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Composition of the essential oil of Juniperus cedrus Webb & Berth. grown on Madeira

Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Lígia; Barroso, José G.; Figueiredo, A. Cristina; Pedro, Luis G.; Fontinha, Susana S.; Bighelli, Ange; Casanova, Joseph; Looman, Anja; Scheffer, Johannes J. C.
Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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27.15%
The essential oils isolated from twigs of Juniperus cedrus Webb & Berth. grown on Madeira were analysed by GC, GC-MS and 13C-NMR. The oils consisted mainly of monoterpene hydrocarbons (53.1-87.8%), the main ones being alpha-pinene (19.6-55.3%), limonene (17.3-32.7%) and Delta-3-carene (5.5-15.7%). The sesquiterpenoid fraction (4.1-22.3%) was dominated by E-caryophyllene (1.6-7.4%), while sandaracopimaradiene (0.1-6.1%), isoabienol (0.5-1.3%) and trans-totarol (0.4-2.2%) were the main diterpenoids (2.2-11.9%). Oct-1-en-3-ol (1.0-2.2%) was the major constituent of the non-terpenic fraction (1.3-2.7%). The composition of our oil samples differed to some extent from that reported for J. cedrus oil grown on the Canary Islands. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1061

Alternativas de tratamento da água de lastro em portos exportadores de minério de ferro.; Ballast water treatment alternatives in the iron ore ports exporting.

Pereira, Newton Narciso
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/03/2012 PT
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Esta tese visa avaliar técnica e economicamente o tratamento da água de lastro em portos exportadores de minério de ferro do Brasil. Para isso foram estudadas três alternativas de tratamento distintas: (1) estação de tratamento fixa no porto em terra; (2) estação de recepção da água de lastro junto com estação de dessalinização fixa no porto; (3) tratamento a bordo de embarcações aliviadoras dedicadas para operar na barra, ou seja, na área de espera dos navios para atracar no porto. O interesse de estudar estas alternativas para portos de minério de ferro deve-se ao elevado volume de água de lastro despejado pelos navios mineraleiros nesses portos, que pode variar de 10.000 a 120.000 m3 por viagem, caracterizando estes portos como grandes receptores de água de lastro. Foram selecionados três portos para serem avaliados neste trabalho, considerados de pequeno, médio e grande porte, localizados em Vitória-ES e Sepetiba-RJ. Para avaliação do impacto operacional dessas alternativas nos portos selecionados, desenvolveu-se um modelo de simulação de eventos discretos. Por meio do modelo de simulação avaliaram-se os níveis de serviço considerando como parâmetros principais o atendimento da demanda de transporte...

Um modelo matemático para otimizar o descarregamento de navios num terminal graneleiro; A mathematical model to optimize the unloading of ships in a grain terminal

Bruno Luís Hönigmann Cereser
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/09/2013 PT
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O transporte marítimo é fundamental para grandes empresas de caráter global. Em 2009 80% do comércio mundial foi realizado via transporte marítimo e desde então esse número só tem crescido. Devido a esse alto fluxo nos portos mundiais, surgiu o problema de alocação de navios em berços, que tem por finalidade estabelecer uma sequência de atendimento de navios para cada berço disponível no cais, visando minimizar o tempo total da operação e espera dos navios dentro dos portos. Nesse trabalho o problema de alocação de navios em berços será abordado considerando berços dependentes, e também a divisão das máquinas portuárias em berços consecutivos aplicados a terminais do Porto de Tubarão (ES). Para a representação matemática dos processos desses terminais do porto de tubarão foram desenvolvidos novos modelos matemáticos. Os testes computacionais foram exitosos.; The maritime transportation is essential to global companies. In 2009 80% of global trade was made by maritime transportation, and over the year this number has raised. Because of this high flux, the BAP (Berth Allocation Problem) arose. The BAP have intent to discovery the vessel allocation sequence in every berth with the minimum total wait time. In this work...

