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Demonstrating the benefits of knowledge management assets : developing and applying a valuation methodology

Taylor, Aaron B
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 148 p.; 9214353 bytes; 9222321 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.91%
Since the early 1980s numerous knowledge-dependent organizations have made diligent attempts to measure their intangible assets. In more recent years, knowledge-dependent organizations have expressed a desire to demonstrate the benefits resulting from significant investments in knowledge management assets in order to provide reassurance to senior executives, to motivate knowledge worker utilization of the asset, and to leverage further funds for knowledge management investments. A six-step methodology is prescribed in this thesis to assist organizations seeking to identify both qualitative and quantitative benefits realized from the utilization of knowledge management assets. This methodology is underpinned by take-a-ways from current intellectual capital measurement models found in literature, and the lessons learned from industry application of an immature version of the prescribed methodology in two industry case studies. Lessons learned from the practical applications of the methodology, and a detailed description of the methodology, are provided as key findings of this thesis.; (cont.) Application of the methodology in the provided industry case studies indicates significant benefits from the utilization of knowledge management assets can be demonstrated if the appropriate performance indicators are selected for measurement.; by Aaron B. Taylor.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

Benefits and Incentives for ADS-B Equipage in the National Airspace System

Lester, Edward; Hansman, R. John
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.96%
Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B) is a technology that can replace secondary surveillance radars and enhance cockpit situational awareness. It also has the potential to enable procedures not possible with current surveillance technology that would increase the capacity of the National Airspace System (NAS) in the US. Certain forms of ADS-B also have the bandwidth to upload weather and airspace information into the cockpit. However, prior to achieving the benefits of ADS-B, operators must equip with the technology. In order to voluntarily equip, owners and operators must receive benefits from the technology that outweigh the cost or receive other incentives. Through an online survey of stakeholders, applications of ADS-B with the strongest benefits to users are identified. In-cockpit data link offerings are explored in detail, along with a detailed analysis of ADS-B benefits for Hawaiian helicopter operators. The conclusions of this study are that ADS-B should be implemented in non-radar airspace along with busy terminal areas first to gain the most benefits from non-radar separation applications and traffic awareness applications. Also, the basis for the US dual ADS-B link decision is questioned, with a single 1090-ES based link augmented with satellite data link weather recommended.; The authors would like to thank all of interview and survey participants. Without their time and insights...

A proposed cost-benefit analysis model for physical form analysis for a futuristic submarine decision support system

Bhattacharjee, Dhiman
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 82 leaves
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.74%
This thesis proposes a model for cost-benefit analysis for physical form selection of a decision support tool, primarily to support system acquisition decisions that need to be made early in the system life cycle. By bringing objective and subjective costs and benefits into the same model and prescribing a unique approach to determining system utility, this thesis demonstrates how the proposed model can be applied for objective evaluation of display interfaces for a decision support system. The proposed model, which is applied to a proposed decision support system for submarine commanders managing multiple unmanned underwater vehicles, follows an integrated systems engineering approach by first determining function followed by form. A hybrid cognitive task analysis is used to determine function, and cost-benefit analysis is used to determine form. The hybrid cognitive task analysis is a method for determining functions of a futuristic system, and the proposed cost benefit model fills the gap for objective evaluation of form. The cost-benefit analysis was not straightforward, as determining objective usability of the physical display interfaces is difficult since it is not feasible to design fully functional interfaces and accompanying software in the conceptual design phase of the systems engineering process. Thus...

EPCglobal : a universal standard; Electronic Product Code global : a universal standard

Aguirre, Juan Ignacio
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 82 leaves
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.7%
This thesis evaluates the likelihood of EPCglobal becoming the universal RFID standard by presenting a framework of ten factors used to analyze and determine if EPCglobal is moving in the right direction. The ten factors are: complexity of application (Supply Chain Management), mandates, privacy policy, member type, EPCglobal standard development process, membership size, intellectual property policy, benefits, system cost, and China. These factors have been used in various analyses and studies that explain the main reasons for the adoption of other technologies and/or standards. Therefore, this thesis not only presents an analysis for the adoption of EPCglobal as the universal standard but also presents the factors that could help EPCglobal achieve its goal. The results show that five of the ten factors that influence the establishment of EPCglobal as the universal standard have a positive effect for the universal adoption of EPCglobal, two are neutral, and three are negative. Thus, there is a strong likelihood that EPCglobal could successfully become the universal standard for RFID system in the retail supply chain management. Furthermore, if EPCglobal strives to have the two neutral rated factors join the other five positive factors and makes an effort to switch the three negative factors to positive...

Improving the probability of effective organizational change in the Coast Guard through the combined use of System Dynamics and Enterprise Value Stream Mapping & Analysis

Johnston, Michael J., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 119 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.72%
Most major organizational changes never reap the benefits the original planners envisioned, they often take longer to implement than expected and in a dynamic environment that can spell disaster for a large enterprise. The Coast Guard is in the midst of several major organizational changes while planning several more. This thesis will use two powerful analysis tools to make policy recommendations that may lead to greater success in the implementation of change. The two tools are Enterprise Value Stream Mapping Analysis (EVSMA) and System Dynamics (SD). Chapter 1 is a more detailed introduction into the motivation behind this thesis. Chapter 2 will review a brief history of some of the major changes within the Coast Guard. Chapter 3 recapitulates some studies conducted in the business sector, with respect to organizational change. This chapter also explains some basic System Dynamics concepts to better contextualize the business cases mentioned. Chapter 4 describes the Enterprise Value Stream Mapping Analysis of the Coast Guard First District. Chapter 5 develops causal loops that attempt to model the dynamics of change within the Coast Guard. Chapter 6 describes some policy recommendations based on the lean enterprise evaluation and the system dynamics model we developed. Chapter 7 summarizes some lessons learned and then proposes further studies.; by Michael J. Johnston.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

