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Viés atencional no abuso de drogas : teoria e método; Attentional bias in drug abuse: theory and method

Peuker, Ana Carolina Wolf Baldino; Lopes, Fernanda Machado; Araujo, Lisiane Bizarro
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
O viés atencional pode eliciar fissura, diminuir a concentração em tarefas não relacionadas à droga e aumentar a vulnerabilidade à recaída em dependentes de drogas. O objetivo deste estudo é discutir visões teóricas recentes e principais métodos de investigação do papel do viés atencional nos comportamentos aditivos. Realizou-se busca nas bases de dados Medline, Pubmed e Lilacs. Essa busca revelou que a dot-probe task e o teste emocional de Stroop estão entre os principais métodos de investigação do viés atencional. Também foram apontadas limitações metodológicas nas investigações sobre viés atencional, sugerindo que esse fenômeno deve ser estudado sob condições melhor controladas, que considerem níveis de dependência, privação e fissura. Estudar o viés atencional pode contribuir para identificar mecanismos cognitivos subjacentes aos comportamentos aditivos.; Attentional bias to drug-related cues can induce craving, decrease concentration on non-related drug tasks and increase vulnerability to relapse in drug addicts. The aim of this study is to discuss current theories and research methods about the attentional bias role on addictive behaviors. The literature review of Medline, Pubmed and Lilacs databases showed that the dot-probe task and the emotional Stroop test are among the main methods of attentional bias investigation. This review also pointed out the methodological limitations in attentional bias research...

A symptotic Bias for GMM and GEL Estimators with Estimated Nuisance Parameter

Newey, Whitney K.; Ramalho, Joaquim J.S.; Smith, Richard J.
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
ENG
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This papers studies and compares the asymptotic bias of GMM and generalized empirical likelihood (GEL) estimators in the presence of estimated nuisance parameters. We consider cases in which the nuisance parameter is estimated from independent and identical samples. A simulation experiment is conducted for covariance structure models. Empirical likelihood offers much reduced mean and median bias, root mean squared error and mean absolute error, as compared with two-step GMM and other GEL methods. Both analytical and bootstrap bias-adjusted two-step GMM estima-tors are compared. Analytical bias-adjustment appears to be a serious competitor to bootstrap methods in terms of finite sample bias, root mean squared error and mean absolute error. Finite sample variance seems to be little affected.

Dual identity and ingroup bias: moderation by relevance of the superordinate category and relative status

Rodrigues, Maria Augusta Gonçalves Pereira
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 14/03/2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
Mestrado em Relações Intergrupais; Esta investigação incidiu sobre as relações intergrupais e as implicações de uma categorização mais inclusiva na redução ou aumento do preconceito endogrupal. Dois modelos recolheram evidências sobre as consequências de ter uma dupla identidade grupal. Contudo, as predições dos dois modelos são diferentes. De um lado, o Modelo da Identidade Comum que postula que via saliência da categoria de um grupo comum as relações entre grupos podem ser melhoradas. De outro lado, o Modelo da Projecção Endogrupal que prevê que os grupos tendem a projectar os seus próprios atributos na categoria inclusiva, supraordenada, deste modo tornando-se mais prototípicos do que os outros grupos para a categoria supraordenada. Adressando a evidência contraditória, propusemos a relevância da categoria supraordenada e o estatuto como moderadores da relação entre a dupla identidade e a discriminação endogrupal. Num estudo (N = 125) manipulámos a relevância ao salientar diferentes contextos de comparação (Bolonha ou Empregabilidade) de um grupo comum constante e natural (categoria supraordenada, os estudantes do ISCTE). A relevância da categoria superordenada não moderou a relação entre a dupla identidade e a discriminação endogrupal. No entanto...