O problema de alocação de berços : aspectos teóricos e computacionais; The berth allocation problem : theoretical and computational aspects

Flávia Barbosa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/01/2014 PT
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O comércio internacional é profundamente dependente do transporte marítimo e por isso, os portos tem sido forçados a investir em infra-estrutura e logística. Nesse contexto, o presente trabalho aborda o Problema de Alocação de Berços: como alocar navios a berços em um dado horizonte de planejamento de modo a minimizar os custos operacionais. No Brasil, a companhia Vale é responsável pela exportação da matéria-prima minério de ferro utilizado na fabricação do aço. Assim, será proposto métodos que otimizem suas operações portuárias, mais especificamente para o Terminal de Praia Mole no Porto de Tubarão. Para tanto, dois modelos matemáticos e duas heurísticas serão implementadas. Os modelos, adaptados de casos existentes na literatura, são executados com o CPLEX e os resultados obtidos são comparados para que a melhor opção seja encontrada.; The international trading is highly subordinate on maritime transport and therefore, the ports have been forced to invest in groundwork and logistics. In this context, this work addresses the Berth Allocation Problem: how to allocate ships to berths in a given planning horizon so that the operational costs are minimized. In Brasil, the Vale company é responsible for the export of raw iron ore used in steel manufacuring. Thus...

Sistema para a Medição dos Movimentos de um Navio Amarrado no Posto A do Porto de Leixões baseado em Visão Estereoscópica [System for Measuring the Motions of a Moored Ship at the Berth A of the Leixões Oil Terminal Based on Stereoscopic Vision]

Paulo Lima Malheiros; Paulo Rosa-Santos; Paulo Gomes Da Costa; António Paulo Moreira; Fernando Veloso Gomes; Francisco Taveira Pinto
Fonte: Universidade do Porto Publicador: Universidade do Porto
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The behavior of moored ships is an important factor in the security and working conditions of the Oil Terminal in the Port of Leixões. Reducing the amplitude of the moored ship motions is crucial to increase the on and off-loading operations efficiency as well as to reduce security and environmental risks.This paper presents a stereoscopic vision system developed to measure the motion of rigid bodies in real-time. The data acquired with this system is essential to predict and prevent dangerous situations at Berth quot;A of the Port of Leixões. Prior to installation on site the system was tested in laboratory in physical model (scale 1/100). To ensure the robustness and reliability of the obtained measurements a linear digital filter was implemented. The results obtained with the developed system were compared with a commercial motion capture system built for quot;in house applications.; O comportamento de navios amarrados é um factor importante para as condições de operacionalidade e de segurança do Terminal de Petroleiros do Porto de Leixões. Para aumentar a eficiência das operações de carga/descarga é essencial a redução da amplitude dos movimentos do navio amarrado, assim como para a minimização dos riscos de segurança e ambientais.Este trabalho consistiu no desenvolvimento de um sistema de visão estereoscópico para medir o movimento de corpos rígidos em tempo-real. Os dados adquiridos com este sistema são essenciais para prever e prevenir situações potencialmente perigosas no Posto quot;A do Porto de Leixões. Este sistema foi testado em laboratório antes da sua instalação no terminal. Para o efeito foi utilizado um modelo físico da área portuária em estudo...

Análise da Interacção de Navios com Dispositivos de Acostagem e Amarração. Estudo em Modelo Físico do Posto quot;Aquot; do Terminal de Petroleiros do Porto de Leixões

Paulo Santos
Fonte: Universidade do Porto Publicador: Universidade do Porto
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
POR
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In modern maritime transport it is increasingly important to minimize the time during which the ship stays in the port and to assure that port terminals are operational during almost every days of the year. These requirements are closely related to the behaviour of the moored ship at the berth, namely the amplitude of its motions and the magnitude of the forces applied on the elements of the mooring system.This dissertation focuses on the analysis of the interactions between the ships and the elements of the berthing and mooring systems, giving a particular attention to physical model studies of the behaviour of moored ships in harbours. The Berth A Oil Terminal of the Port of Leixões is the analyzed case study. Although there are no reports of accidents which have resulted in very serious consequences at economical, environmental or human levels, sometimes the ships moored at that berth experience long amplitude motions, which can lead to downtime, but also to the breakage of some mooring lines.The experimental study was subdivided in two phases: in the first one, a simplified physical model of Berth A and its surroundings was tested; the model built for the second phase intended to reproduce with more detail the characteristics of the prototype...

