, including inhibition of food and of water intake. Recently, it has been observed that the peptide also inhibits the intake of sodium chloride. To stare whether BN possesses a selective antinatriorexic effect or it elicits only an aspecific depression of ingestive behaviour, we studied the effects of this peptide on the intake of sodium, water or sucrose of Wistar rats after injections into the fourth brain ventricle or into selected brain areas involved in the control of sodium intake, containing BN-like peptides and/or their precursors or specific receptors. We observed that: a) BN (100-200 ng/rat) injected into the fourth brain ventricle inhibits not only the intake of 2% NaCl of sodium depleted rats but also that of water and of 5% sucrose; b) BN (5-50 ng/rat) administered into the nucleus of the solitary tract and the medial amygdala does not influence the intake of these fluids and c) BN (5-50 ng/rat) injected into the paraventricular nucleus does not influence the intake of water and 5% sucrose but potently inhibits that of 2% NaCl. We concluded that the inhibitory effect elicited on salt intake by intracranial administration of BN is selective for this behaviour and is not the expression of an aspecific depression of ingestive behaviour. (C) 1998 Elsevier B.V.
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is important in oncology because of its high mortality rate. Deaths may be avoided if an early diagnosis could be achieved. Several types of tumors overexpress gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPr), including pancreatic cancer cells. Thus, a radiolabeled peptide derivative of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) may be useful as a specific imaging probe. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using 99mTc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesin(7-14) as an imaging probe for Capan-1 pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Xenographic pancreatic tumor was developed in nude mice and characterized by histopathological analysis. Biodistribution studies and scintigraphic images were carried out in tumor-bearing nude mice. The two methods showed higher uptake by pancreatic tumor when compared to muscle (used as control), and the tumor-to-muscle ratio indicated that 99mTc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesin(7-14) uptake was four-fold higher in tumor cells than in other tissues. Scintigraphic images also showed a clear signal at the tumor site. The present data indicate that 99mTc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesin(7-14) may be useful for the detection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
Bombesin is a tetradecapeptide originally isolated from frog skin and demonstrated to have a wide range of actions in mammals. Based on structural homology and similar biological activities, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) has been considered the mammalian equivalent of bombesin. We previously reported that frogs have both GRP and bombesin, which therefore are distinct peptides. We now report the cloning of a bombesin receptor subtype (BB4) that has higher affinity for bombesin than GRP. PCR was used to amplify cDNAs related to the known bombesin receptors from frog brain. Sequence analysis of the amplified cDNAs revealed 3 classes of receptor subtypes. Based on amino acid homology, two classes were clearly the amphibian homologs of the GRP and neuromedin B receptors. The third class was unusual and a full-length clone was isolated from a Bombina orientalis brain cDNA library. Expression of the receptor in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated that the receptor responded to picomolar concentrations of [Phe13]-bombesin, the form of bombesin most prevalent in frog brain. The relative rank potency of bombesin-like peptides for this receptor was [Phe13]bombesin > [Leu13]bombesin > GRP > neuromedin B. In contrast, the rank potency for the GRP receptor is GRP > [Leu13]bombesin > [Phe13]bombesin > neuromedin B. Transient expression in CHOP cells gave a Ki for [Phe13]bombesin of 0.2 nM versus a Ki of 2.1 nM for GRP. Distribution analysis showed that this receptor was expressed only in brain...
Bombesin is a tetradecapeptide originally isolated from frog skin; its mammalian homologue is the 27-amino acid peptide gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP). cDNAs encoding GRP have been cloned from diverse species, but little is yet known about the amphibian bombesin precursor. Mass spectrometry of HPLC-separated skin exudate from Bombina orientalis was performed to demonstrate the existence of authentic bombesin in the skin of this frog. A cDNA library was prepared from the skin of B. orientalis and mixed oligonucleotide probes were used to isolate cDNAs encoding amphibian bombesin. Sequence analysis revealed that bombesin is encoded in a 119-amino acid prohormone. The carboxyl terminus of bombesin is flanked by two basic amino acids; the amino terminus is not flanked by basic amino acids but is flanked by a chymotryptic-like cleavage site. Northern blot analysis demonstrated similarly sized bombesin mRNAs in frog skin, brain, and stomach. Polymerase chain reaction was used to show that the skin and gut bombesin mRNAs encoded the identical prohormones. Prohormone processing, however, differed between skin and gut. Chromatography showed the presence of only authentic bombesin in skin whereas gut extracts contained two peaks of bombesin immunoreactivity...