Cultural bias in the SON-R test: comparative study of Brazilian and dutch children

Tellegen,Peter J.; Laros,Jacob A.
Fonte: Instituto de Psicologia, Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Instituto de Psicologia, Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2004 EN
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The present study, including 83 Brazilian and 51 Dutch children, evaluated the presence of cultural bias in items of the SON-R 5½-17 that make use of concrete objects and situations. Two procedures were followed to detect item bias. The first consisted of asking the children, immediately after an incorrect answer, whether they recognized the pictures. The second procedure compared item difficulties of the Brazilian children with those of the Dutch children belonging to the standardization sample of the SON-R 5½-17. Fourteen items were detected with bias: ten of these favored the Dutch group and four the Brazilian group. The cultural disadvantage for Brazilian children is rather small, taking the large amount of investigated items into account. This study indicated which items of the SON-R 5½-17 should be improved, not only for reasons of cultural bias, but also because children, irrespective of their cultural background, encountered problems with the recognition of several pictures.

Pulsed bias effect on crystallinity and nano-roughness of Ti6Al4V-N films deposited by grid assisted magnetron sputtering system

Stryhalski,Joel; Fontana,Luis César; Odorczyk,Marcos Fernando; Scholtz,Juliano Sadi; Sagás,Julio César; Recco,Abel André Candido
Fonte: ABM, ABC, ABPol Publicador: ABM, ABC, ABPol
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN
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This paper reports the effect of pulsed bias in comparison with DC bias on reactive deposition of Ti6Al4V-N films, obtained by Grid Assisted Magnetron Sputtering. The results obtained by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (EDX) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) show that bias condition affects the crystalline texture and change the roughness and morphology of the films. The DC bias favors the film crystallinity, however the pulsed bias produces smoother films.

Assessing the risk of bias in randomized controlled trials in the field of dentistry indexed in the Lilacs (Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde) database

Ferreira,Christiane Alves; Loureiro,Carlos Alfredo Salles; Saconato,Humberto; Atallah,Álvaro Nagib
Fonte: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM Publicador: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Well-conducted randomized controlled trials (RCTs) represent the highest level of evidence when the research question relates to the effect of therapeutic or preventive interventions. However, the degree of control over bias between RCTs presents great variability between studies. For this reason, with the increasing interest in and production of systematic reviews and meta-analyses, it has been necessary to develop methodology supported by empirical evidence, so as to encourage and enhance the production of valid RCTs with low risk of bias. The aim here was to conduct a methodological analysis within the field of dentistry, regarding the risk of bias in open-access RCTs available in the Lilacs (Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde) database. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a methodology study conducted at Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp) that assessed the risk of bias in RCTs, using the following dimensions: allocation sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, and data on incomplete outcomes. RESULTS: Out of the 4,503 articles classified, only 10 studies (0.22%) were considered to be true RCTs and, of these, only a single study was classified as presenting low risk of bias. The items that the authors of these RCTs most frequently controlled for were blinding and data on incomplete outcomes. CONCLUSION: The effective presence of bias seriously weakened the reliability of the results from the dental studies evaluated...

Bias in occupational epidemiology studies

Pearce, Neil; Checkoway, Harvey; Kriebel, David
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
The design of occupational epidemiology studies should be based on the need to minimise random and systematic error. The latter is the focus of this paper, and includes selection bias, information bias and confounding. Selection bias can be minimised by obtaining a high response rate (and by appropriate selection of the control group in a case‐control study). In general, it is important to ensure that information bias is minimised and is also non‐differential (for example, that the misclassification of exposure is not related to disease status) by collecting data in a standardised manner. A major concern in occupational epidemiology studies usually relates to confounding, because exposure has not been randomly allocated, and the groups under study may therefore have different baseline disease risks. For each of these types of bias, the goal should be to avoid the bias by appropriate study design and/or appropriate control in the analysis. However, it is also important to attempt to assess the likely direction and strength of biases that cannot be avoided or controlled.