Estudo do comportamento de um navio amarrado no Posto quot;Aquot; do Terminal Petroleiro do Porto de Leixões: construção e calibração do modelo físico (Physical model study of the behavior of a moored ship at the berth quot;Aquot; Leixões Oil Terminal: Construction and calibration of the physical model)

Paulo Jorge Rosa Santos; Fernando Veloso Gomes; Francisco Taveira Pinto; Emílio Brogueira Dias
Fonte: Universidade do Porto Publicador: Universidade do Porto
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.15%
Moored ship behavior inside harbors, and therefore the operational and security conditions at a port terminal, does not have a straightforward relationship with the local environmental conditions. Due to the diversity and complexity of the involved phenomena, physical modeling is an essential tool to deal with this kind of issues. After the presentation of the Leixoes Oil Terminal, a brief description of the main problems affecting operational and security conditions at the berth quot;A is carried out. Being the experimental component of the study in its initial phase, special attention is given to the construction of the physical model (including the berthing and mooring devices, the tanker model and the berthing structure) and its calibration tests. Reference is also made to experimental techniques and to the phases that compose the physical model study.; O comportamento de navios amarrados, e por conseguinte, as condições de operacionalidade e de segurança num dado terminal portuário, não apresenta uma relação simples e directa com as condições ambientais locais. Dada a diversidade e a complexidade dos fenómenos hidrodinâmicos envolvidos, a modelação física e uma ferramenta fundamental para o estudo deste tipo de problemas. Após a caracterização do Terminal Petroleiro do Porto de Leixões e efectuada uma descrição sumaria dos principais problemas que afectam as condições de operacionalidade e de segurança no Posto quot;A. Com a componente experimental do estudo na sua fase inicial...

Estudo da resistência a Verticillium albo-atrum Reinke & Berth em variedades paulistas de algodoeiro

Balmer,Eric; Cia,Edivaldo; Salgado,Clélio L.; Modelli,Atílio A.
Fonte: Instituto Agronômico de Campinas Publicador: Instituto Agronômico de Campinas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/1969 PT
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Foi estudada a variação na resistência a Verticillium albo-atrum Reinke & Berth em variedades e linhagens de algodoeiro procedente do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, Estado de São Paulo. Em experimento de campo, com inóculo de Verticillium, as plantas que apresentaram sintomas internos da moléstia decresceram, para as variedades e linhagens, na seguinte ordem: IAC 13, IAC 13-1, IAC 12-2, IAC 12-1, IAC RM2-2173, IAC 13-3109, IAC RM4, IAC RM2 SM e IAC RM3. No experimento realizado em casa de vegetação, com inoculação artificial, a severidade da moléstia, medida em porcentagem das folhas verdadeiras apresentando sintomas, decresceu para as variedades e linhagens na seguinte ordem: IAC 13-1, IAC 13, IAC RM3 e IAC RM2 SM.

Ship-berth link and demurrage costs: evaluating different allocation policies and queue priorities via simulation

Wanke,Peter
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Operacional Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Operacional
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2011 EN
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The ship-berth link is one of the most critical aspects to be managed at port operations. Until now, simulation models have considered the impact of queue priorities, such as size and type of ships, on waiting times. This research differentiates from previous studies not only by considering another variable - the demurrage cost for each type of ship -, but also by considering the possibility of different berth allocation policies. It reports on a simulation study on small Brazilian private container terminal, where different berth allocation policies and queue priorities have been tested. Results and further analyses conducted via MANOVA indicate that the demurrage cost ratio between large and small ships and the critical waiting time in queue, after which demurrage costs are charged, impact on the choice of most adequate combination of policies and priorities. The analysis presented in this paper may help port authorities in determining a more precise figure for total demurrage costs

Minimizing the Total Service Time of Discrete Dynamic Berth Allocation Problem by an Iterated Greedy Heuristic

Lin, Shih-Wei; Ying, Kuo-Ching; Wan, Shu-Yen
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Berth allocation is the forefront operation performed when ships arrive at a port and is a critical task in container port optimization. Minimizing the time ships spend at berths constitutes an important objective of berth allocation problems. This study focuses on the discrete dynamic berth allocation problem (discrete DBAP), which aims to minimize total service time, and proposes an iterated greedy (IG) algorithm to solve it. The proposed IG algorithm is tested on three benchmark problem sets. Experimental results show that the proposed IG algorithm can obtain optimal solutions for all test instances of the first and second problem sets and outperforms the best-known solutions for 35 out of 90 test instances of the third problem set.