Bombesin (a tetradecapeptide), the C-terminal nonapeptide of bombesin (bombesin-NP), and litorin (a parent nonapeptide), each stimulated amylase secretion from rat pancreatic fragments. These responses were not affected by atropine. The concentrations that produced half-maximal stumulation of secretion were 0.25 nM for bombesin, 0.30 nM for bombesin-NP, and 0.07 nM for litorin, as compared to 0.12 nM for caerulein and 0.80 muM for the cholinergic agent carbamylcholine. When used at maximal concentrations, bombesin, bombesin-NP, and litorin showed no action on cyclic AMP levels in the presence of 5 mM theophylline. By contrast, caerulein and secretin increased cyclic AMP levels by 27 and 208%, respectively. Bombesin, bombesin-NP, and litorin did not activate adenylate cyclase in a purified pancreatic plasma membrane preparation, whereas caerulein and secretin increased this activity 20 and 16-times, respectively...
The purpose of this study was to determine the interactions between bombesin and substance P at the feline lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Intraluminal pressures were recorded using a fixed, perfused catheter assembly. Myoelectrical activity was recorded using bipolar Ag-AgCl serosal electrodes. Bombesin, i.v., gave a dose-dependent increase in LES pressure and electronically counted spike activity. The threshold dose was 10(-7) g/kg, while the maximal dose, 10(-5) g/kg, increased LES pressure by 65.5 +/- 14.8 mmHg. The neuroantagonist, tetrodotoxin, decreased the LES response to bombesin by 74.1% +/- 7.9% (P less than 0.05), but had no significant effect on the LES response to substance P. The sphincteric response to bombesin was not inhibited by bilateral cervical vagotomy, atropine, propranolol, or phentolamine (P less than 0.10). Bombesin tachyphylaxis abolished the LES response to bombesin but had no effect on the response to substance P. Conversely, substance P tachyphylaxis completely abolished the LES response to bombesin (P less than 0.001). The substance P antagonist [D-Pro2, D-Trp7,9]substance P also significantly inhibited the LES response to bombesin (P less than 0.05). Acidification of the distal esophagus with 2.0 ml of 0.1 N HCl increased LES pressure by 32.5 +/- 5.2 mmHg (P less than 0.02). The LES response to acid was inhibited by bombesin tachyphylaxis (maximal pressure response...
Bombesin is a tetradecapeptide which stimulates insulin secretion in vivo by isolated islets and by HIT-T15 cells, a clonal line of hamster pancreatic-islet cells. In the present study we have used [125I-Tyr4]bombesin to characterize bombesin receptors in HIT-T15 cells. [125I-Tyr4]Bombesin binding was time- and temperature-dependent: maximum binding occurred after 45 min, 90 min and 10 h at 37, 22 and 4 degrees C respectively. Thereafter, cell-associated radioactivity declined at 37 degrees C and 22 degrees C but not at 4 degrees C. Scatchard analysis of [125I-Tyr4]bombesin binding measured at 4 degrees C showed that HIT-T15 cells contain a single class of binding sites (approximately equal to 85000/cell) with an apparent Kd of 0.9 +/- 0.11 nM. Structurally unrelated neuropeptides did not compete for [125I-Tyr4]bombesin binding. However, the relative potencies of bombesin and four bombesin analogues in inhibiting the binding of [125I-Tyr4]bombesin correlated with their ability to stimulate insulin release. Receptor-mediated processing of [125I-Tyr4]bombesin was examined by using an acid wash (0.2 M-acetic acid/0.5 M-NaCl, pH 2.5) to dissociate surface-bound peptide from the cells. Following [125I-Tyr4]bombesin binding at 4 degrees C...
