Página 1 dos resultados de 1035 itens digitais encontrados em 0.017 segundos

Laboratory Medicine Best Practice Guideline: Vitamins A, E and the Carotenoids in Blood

Greaves, Ronda F; Woollard, Gerald A; Hoad, Kirsten E; Walmsley, Trevor A; Johnson, Lambro A; Briscoe, Scott; Koetsier, Sabrina; Harrower, Tamantha; Gill, Janice P
Fonte: The Australian Association of Clinical Biochemists Publicador: The Australian Association of Clinical Biochemists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
Despite apparent method similarities between laboratories there appear to be confounding factors inhibiting uniform reporting and standardisation of vitamin assays. The Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB) Vitamins Working Party, in conjunction with The Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Programs, has formulated a guideline to improve performance, reproducibility and accuracy of fat-soluble vitamin results. The aim of the guideline is to identify critical pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical components of the analysis of vitamins A, E and carotenoids in blood to promote best practice and harmonisation. This best practice guideline has been developed with reference to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) “Laboratory Medicine Best Practices: Developing an Evidence-Based Review and Evaluation Process”. The CDC document cites an evaluation framework for generating best practice recommendations that are specific to laboratory medicine. These 50 recommendations proposed herein, were generated from a comprehensive literature search and the extensive combined experience of the AACB Vitamins Working Party members. They were formulated based on comparison between an impact assessment rating and strength of evidence and were classified as either: (1) strongly recommend...

Development of a process assessment model for medical device software development

Lepmets, Marion; Clarke, Paul; Mc Caffery, Fergal; Dorling, Alec
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.01%
peer-reviewed; Software that is incorporated into a medical device, or which is a standalone medical device in its own right, is of a safety critical nature and subject to regulation from various jurisdictions (principally the EU and the US). In order to satisfy jurisdictional regulations, developers of medical device software generally implement standards and guidance provided by internation-al standards bodies and national administrative departments. However, the various standards and guidance documents are not developed as a single cohesive set but often as separate re-sources addressing distinct areas of concern. The result for medical device software develop-ers is that integration of these various sources represents a challenging undertaking. The aim of this paper is to describe the integration of the several process models and regula-tory standards, first, into a process reference model and then into a process assessment model for medical device software development. The focus is on the integration of regulatory standards from the medical device domain with generic software development process mod-els, resulting in a unified best practice framework for medical device software development. The process reference model for medical device software development is going to be pub-lished this year as IEC TR 80002-3...

Convergence in Information and Communication Technology : Strategic and Regulatory Considerations

Singh, Rajendra; Raja, Siddhartha
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
This book is a compilation of two recently completed works on the convergence of information and communication technology (ICT) (Singh and Raja 2008, 2009). Since then, convergence, the eroding of boundaries among previously separate ICT services, networks, and business practices, has accelerated and deepened. At the time these reports were written, convergence was already a reality and was picking up pace in low-income countries, as in the rest of the world. Now, as this introduction summarizes, broadband networks are reaching deeper into previously unserved areas. The growing number of people connected to broadband networks are consuming, sharing, and creating new multimedia content and applications. And they are doing this on handheld and portable devices that are less costly and do more than before. All sorts of users, governments, businesses, individuals, and ICT firms, are looking to cut costs while capturing greater value. Taken together, these trends indicate that convergence is set to accelerate even through the ongoing global economic downturn. Countries that enable convergence through appropriate policy and regulatory responses will realize significant benefits in terms of expanded access...