Allozyme Diversity in Natural Populations of Viola palmensis Webb & Berth. (Violaceae) from La Palma (Canary Islands): Implications for Conservation Genetics

BATISTA, FRANCISCO; SOSA, PEDRO A.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2002 EN
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Genetic diversity was measured by allozyme electrophoresis in eight natural populations of the threatened Canarian endemic Viola palmensis Webb & Berth. (Violaceae). Nineteen alleles corresponding to 11 gene loci were detected. High levels of genetic diversity were found, ranging from 36·3 to 45·4 % for the percentage of polymorphic loci (P), from 1·45 to 1·60 for the average number of alleles per locus (A) and from 0·128 to 0·200 for the expected heterozygosity (He). Between 85·5 and 96·6 % of genetic variability was apportioned within populations. As a whole, populations were not at Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, with a deficit of heterozygous individuals attributable to the existence of genetic structuring in the populations analysed. The levels of interpopulation genetic differentiation were low (mean FST = 0·100), while genetic identity pair‐wise comparisons were high (mean I = 0·973) suggesting considerable levels of gene flow among populations. No relationship was detected between genetic differentiation and geographical distances between populations. An outcrossing insect‐mediated breeding system might contribute to pollen dispersion of this species. For conservation genetics we suggest in situ preservation areas are defined that are free of disturbance and that include populations with the highest genetic diversity.

On Optimizing PSA Berth Planning System

Teo, Chung Piaw; Dai, Jim; Moorthy, Rajeeva Lochana
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 12708 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
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Competition among container ports continues to increase as the differentiation of hub ports and feeder ports progresses. Managers in many container terminals are trying to attract carriers by automating handling equipment, providing and speeding up various services, and furnishing the most current information on the flow of containers. At the same time, however, they are trying to reduce costs by utilizing resources efficiently, including human resources, berths, container yards, quay cranes, and various yard equipment. When planning berth usage, the berthing time and the exact position of each vessel at the wharf, as well as various quay side resources are usually determined in the process. Several variables must be considered, including the length overall (LOA) and arrival time of each vessel, the number of containers for discharging and loading, and the storage location of outbound/inbound containers to be loaded onto/discharged from the corresponding vessel. Furthermore, we aim to propose berthing plan that will be "robust", since the actual arrival time of each vessel can vary substantially from forecast. This is particular important for vessels from priority customers (called priority vessels hereon), who have been promised berth-on-arrival (i.e. within two hours of arriving) service guarantee in their contract with PSA. A robust plan will also helps to minimize the frequent updates (changes) to berthing plan that have repercussion in resource and sta deployment within the terminal. Thus...

Why Does Cargo Spend Weeks in Sub-Saharan African Ports? Lessons from Six Countries

Raballand, Gaël; Refas, Salim; Beuran, Monica; Isik, Gözde
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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This study is timely because several investments are planned for container terminals in Sub-Saharan Africa. From a public policy perspective, disentangling the reasons behind cargo delays in ports is crucial to understanding:a) whether projects by the World Bank and other donors have addressed the most salient problems; and b) whether institutional port reform and infrastructure, sometimes complemented by customs reform, are the most appropriate approaches or should be adapted. Without such identification and quantification, projects may ultimately result in a limited impact, and structural problems of long delays will remain. Dwell time figures are a major commercial instrument used to attract cargo and generate revenues. Therefore, the incentives for a port authority and a container terminal operator are increasingly strong to lower the real figure to attract more cargo. At the same time, ports are more and more in competition, so the question of how to obtain independently verifiable dwell time data is increasingly critical to provide assurance that interventions are indeed having the intended effect.

A Multioutput Cost Function for Port Terminals : Some Guidelines for Regulation

Tovar, Beatriz; Jara-Díaz, Sergio; Trujillo, Lourdes
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Cargo handling in ports is a multioutput activity, as freight can arrive in many forms such as containers, bulk, rolling stock, or noncontainerized general cargo. In this paper Tovar, Jara-D�, and Trujillo analyze the operation of port terminals through the estimation of a multioutput cost model that uses monthly data on three firms located at the Las Palmas port in Spain. This permits the calculation of product-specific marginal costs, economies of scale (general and by firm), and economies of scope, which are key tools to help the regulators in their task.

Reforming the Indian Ports Sector

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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Maritime transport carries more than nine-tenths of tonnage of world international trade. The international shipping industry, competitive and dominated by private companies, has delivered to trading nations increasing capacity, generally improving service levels, and declining unit shipping costs. To access and extract the maximum benefit from this vital transport resource each nation depends on the performance of its ports sector; not only on the capacity, quality and price of port services but also their connectivity to hinterlands and to the industrial and consumer markets they serve. Ports in India, as in many countries, face continued pressure to handle higher throughput, adapt to larger and more specialized vessels, improve productivity, and adopt new technology and information systems that can meet the increasingly demanding service standards expected by shippers, logistics companies and shipping operators. As in all economic sectors, the success of ports depends not only on investment in its infrastructure but on supportive policy and regulatory structures...