Bombesin and bombesin-related peptides such as gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) stimulate DNA synthesis and proliferation of Swiss 3T3 cells in culture. We have used 125I-labelled [Tyr4]bombesin and 125I-labelled GRP to characterize and identify the receptors for these peptides on Swiss 3T3 cells. The binding of 125I-[Tyr4]bombesin, which retained full biological activity, was maximal between 20 and 30 min incubation at 37 degrees C, after which continued incubation led to a decline in cell-associated radioactivity. This decline was markedly slowed by the presence of lysosomal enzyme inhibitors. Specificity of the binding site was indicated by the competitive inhibition of binding by bombesin-related peptides, but not by unrelated peptides and growth factors. Scatchard analysis of binding data indicated a single class of high-affinity receptors. The calculated value for the dissociation constant (Kd) was 2.1 nM and each cell possesses approx. 240,000 receptors. Because [Tyr4]bombesin has no free amino group, 125I-GRP was used in chemical cross-linking studies. When disuccinimidyl suberate was used to covalently couple 125I-GRP to the cells, two major radiolabelled complexes were detected with molecular masses of approx. 80,000-85,000 and 140...
Members of the bombesin family of peptides potently stimulate insulin release by HIT-T15 cells, a clonal pancreatic cell line. The response to bombesin consists of a large burst in secretion during the first 30 s, followed by a smaller elevation of the secretory rate, which persists for 90 min. The aim of this study was to identify the intracellular messengers involved in this biphasic secretory response. Addition of 100 nM-bombesin to cells for 20 s increased the cellular accumulation of [3H]diacylglycerol (DAG) by 40% and that of [3H]inositol monophosphate (InsP), bisphosphate (InsP2) and trisphosphate (InsP3) by 40%, 300%, and 800%, respectively. In contrast, cyclic AMP concentrations were unaffected. Bombesin stimulation of [3H]InsP3 formation was detected at 2 s, before the secretory response, which was not measurable until 5 s. Furthermore, the potency of bombesin to stimulate [3H]InsP3 generation (ED50 = 14 +/- 9 nM) agreed with its potency to stimulate insulin release (ED50 = 6 +/- 2 nM). Consistent with its effects on [3H]InsP3 formation, bombesin raised the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration [( Ca2+]i) from a basal value of 0.28 +/- 0.01 microM to a peak of 1.3 +/- 0.1 microM by 20 s. Chelation of extracellular Ca2+ did not abolish either the secretory response to bombesin or the rise in [Ca2+]i...
Bombesin has been reported to stimulate cholecystokinin (CCK) secretion from rat duodeno-jejunal I-cells. Bombesin was shown to activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in cell types such as Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts and rat pancreatic acinar cells. No information is available on whether MAPK is activated in intestinal endocrine cells upon bombesin stimulation. This was studied by using the CCK-producing enteroendocrine cell line STC-1. Bombesin stimulated markedly and transiently both p42(MAPK) and p44(MAPK), with a maximum at 2 min, and a decrease to basal levels within 10 min. As expected, bombesin stimulated MAPK kinase 1 (MEK-1) activity. Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) with PMA also stimulated p42(MAPK), p44(MAPK) and MEK-1. Treatment of cells with PD 098059 (at 10 microM or 30 microM), which selectively inhibits MEK phosphorylation, blocked bombesin-induced p42(MAPK) and p44(MAPK) activation for at least 90 min. However, PD 098059 inhibited bombesin- and PMA-stimulated CCK secretion during the first 15 min, but failed to significantly reduce CCK release at later times. Inhibition of PKC with staurosporine, or PKC down-regulation by prolonged treatment with PMA, both drastically decreased MEK-1, p42(MAPK) and p44(MAPK) activation upon bombesin stimulation. Additionally...