Dealing with Politics for Money and Power in Infrastructure

Benitez, Daniel; Estache, Antonio; Soreide, Tina
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
Policy recommendations for infrastructure provision usually build on a well-established understanding of best practice for sector governance. Too rarely are they adapted to the country-specific political environment even if this is an area where policy choices are likely to be subject to private agendas in politics. The fact that such private agendas are often ignored goes a long way toward explaining why infrastructure policies fail and why best practice can be counterproductive. While non-benevolence and rent-seeking are well described in the literature and anecdotes abound, there is only limited consideration of how the different incentive problems in politics impede policy improvements in infrastructure. This paper addresses why politics in infrastructure cannot be ignored, drawing on theoretical results and a systematic review of experiences. It reviews how different private agendas in politics will have different impacts for sector-governance decisions -- and hence service delivery. The concept of best practice in policy recommendations should be reconsidered in a wide perspective and allow for tailored solutions based on an understanding of the given incentive problems. Policy recommendations should take into account how coordination trade-offs may complicate efforts to reduce the possible impact of private agendas on infrastructure policy decisions. Although more transparency linked to service delivery indicators is a "safe" recommendation...

International Workshop on Public-Private Dialogue : Proceedings Including the Charter of Good Practice in Using Public-Private Dialogue for Private Sector Development

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.9%
There has been growing interest from stakeholders around the world in recent years in how to build momentum for private sector development in states with poor investment climates. Dialogue between the public and private sectors, in various forms, has often been integral to attempts to build such momentum. It became increasingly clear that there was a demand from the field for guidance based on international best practice. In 2004-2005, responding to this demand, the World Bank, Department for International Development (DFID) and Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) development centre independently conducted or commissioned reports drawing together lessons learned from field experiences in using public-private dialogue to promote private sector development reform efforts. While numerous case studies had existed, this was the first time comprehensive efforts had been made to synthesize lessons. The papers were: competitiveness partnerships, reforming the business enabling environment, and dialogue public-prive dans les pays en developpement. The development of the three papers in a short period indicated a growing recognition among the international donor community of the importance and potential of public-private dialogue as a tool for promoting private sector development with the ultimate aim of poverty reduction.

Radio Spectrum Management Development in India : A Framework for Strengthening Radio Spectrum Management and Policies

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.99%
This report provides a detailed review of the current spectrum management regime in India; provides a perspective on best practice as may be applied in India and in addition provides a consideration of measures which could be taken to enhance spectrum management activities in India. The radio spectrum in India is a national resource, owned and managed by the Government. The authority for day-to-day spectrum management activities is vested Wireless Planning and Coordination (WPC) in New Delhi. Formal interfaces have been established with key spectrum user organizations, whose spectrum management staff may be found in other parts of India, remote from the capital city. The spectrum management regime has to date been strongly biased towards fulfilling the needs of the State and serving radio communications requirements funded by public sources. However, during the last 5 to 8 years a demanding private sector has made significant investments in the roll-out of new services and systems. The private sector (and indeed several segments of the public sector) is not entirely satisfied with the level of service provided by the spectrum management organization. This report performs the following functions: 1) it provides a detailed review of the current spectrum management regime in India; 2) it provides a commentary on best practice as may be applied in India in connection with each of the above areas; and 3) it provides a consideration of measures which could be taken to enhance spectrum management activities in India.

Dealing with Non-Controlling Shareholders : Issues and Best Practice

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.86%
There is ample evidence today that demanding best practice standards of good corporate governance and convincing enforcement processes lead to higher market valuations of enterprises in free capital markets. This paper contains the following headings: key prerequisites for success with non-controlling shareholders; institutional investors have a fiduciary duty to act convincingly in the interest of their clients; and a good governance framework is essential but only sufficient quality convinces institutions to be long-term shareholders.

Guiding Principles for Successful Reforms of Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Sectors

Locussol, Alain R.; Fall, Matar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.9%
The note proposes a methodology for assessing the accountability framework of an urban water supply and sanitation (WSS) sector that it defines as the set of actors, mandates, contractual arrangements between actors, and instruments used by actors to implement their mandates. The accountability framework focuses on the five key functions of the urban WSS sector that are policy formulation, asset management and infrastructure development, service provision, financing, and regulation of the service. The note recommends that particular attention be paid to incentives, either productive or counterproductive, that could influence the performance of the WSS service. It also suggests identifying vested interests likely to be affected by reforms, with a focus on those engaged in fraud and corruption, as they could actively lobby against reforms which, if successfully implemented, would affect their revenues. The note focuses primarily on the provision of official piped WSS service, but it also recognizes that when a central service provides limited coverage or poor performance it can forfeit its monopoly status...