Implicit Bias Among Physicians and Its Prediction of Thrombolysis Decisions for Black and White Patients

Green, Alexander; Pallin, Daniel; Ngo, Long; Iezzoni, Lisa; Banaji, Mahzarin; Raymond, Kristal L.; Carney, Dana R.
Fonte: Springer Verlag Publicador: Springer Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Context: Studies documenting racial/ethnic disparities in health care frequently implicate physicians’ unconscious biases. No study to date has measured physicians’ unconscious racial bias to test whether this predicts physicians’ clinical decisions. Objective: To test whether physicians show implicit race bias and whether the magnitude of such bias predicts thrombolysis recommendations for black and white patients with acute coronary syndromes. Design, Setting, and Participants: An internet-based tool comprising a clinical vignette of a patient presenting to the emergency department with an acute coronary syndrome, followed by a questionnaire and three Implicit Association Tests (IATs). Study invitations were e-mailed to all internal medicine and emergency medicine residents at four academic medical centers in Atlanta and Boston; 287 completed the study, met inclusion criteria, and were randomized to either a black or white vignette patient. Main Outcome Measures: IAT scores (normal continuous variable) measuring physicians’ implicit race preference and perceptions of cooperativeness. Physicians’ attribution of symptoms to coronary artery disease for vignette patients with randomly assigned race, and their decisions about thrombolysis. Assessment of physicians’ explicit racial biases by questionnaire. Results: Physicians reported no explicit preference for white versus black patients or differences in perceived cooperativeness. In contrast...

Censored Regressors and Expansion Bias

Rigobon, Roberto; Stoker, Thomas M.
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 1193476 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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We show how using censored regressors leads to expansion bias, or estimated effects that are proportionally too large. We show the necessity of this effect in bivariate regression and illustrate the bias using results for normal regressors. We study the bias when there is a censored regressor among many regressors, and we note how censoring can work to undo errors-in-variables bias. We discuss several approaches to correcting expansion bias. We illustrate the concepts by considering how censored regressors can arise in the analysis of wealth effects on consumption, and on peer effects in productivity.

Correcting verification bias in the assessment of the accuracy of diagnostic tests

He, Hua (1969 - ); McDermott, Michael P. ; Huang, Li-shan
Fonte: Universidade de Rochester Publicador: Universidade de Rochester
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Number of Pages:xvii, 140 leaves
ENG
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Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Rochester. School of Medicine and Dentistry. Dept. of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, 2007. ; Sensitivity and specificity are common measures of the accuracy of a diagnostic test. The usual estimators of these quantities are unbiased if data on the diagnostic test result and the true disease status are obtained from all subjects in an appropriately selected sample. In some studies, verification of the true disease status is performed only for a subset of subjects, possibly depending on the result of the diagnostic test and other characteristics of the subjects. Estimators of sensitivity and specificity based on this subset of subjects are typically biased; this is known as verification bias. In this dissertation, several new methods are developed to evaluate the accuracy of a diagnostic test in the setting of verification bias. Many methods have been proposed to correct verification bias under the assumption that the missing data on disease status are missing at random (MAR), i.e., that the probability of missingness depends on the true (missing) disease status only through the test result and observed covariate information. When the test is binary and some of the covariates are continuous...

Détection des événements de "Minimum Bias" et neutrons avec les détecteurs ATLAS-MPX par simulations