This study was undertaken to determine the role of cholecystokinin in pancreatic enzyme secretion stimulated by bombesin and a meal by (a) comparing the pancreatic enzyme output during bombesin infusion and after a meal to output during caerulein infusion and (b) comparing the inhibitory effect of the cholecystokinin-receptor antagonist lorglumide (CR-1409) on enzyme output in response to bombesin and food with the response to caerulein. Bombesin (90 pmol/kg per h) and caerulein (30 pmol/kg per h) were infused into seven dogs in doses giving similar plasma cholecystokinin peak increments as a meal (mean (SEM) 6.8 (0.8), 6.3 (1.2), and 5.7 (0.8) pM, respectively), together with either saline or 2 mg/kg per h of lorglumide. A background infusion of synthetic secretin 20.5 pmol/kg per h was given in each experiment. In addition, gastric acid secretion was determined in the experiments with bombesin and caerulein infusion. Pancreatic protein responses to bombesin (1231 (247) mg/h) and food (1430 (220) mg/h) were similar to the responses to caerulein (1249 (201) mg/h). Lorglumide inhibited pancreatic protein output during stimulation with bombesin by 60%, after the meal by 45%, and during caerulein infusion by 68%. Pancreatic bicarbonate output by bombesin...
Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of bombesin (BN) induces a
syndrome characterized by stereotypic locomotion and grooming,
hyperactivity and sleep elimination, hyperglycemia and hypothermia,
hyperhemodynamics, feeding inhibition, and gastrointestinal function
changes. Mammalian BN-like peptides (MBNs), e.g. gastrin-releasing
peptide (GRP), Neuromedin C (NMC), and Neuromedin B (NMB), have been
detected in the central nervous system. Radio-labeled BN binds to specific
sites in discrete cerebral regions. Two specific BN receptor subtypes (GRP
receptor and NMB receptor) have been identified in numerous brain regions.
The quantitative 2-[14C]deoxyglucose ([14C]20G) autoradiographic
method was used to map local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) in the
rat brain following ICV injection of BN (vehicle, BN O.1Jlg, O.5Jlg). At each
dose, experiments were conducted in freely moving or restrained
conditions to determine whether alterations in cerebral function were the
result of BN central administration, or were the result of BN-induced
motor stereotypy. The anteroventral thalamic nucleus (AV) (p=O.029),
especially its ventrolateral portion (AVVL) (p
Bombesin (BM) and neuromedin-B (NMB)
exert similar biological effects, acting via two
functionally distinct BM-receptor subtypes. The present
study aimed to investigate whether BM and NMB
stimulate the proliferation of rat adrenocortical cells and
to compare their mode of action. Adult female rats were
treated with a single subcutaneous dose of 3 pg BM or
NMB. Adrenocortical proliferative activity was assessed
by the metaphase-arrest technique. BM administration
resulted in a marked increase in the number of
metaphases in zona glomerulosa (ZG) and zona
fasciculata (ZF), and in the entire cortex. This increase
appeared 24 h after injection in the ZG, and after 48 h in
the ZF. NMB adrninistration, on the other hand, caused a
prompt increase in the number of metaphases in the ZG
and entire cortex at 12 h, followed by a subsequent drop
below the control leve1 at 24 and 48 h of experiment.
These findings indicate that BM and NMB enhance the
proliferative activity of rat adrenocortical cells acting via
different receptors or different mediators.