Proceedings Including the Charter of Good Practice in Using Public-Private Dialogue for Private Sector Development

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.9%
There has been growing interest from stakeholders around the world in recent years in how to build momentum for private sector development in states with poor investment climates. Dialogue between the public and private sectors, in various forms, has often been integral to attempts to build such momentum. It became increasingly clear that there was a demand from the field for guidance based on international best practice. In 2004-2005, responding to this demand, the World Bank, Department for International Development (DFID) and Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) development centre independently conducted or commissioned reports drawing together lessons learned from field experiences in using public-private dialogue to promote private sector development reform efforts. While numerous case studies had existed, this was the first time comprehensive efforts had been made to synthesize lessons. The papers were: competitiveness partnerships, reforming the business enabling environment...

Global Good Practice in Incubation Policy Development and Implementation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.97%
This paper was based on a desk review of the literature relating to best practice in public policy supporting business incubation, supplemented by four national case studies covering Brazil, Ma-laysia, New Zealand and South Africa. These country studies were prepared through engage-ment of stakeholders, site visits and other sources of primary and secondary information collection. In the context of the study, we focused on best practice in policy development, meaning that public bodies should identify clear objectives and goals to be achieved within the resources avail-able and take steps to measure and assess what has actually been achieved, allowing changes to overcome unexpected barriers, as well as to identify and disseminate best practices to improve overall performance.

Best Practice Spectrum Renewal and Pricing : A Review of International Best Practice and the Lessons for the Government of Bangladesh

Friend, Graham
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.98%
The 15 year licenses of four mobile operators in Bangladesh; Grameenphone, Banglalink, Robi, and Citycell are due to expire in November 2011. The remaining two other mobile operators, state owned Teletalk and Airtel, were issued licenses in 2004 and 2005 and these are not due for renewal until 2019 and 2020 respectively. The World Bank has asked Coleago Consulting Limited (Coleago) to prepare a report on international best practice for spectrum renewal and pricing and to analyze the Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission (BTRC) proposals in light of best practice. The mobile industry has changed dramatically in the intervening years and so license renewal provides regulators with the opportunity to update relevant regulation to better align the licensing framework and license conditions with the mobile industry of today and to accommodate future developments. In this report the author have surveyed a number of jurisdictions and examined both successful and not so successful spectrum renewal processes in order to derive a set of international principles of best practice for spectrum renewal and pricing. In doing so the author have also sought to identify best regulatory practice in a broader sense as successful spectrum renewal processes depend...

Implementing Electronic Business Registry Services

Lewin, Anat; Klapper, Leora; Lanvin, Bruno; Satola, David; Sirtaine, Sophie; Symonds, Richard
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
The objective of this paper is to share the experiences and good practices of early business registry reformers who implemented web-enabled and automated electronic business registries (e-BRs). These lessons are hoped to be of help to EU New Member countries as they embark on delivering EU-conformant e-BRs. At the same time, policymakers in other developing countries may also find these lessons of use. This paper cites examples of good practices rather than best practices. As elsewhere in the development agenda, solutions that have worked well in some countries may not work in other local circumstances. In the case of e-BRs, success depends on a broader set of reforms; as will be discussed in a subsequent chapter, e-BRs require a supportive legal and regulatory infrastructure, such as electronic signature laws and document authentication. A needs assessment and analysis of the options in the local country context need to be conducted in order to find the most relevant best practice options for a specific country. Nevertheless...