Macana Goia, Jorge Andres
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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Un réseau de seize détecteurs ATLAS-MPX a été mis en opération dans le détecteur ATLAS au LHC du CERN. Les détecteurs ATLAS-MPX sont sensibles au champ mixte de radiation de photons et d’électrons dans la caverne d’ATLAS et sont recouverts de convertisseurs de fluorure de lithium et de polyéthylène pour augmenter l’efficacité de détection des neutrons thermiques et des neutrons rapides respectivement. Les collisions à haute énergie sont dominées par des interactions partoniques avec petit moment transverse pT , associés à des événements de “minimum bias”. Dans notre cas la collision proton-proton se produit avec une énergie de 7 TeV dans le centre de masse avec une luminosité de 10³⁴cm⁻²s⁻¹ telle que fixée dans les simulations. On utilise la simulation des événements de "minimum bias" générés par PYTHIA en utilisant le cadre Athena qui fait une simulation GEANT4 complète du détecteur ATLAS pour mesurer le nombre de photons, d’électrons, des muons qui peuvent atteindre les détecteurs ATLASMPX dont les positions de chaque détecteur sont incluses dans les algorithmes d’Athena. Nous mesurons les flux de neutrons thermiques et rapides, générés par GCALOR, dans les régions de fluorure de lithium et de polyéthylène respectivement. Les résultats des événements de “minimum bias” et les flux de neutrons thermiques et rapides obtenus des simulations sont comparés aux mesures réelles des détecteurs ATLAS-MPX.; A network of sixteen ATLAS-MPX detectors has been put in operation in the ATLAS detector at CERN-LHC. ATLAS-MPX detectors are sensitive to a mixed radiation field of photons and electrons in the ATLAS cavern and are covered with lithium fluoride and polyethylene converters in order to increase the detection sensitivity of thermal neutrons and fast neutrons respectively. High energy collisions are dominated by partonic interactions with small transverse moment pT ...

Examining Moderators of the Hindsight Bias in the Context of Civil Legal Decision-Making: Counterfactuals, Causal Proximity, and Self-Referencing

York, Rachel Michelle
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
The current research sought to clarify the diverging relationships between counterfactual thinking and hindsight bias observed in the literature thus far. In a non-legal context, Roese and Olson (1996) found a positive relationship between counterfactuals and hindsight bias, such that counterfactual mutations that undid the outcome also increased participants’ ratings of the outcome’s a priori likelihood. Further, they determined that this relationship is mediated by causal attributions about the counterfactually mutated antecedent event. Conversely, in the context of a civil lawsuit, Robbennolt and Sobus (1997) found that the relationship between counterfactual thinking and hindsight bias is negative. The current research sought to resolve the conflicting findings in the literature within a legal context. In Experiment One, the manipulation of the normality of the defendant’s target behavior, designed to manipulate participants’ counterfactual thoughts about said behavior, did moderate the hindsight effect of outcome knowledge on mock jurors’ judgments of the foreseeability of that outcome as well as their negligence verdicts. Although I predicted that counterfactual thinking would increase, or exacerbate, the hindsight bias...

Environmental metabarcodes for insects: In silico PCR reveals potential for taxonomic bias

Clarke, L.J.; Soubrier, J.; Weyrich, L.S.; Cooper, A.
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
Studies of insect assemblages are suited to the simultaneous DNA-based identification of multiple taxa known as metabarcoding. To obtain accurate estimates of diversity, metabarcoding markers ideally possess appropriate taxonomic coverage to avoid PCR-amplification bias, as well as sufficient sequence divergence to resolve species. We used in silico PCR to compare the taxonomic coverage and resolution of newly designed insect metabarcodes (targeting 16S) with that of existing markers [16S and cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI)] and then compared their efficiency in vitro. Existing metabarcoding primers amplified in silico <75% of insect species with complete mitochondrial genomes available, whereas new primers targeting 16S provided >90% coverage. Furthermore, metabarcodes targeting COI appeared to introduce taxonomic PCR-amplification bias, typically amplifying a greater percentage of Lepidoptera and Diptera species, while failing to amplify certain orders in silico. To test whether bias predicted in silico was observed in vitro, we created an artificial DNA blend containing equal amounts of DNA from 14 species, representing 11 insect orders and one arachnid. We PCR-amplified the blend using five primer sets, targeting either COI or 16S...