Naval Station Everett Small Craft Piers Delta and Echo replace or repair analysis with recommendations

Leppard, Benjamin.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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In 1994 the U.S. Navy resurrected a base in Everett, Washington and commissioned it as Naval Station Everett (NS Everett), the new homeport for six Naval vessels. Prior to 1994 the base had seen primary use as the homeport for a number of vessels during World War II. In the early 1940s Piers Delta and Echo were constructed to berth aircraft carriers and other warships. Piers Delta and Echo are 560 feet and 578 feet, respectively, and 46 feet wide. They are constructed out of pier decking and pile caps on timber piles. Naval vessels currently assigned to NS Everett berth at new piers on the base, while Piers Delta and Echo berth the small craft that support the larger vessels. The small craft mission includes tugboat services, base security and environmental response functions, and vessel boarding and search training for local units.

Optimal ship berthing plans

Thurman, Katie Podolak
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
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A ship berthing plan assigns surface vessels a berth prior to their port entrance, or reassigns ships once in port to allow them to accomplish in a timely manner maintenance, training, and certification events which build readiness for future operational commitments. Each ship requires different services when in port, such as shore power, crane services, ordnance, and fuel. Unfortunately, not all services are offered at all piers. At present, ship berthing plans are manually prepared by a port operations scheduler and often result in unnecessary berth shifts, which puts ships out of action for several hours. An extensive user-friendly computerized optimization model is developed and tested to assist the schedulers in the creation of berthing plan which minimizes port loading conflicts, thus promoting fleet readiness through berthing stability. Norfolk Naval Station is used. Keywords: Port loading; Berthing plans; Port berthing; Military thesis; Ship berthing plans; Ship berthing; Berth scheduling; Ship scheduling; Supply replenishment. (kt)

Optimizing Ship Berthing

Brown, Gerald G.; Lawphongpanich, Siriphong; Podolak-Thurman, Katie Podolak
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
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Naval Research Logistics, 41, pp. 1-15.; Ship berthing plans reserve a location for inbound U.S. Navy surface vessels prior to their port entrance, or reassign ships once in port to allow them to complete, in a timely manner, re-provisioning, repair, maintenance, training, and certification tests prior to redeploying for future operational commitments. Each ship requires different services when in port, such as shore power, craine, ordnance, and fuel. Unfortunately, not all services are offered at all piers, and berth shifting is disruptive and expensive. A port operations schedule strives to reduce unnecessary berth shifts. We present an optimization model for berth planning and demonstrate it for Norfolk Naval Station, which exhibits all the richness of berthing problems the Navy faces.

Berth Castaño en el desfile Imperial; 300462; 300462

Fonte: Biblioteca Departamental Jorge Garces Borrero Publicador: Biblioteca Departamental Jorge Garces Borrero
Tipo: historicalDocument; other; Documento histórico Formato: JPEG; 8 X 13
SPA
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Berth Castaño en el desfile Imperial. Cartago, C. 1.950; El Archivo del Patrimonio Fotográfico y Fílmico del Valle del Cauca es responsabilidad de la Biblioteca Departamental del Valle Jorge Garcés Borrero, por convenio de cooperación suscrito con la Secretaria del Cultura Departamental, con el fin de aunar esfuerzos para su conservación, preservación y divulgación del Archivo entre la comunidad Vallecaucana, especialmente entre los estudiantes e investigadores que visitan la Biblioteca, propiciando el su uso y consulta permanente. La universidad Icesi es un colaborador en el proceso de difusión, facilitando la tecnología que permite la consulta de las imágenes.; Valle del Cauca, Gobernación; Archivo del Patrimonio Fotográfico y Fílmico del Valle del Cauca - Biblioteca Departamental Jorge Garces Borrero; Berth Castaño en el desfile Imperial. Cartago, C. 1.950; Personajes: Bertha Castaño.; Tipo de fotografía: COLOR; Lugar de la toma: CLUB ORION

Proposal of a heuristic model using genetic algorithms to solve and operational port problem

Silva,Vanina Macowski Durski; Coelho,Antônio Sérgio; Mayerle,Sérgio Fernando
Fonte: APDIO - Associação Portuguesa de Investigação Operacional Publicador: APDIO - Associação Portuguesa de Investigação Operacional
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2008 EN
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This article is characterized by the presentation of some problems found in ports that emphasize the Berth Allocation Problem, for which a heuristic model has been proposed to resolve this problem. This heuristic proposal is based on Genetic Algorithms and its objective is to allow the learning of this subject, besides urging the reader to implement a computer-based tool that uses these heuristics to solve this problem, practically and efficiently.