Best practice rail safety regulation

Gunningham, Neil
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 350449 bytes; 367 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.91%
Regulating rail safety, and in particular, achieving regulatory best practice, is no easy task. The disaggregation and privatisation of the rail system, and the broader industry restructuring that took place in the 1990s have produced an industry that is structurally diverse, characterised by technological and corporate complexity and subject to competitive pressures as never before. Moreover, the multiplicity of different rail organisations that has emerged from this process – ranging from large, sophisticated commercial operators through to small heritage railways - has resulted in considerable variation in available resources, skills, experience and understanding, and in safety performance itself. There is much evidence to suggest that there are serious deficiencies both in the rail industry’s approach to safety and in the regulatory response to it, although the nature of these deficiencies varies considerably from State to State. In New South Wales, the Glenbrook and Waterfall accidents highlighted a series of major problems that (according to Hopkins analysis of the Glenbrook enquiry) include: a rule focussed culture [which] tended to deaden awareness of risks; the organisational and occupationally fragmentation of the railway system; a powerful culture of punctuality - of ‘on time running’ - whose side effect was to undermine safety; a railway culture that was profoundly risk blind...

Sustainable cities principles, policy and practice in the direction of urban planning in Australia

Fletcher, Tully
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.85%
This report considers current best practice in sustainable urban planning and measures Australian planning trends and governance frameworks against that standard. Best practice in sustainable urban planning Planning authorities should make the environmental footprint of proposed urban development and redevelopment a primary consideration. The environmental footprint of any given development should - as far as practicable - be minimised so as to approach or achieve a zero net affect on the local, regional and global natural environment; Urban design should seek to minimise carbon emissions and the use of non-renewable resources, maximise energy efficiency, and deal with industrial and residential waste in a cyclical fashion. Planning authorities should seek to create a built environment and public infrastructure which not only minimises ecological impact, but maximises social and economic outcomes for the affected jurisdiction. The benchmark model for sustainable urban design is one which combines high-density development and defined urban boundaries with a decentralised pattern of settlements linked with rapid, low-emission public and freight transit. Development should be focused around planned or existing transit routes...

Sustaining Health Care Practice Change: The Experience of Best Practice Spotlight Organizations Implementing and Sustaining RNAO Best Practice Guidelines

Schenck, Tracey
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.96%
Sustainability of change for improvement initiatives has been widely reported as a global challenge both within and outside health care settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which factors related to staff training and involvement, staff behaviour, and clinical leaders’ and senior leaders’ engagement and support impact the long term sustainability of practice changes for BPSO health care organizations who have implemented Registered Nursing Association of Ontario’s (RNAO) Best Practice Guidelines. Semi structured interviews with eleven organizational leaders’ from ten health care organizations were conducted to explore the unique experiences, views and perspectives on factors related to staff, clinical leaders and senior leaders and their involvement and impact on the long term sustainability of clinical practice changes within organizations who had implemented Registered Nursing Association of Ontario’s (RNAO) Best Practice Guidelines (BPGs). The interviews were coded and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Further analysis identified patterns and themes in relation to: 1. The National Health Service (NHS) Sustainability Model which was used as the theoretical framework for this research; and 2. Organizations found to have sustained practice changes longer term verses organizations that did not. Six organizations were found to have sustained practice changes while the remaining four were found to have been unsuccessful in their efforts to sustain the changes. Five major findings in relation to sustainability emerged from this study. First is the importance of early and sustained engagement and frontline staff...

Good Practices for Construction Regulation and Enforcement Reform : Guidelines for Reformers

International Finance Corporation; World Bank; Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
The report's main objective is to provide policy makers, regulators, and the private sector, primarily in emerging economies and developing countries, with a tool for enforcing international best practice and for developing strategies for successful reforms in the area of construction regulation. This paper is divided into the following eight chapters: 1) the importance of construction regulation reform. The first chapter defines three overarching goals of construction-regulation reform and addresses why and how these efforts can pay off; 2) reforms as good regulation not deregulation. This chapter points out that deregulating is not the answer; 3) the distribution and focus of construction regulation reform. Leveraging eight years of data from the doing business reports, this chapter provides an overview of reforms initiated within the doing business scenario and the key regional trends; 4) eight key policies affecting process efficiency, transparency, regulatory outcomes, and costs. This chapter provides a concise description of eight priority policy areas; 5) initiating reform and addressing typical challenges. Based on international experience...