Method for bias field correction of brain T1-weighted magnetic resonance images minimizing segmentation error

Gispert, Juan D.; Reig, Santiago; Pascau, Javier; Vaquero, Juan José; García-Barreno, Pedro; Desco, Manuel
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/2004 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
This work presents a new algorithm (nonuniform intensity correction; NIC) for correction of intensity inhomogeneities in T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. The bias field and a bias-free image are obtained through an iterative process that uses brain tissue segmentation. The algorithm was validated by means of realistic phantom images and a set of 24 real images. The first evaluation phase was based on a public domain phantom dataset, used previously to assess bias field correction algorithms. NIC performed similar to previously described methods in removing the bias field from phantom images, without introduction of degradation in the absence of intensity inhomogeneity. The real image dataset was used to compare the performance of this new algorithm to that of other widely used methods (N3, SPM'99, and SPM2). This dataset included both low and high bias field images from two different MR scanners of low (0.5 T) and medium (1.5 T) static fields. Using standard quality criteria for determining the goodness of the different methods, NIC achieved the best results, correcting the images of the real MR dataset, enabling its systematic use in images from both low and medium static field MR scanners. A limitation of our method is that it might fail if the bias field is so high that the initial histogram does not show bimodal distribution for white and gray matter

Fiscal expansions under flexible exchange rates and in a monetary union: the interplay of biased preferences and pricing-to-market; Expansive Fiskalpolitik bei flexiblen Wechselkursen und in einer Währungsunion: Das Zusammenspiel von Home Bias und Pricing-to-Market

Pitterle, Ingo
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Dissertation; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
Since the 1960s, the field of open economy macroeconomics has been largely dominated by the Mundell-Fleming model and its perfect-foresight extension of Dornbusch (1976). When dealing with classical issues of international macroeconomics, including for instance the international transmission of monetary and fiscal policy or the evaluation of exchange-rate regimes, both academic researchers and policymakers relied heavily on the Keynesian type model framework that emerged from the works of Fleming (1962) and Mundell (1963, 1964). Especially during the last decade, a tremendous amount of research has been undertaken to overcome the drawbacks of this approach, such as the lack of any microfoundation, and to develop a new workhorse for the analysis of international macroeconomic issues. Eventually, these attempts resulted in the emergence of a new paradigm in international macroeconomics, labeled "New Open Economy Macroeconomics" (NOEM). The unifying feature of this literature is the combination of monopolistic behavior of economic agents with nominal rigidities in the context of explicitly microfounded general equilibrium models. The NOEM approach provides a suitable framework to address the questions raised by the international fiscal policy debate. In this dissertation...

The Facing-the-Viewer Bias in the Perception of Depth Ambiguous Human Figures

Weech, SEAMAS
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.58%
Orthographically-projected biological motion point-light displays generally contain no information about their in-depth orientation, yet observers consistently prefer the facing-the-viewer (FTV) interpretation (Vanrie, Dekeyser and Verfaillie, 2004). This bias has been attributed to the social relevance of such stimuli (Brooks et al., 2008) although local stimulus properties appear to influence the bias (Schouten, Troje and Verfaillie, 2011). In the present study we investigated the cause of the FTV bias. In Experiment 1 we compared FTV bias for various configurations of stick-figures and depth ambiguous human silhouettes. The FTV bias was not present for silhouettes, but was strongly elicited for most stick-figures. We concluded that local attitude assignments for intrinsic structures of stick-figures are subject to inferences about the flexion of body surfaces, and that a visual bias that assumes surfaces to be convex drives the FTV bias. In Experiment 2 we manipulated silhouettes to permit local attitude assignments by using point-lights on emphasized flexion points. As predicted, the inclusion of intrinsic structures produced FTV bias for silhouettes. The results help to unify various findings regarding the FTV bias. We conclude that the FTV bias emerges during the 2 ½-D sketch stage of visual processing (Marr and Nishihara...