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is important in oncology because of its high mortality rate. Deaths may be avoided if an early diagnosis could be achieved. Several types of tumors overexpress gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPr), including pancreatic cancer cells. Thus, a radiolabeled peptide derivative of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) may be useful as a specific imaging probe. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using99mTc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesin(7-14)as an imaging probe for Capan-1 pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Xenographic pancreatic tumor was developed in nude mice and characterized by histopathological analysis. Biodistribution studies and scintigraphic images were carried out in tumor-bearing nude mice. The two methods showed higher uptake by pancreatic tumor when compared to muscle (used as control), and the tumor-to-muscle ratio indicated that99mTc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesin(7-14)uptake was four-fold higher in tumor cells than in other tissues. Scintigraphic images also showed a clear signal at the tumor site. The present data indicate that99mTc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesin(7-14)may be useful for the detection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
To analyze the effect of bombesin on the somatostatin (SS) mechanism of action in the exocrine pancreas, male Wistar rats (250-270 g) were injected intraperitoneally with bombesin (10 ¿g/kg) three times daily at 8-h intervals for 7 or 14 days. Bombesin attenuated the ability of SS to inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in pancreatic acinar membranes. However, it did not decrease the ability of forskolin to stimulate the adenylyl cyclase catalytic subunit. The ability of 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate [Gpp(NH)p] (a nonhydrolyzable GTP analog) to inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity was diminished in pancreatic acinar cell membranes from bombesin-treated rats. Bombesin administration did not affect the ADP-ribosylation of a 41-kDa G protein catalyzed by pertussis toxin. The maximal SS binding capacity of pancreatic acinar membranes from bombesin-treated rats was decreased when compared with controls at the two time periods studied. The bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide antagonist [D-Tpi6,Leu13¿(CH2NH)Leu14]bombesin (6-14) (RC-3095) (10 ¿g/kg ip), injected three times daily at 8-h intervals for 7 or 14 days, had a similar effect to that of bombesin on the SS mechanism of action. The combined administration of bombesin and its antagonist RC-3095 had a greater effect on the SS receptor-effector system than when administered separately. The present study indicates that the pancreatic SS receptor-effector system may be regulated by bombesin in vivo.
Bombesin and gastrin-releasing peptide act as autocrine mitogens in various cancers. Bombesin antagonist RC-3095 inhibited growth in some cancers and slowed the progression of premalignant lesions, possibly by down-regulating epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors. Since the EGF receptor mitogen response involves tyrosine kinase stimulation, we tested the hypotheses that bombesin stimulates, and RC-3095 inhibits, phosphorylation; EGF and bombesin promote the phosphorylation of the same substrates; and EGF and bombesin act synergistically on phosphorylation. Therefore, in vitro assays for phosphorylation were performed in the presence or absence of EGF, bombesin, RC-3095, and combinations in samples derived from tumor, tissue surrounding tumor, cell lines, and normal and transforming tissue derived from the 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene-induced squamous cell lesions of the hamster cheek pouch. Bombesin increased, and RC-3095 decreased, phosphorylation in these samples. In the human hepatoma sample and surrounding tissue, these ligands altered the phosphorylation of the same substrates affected by EGF. EGF and bombesin stimulated phosphorylation synergistically in the hamster samples and the hepatoma. Bombesin-induced phosphorylation was greater in tissue surrounding the hepatoma...
Receptores para o peptídeo liberador de gastrina (GRPr) são super expressos em vários tipos de células cancerígenas, incluindo câncer de mama e próstata. A Bombesina é um análogo do peptídeo GRP de mamíferos que se liga com alta especificidade e afinidade aos receptores do peptídeo liberador de gastrina (GRPr). Significantes pesquisas têm sido realizadas para desenvolver e radiomarcar um análogo da bombesina para diagnóstico de tumores de próstata e mama, utilizando-se técnicas de SPECT e PET, com radionuclídeos como 111In e 68Ga. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a marcação com 111In de uma série inédita de peptídeos derivados de bombesina e determinar o potencial de aplicação no diagnóstico de tumores de próstata em modelos animais. Vários estudos foram realizados para padronizar o procedimento de marcação, variando-se temperatura, tempo de marcação, massa do peptídeo e atividade do radionuclídeo. Os resultados demonstraram que os análogos da bombesina estudados podem ser marcados com índio-111 com alto rendimento de marcação e alta atividade específica. Os estudos de biodistribuição em animais normais demonstraram que o derivado de BBN com espaçador aminoacídico Gly5 apresentou captação pancreática e intestinal expressiva...