Pakistan - Operational Design for the Project Development Fund and for the Viability Gap Fund

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.9%
This final report is the fifth deliverable for the World Bank funded project 'operational design for the project development fund and for the viability gap fund'. Taking into account feedback and further consideration of issues rose in the previous Reports, it aims to: provide high level recommendations on the overall Public Private Partnership (PPP) framework in Pakistan, recognizing international best practice but also taking into account the specific Pakistan context and the challenges faced their-in; provide the analysis of the project pipeline for PPP projects in Pakistan, on the basis of consultations undertaken in Islamabad in May 2009; and design possible structures for the Project Development Fund (PDF) and for the Viability Gap Fund (VGF), that is informed by the current local enabling environment for PPPs, including the institutional capabilities and the existing pipeline of PPP projects. This final report incorporates feedback from the World Bank and the Government of Pakistan on each of the above-listed issues...

Best Practice in Public Expenditure Reviews : Guinea - Planning within a Medium-Term Expenditure Framework; Pratique optimale de la revue des depenses publiques Guinee : planification des depenses a moyen terme

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.89%
The key objective of the Guinea Public Expenditure Review (PER) was the improvement of Guinea's public resource management through more efficient allocations and enhanced budget process. Innovative features of the first Bank-assisted PER report for Guinea included costing out of priority sectors' policies against the medium-term macroeconomic framework, computing of investments' recurrent costs and the use of household surveys for assessment of social expenditures' efficiency and equity. Based on the report diagnosis, the government formulated recommendations for reforming the budget process and improving allocations to priority sectors.

IFC's Sustainability Framework : From Policy Update to Implementation

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
International Finance Corporation (IFC s) sustainability framework, which articulates our commitment to sustainable development and transparency. The performance standards are a vital part of the framework and address a range of environmental and social risks and opportunities faced by the private sector. This project highlights key environmental and social issues of current and emerging importance, including climate change, business and human rights, supply chain management, and biodiversity and ecosystem services. It discusses implementation challenges in the financial as well as the non-financial sectors, and summarizes some of the lessons learned through IFC s recent review and update of its sustainability framework. This project summarizes some of the key emerging issues in sustainability, and highlights valuable lessons learned from experience in applying sustainability principles. The subsequent sections attempt to capture the results of the review and update process, from the challenges of addressing emerging issues in the performance standards to the practical application of these principles across sectors in diverse circumstances. It focuses on key themes arising from the recently completed consultation process...

Recent work by the euroCRIS Best Practice/DRIS Task Group: A way forward for engaging with the CRIS Community

De Castro, Pablo; Mennielli, Michele
Fonte: euroCRIS Publicador: euroCRIS
Tipo: Conference Paper
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.95%
Delivered at the CRIS2014 Conference in Rome; published in Procedia Computer Science 33 (Jul 2014).; Contains conference paper (7 pages) and presentation (11 slides).; Providing specific outputs for the CRIS community from the euroCRIS Best Practice/DRIS Task Group has remained a pending task for quite a long time. This is a description of the strategy laid out by the new Best Practice/DRIS Task Group management for re-launching TG activity within the wider framework of a euroCRIS service catalogue. A deeper engagement with the CRIS community is presented as one of the main challenges to achieve in forthcoming months in order for this strategy to deliver.; Following the recent change in the TG management, the first guidelines have now been put together for achieving a gradual increase in the coverage of the Directory of Research Information Systems (DRIS) and the production of Best Practice dissemination materials related to CRIS implementation and operation in different areas. The DRIS and Best Practice sub-strands are perceived as mutually reinforcing, as well as tightly linked to other euroCRIS TGs such as CRIS/IR interoperability. Progress in all of these will require a deeper level of stakeholder engagement activity than the one carried out so far. A successful TG activity will thus strongly rely on the ability to promote participation in and feedback to the Group discussions. We expect the dissemination of useful Best Practice information on Current Research Information System implementation and operation to underline the gradual emergence of a professional CRIS community working together for mutual support and reinforcement. This will eventually attract new institutions to become part of such community both as users and as suppliers of valuable information...