Using interviewer random effects to remove selection bias from HIV prevalence estimates

McGovern, Mark; Bärnighausen, Till; Salomon, Joshua A.; Canning, David J.
Fonte: Springer Science + Business Media Publicador: Springer Science + Business Media
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
Background Selection bias in HIV prevalence estimates occurs if non-participation in testing is correlated with HIV status. Longitudinal data suggests that individuals who know or suspect they are HIV positive are less likely to participate in testing in HIV surveys, in which case methods to correct for missing data which are based on imputation and observed characteristics will produce biased results. Methods The identity of the HIV survey interviewer is typically associated with HIV testing participation, but is unlikely to be correlated with HIV status. Interviewer identity can thus be used as a selection variable allowing estimation of Heckman-type selection models. These models produce asymptotically unbiased HIV prevalence estimates, even when non-participation is correlated with unobserved characteristics, such as knowledge of HIV status. We introduce a new random effects method to these selection models which overcomes non-convergence caused by collinearity, small sample bias, and incorrect inference in existing approaches. Our method is easy to implement in standard statistical software, and allows the construction of bootstrapped standard errors which adjust for the fact that the relationship between testing and HIV status is uncertain and needs to be estimated. Results Using nationally representative data from the Demographic and Health Surveys...

Robust longitudinal rate gyro bias estimation for reliable pitch attitude observation through utilization of a displaced accelerometer array

Weisman, Ryan
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
In this thesis, a novel attitude estimation device is proposed utilizing cost-effective measurement sensors. The device fuses a rate gyroscope with an accelerometer array to estimate and eliminate the rate gyro bias online yielding accurate real time aircraft attitude tracking. Attitude determination algorithms are dependent on instantaneous and accurate measurements of translational and rotational body rates for precise estimation of vehicle orientation in three-dimensional space. Measurement error of instantaneous rate sensors, gyroscopes, is introduced via inherent biases and signal noise resulting in gyro drift. Integration of the rate signal for calculation of a net displacement amplifies these minute measurement errors leading to inaccurate and unreliable attitude observation. The proposed device is a departure from typical attitude observers and bias estimators due to its reliance on accelerometers measuring the local gravitational vector in lieu of additional magnetic field sensors or GPS. The end result of this work is a longitudinal attitude estimation device able to compute a rate gyro bias in real-time producing accurate pitch angle tracking while subjected to simulated aircraft flight conditions. The effectiveness of the newly constructed attitude estimation algorithm is demonstrated by comparison of attitude and rate gyro bias estimates produced from noise corrupted and biased sensors with the actual attitude of a nonlinear aircraft model and true rate gyro bias.

Exploring Social Desirability Bias

Chung, Janne; Monroe, Gary
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
This study examines social desirability bias in the context of ethical decision-making by accountants. It hypothesizes a negative relation between social desirability bias and ethical evaluation. It also predicts an interaction effect between religiousness and gender on social desirability bias. An experiment using five general business vignettes was carried out on 121 accountants (63 males and 58 females). The results show that social desirability bias is higher (lower) when the situation encountered is more (less) unethical. The bias has religiousness and gender main effects as well as an interaction effect between these two independent variables, Women who were more religious recorded the highest bias scores relative to less religious women and men regardless of their religiousness.

The problems of proving actual or apparent bias: an analysis of contemporary developments in South Africa

Okpaluba,C; Juma,L
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
This article takes a critical look at the divergent approaches of courts in constructing the meaning of actual and apparent bias in adjudicative contexts. It argues that while proving actual bias on the part of an adjudicator may not always be easy and parties often revert to apprehended bias, an allegation of bias in any adjudication process is a matter that courts take very seriously. This notwithstanding, the courts have failed to consistently demarcate the necessary elements and threshold of proof that complainants must overcome to secure a successful challenge of decisions based on adjudicative impartiality. Upon critical evaluation of the decisions on the subject so far rendered, this article suggests that the pattern which has seemingly emerged is that which weighs the allegations of bias against the presumption of impartiality and the requirements of the double reasonableness test.