Quantifying Carbon and Distributional Benefits of Solar Home System Programs in Bangladesh

Wang, Limin; Bandyopadhyay, Sushenjit; Cosgrove-Davies, Mac; Samad, Hussain
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.94%
Scaling-up adoption of renewable energy technology, such as solar home systems, to expand electricity access in developing countries can accelerate the transition to low-carbon economic development. Using a purposely collected national household survey, this study quantifies the carbon and distributional benefits of solar home system programs in Bangladesh. Three key findings are generated from the study. First, dissemination of solar home systems brings about significant carbon benefits: the total carbon emissions avoided from replacing kerosene use for lighting by solar home systems in non-electrified rural households was equivalent to about 4 percent of total annual carbon emissions in Bangladesh in 2007. This figure increases to about 15 percent if the grid-electricity generation is used as the energy baseline to estimate the carbon avoided from the installation of solar home systems. Second, solar home system subsidies in rural Bangladesh are progressive when the program is geographically targeted. Third...

Choosing a System of Unemployment Income Support : Guidelines for Developing and Transition Countries

Vodopivec, Milan
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.93%
Mounting evidence suggests that excessive job protection reduces employment and labor market flows, hinders technological innovations, pushes workers into the informal sector, and hurts vulnerable groups by depriving them of job opportunities. Flexible labor markets stimulate job creation, investment, and growth, but they create job insecurity and displace some workers. How can the costs of such insecurity and displacements be minimized while ensuring that the labor market remains flexible? Each of the main unemployment income support systems (unemployment insurance, unemployment assistance, unemployment insurance savings accounts, severance pay, and public works) has strengths and weaknesses. Country-specific conditions, chief among them labor market and other institutions, the capacity to administer each type of system, and the size of the informal sector, determine which system is best suited to developing and transition countries.

Expanding Access and Enhancing the Economic Benefits of Education in the Maldives : Challenges and Prospects

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.94%
Human capital is the central determinant of economic well-being and social advancement in the modern global economy. The key characteristic that distinguishes between advanced economies, middle-income economies and low-income economies is the knowledge content of their economic activities and production processes. Industry, agriculture and especially services have become increasingly knowledge and skill intensive in recent years. Further, the dominance of knowledge and skills is increasing at an accelerating rate. Among advanced economies, for instance, the education levels of their populations is the single most important factor determining their economic performance [Hanushek and Welch (2006), Hanushek and Woessmann (2008)]. Among middle-income and low-income countries, too, economies that have high education attainment enjoy considerable welfare gains [Fasih (2008), Patrinos and Psacharopoulos (2011)]. Human resource development is particularly important for the economic development of small states [Martin and Bray (2011)]. Education also produces a variety of social benefits. These include healthier and better nourished families and children; the creation of the enlightened citizenry needed for a modern liberal democracy; and the promotion of social mobility [OECD (2012)]. This paper offers an overview of the general education system and the current status of access and participation in the Maldives. This is followed by a discussion of the economic and social benefits of investment in education. The paper concludes by discussing options to expand access and participation at education levels where the Maldives lags behind other comparable small island economies.

Benefits and Costs of International Financial Integration : Theory and Facts

Agenor, Pierre-Richard
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.97%
The author provides a selective review of the recent analytical and empirical literature on the benefits and costs of international financial integration. He discusses the impact of financial openness on consumption, investment, and growth, and the impact of foreign bank entry on the domestic financial system. Consistent with some recent studies, the author argues that financial integration must be carefully prepared and managed to ensure that the benefits outweigh the short-run risks. Prudent macroeconomic management, adequate supervision and prudential regulation of the financial system, greater transparency, and improved capacity to manage risk in the private sector are important requirements for coping with potentially abrupt reversals in pro-cyclical, short-term capital flows. The author adopts a more skeptical view than some assessments in two areas, however. First, only foreign direct investment appears to provide dynamic gains and improved prospects for growth; the evidence on the benefits of other types of capital flows remains weak. Second...

Climate-Smart Development : Adding Up the Benefits of Actions that Help Build Prosperity, End Poverty and Combat Climate Change

ClimateWorks Foundation; World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC and ClimateWorks Foundation, San Francisco Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC and ClimateWorks Foundation, San Francisco
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.97%
This report describes efforts by the ClimateWorks Foundation and the World Bank to quantify the multiple economic, social, and environmental benefits associated with policies and projects to reduce emissions in select sectors and regions. The report has three objectives: 1) to develop a holistic, adaptable framework to capture and measure the multiple benefits of reducing emissions of several pollutants; 2) to demonstrate how local and national policymakers, members of the international development community, and others can use this framework to design and analyze policies and projects; and 3) to contribute a compelling rationale for effectively combining climate action with sustainable development and green growth worldwide. By using a systems approach to analyze policies and projects, this work illustrates ways to capitalize on synergies between efforts to reduce emissions and spur development, minimize costs, and maximize societal benefits. This report uses several case studies to demonstrate how to apply the analytical framework. Three simulated case studies analyzed the effects of key sector policies to determine the benefits realized in the United States...

Personal Opinions about the Social Security System and Informal Employment : Evidence from Bulgaria

Perotti, Valeria; Sánchez Puerta, Maria Laura
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.97%
In this paper the authors analyze the relationship between personal opinions about the social security system and levels of informal employment using data from a recent household survey carried out in Bulgaria. They compare different indicators of job informality, focusing on the lack of social security affiliation as the main indicator. The results suggest that low value is attached to social security affiliation and that knowledge of the social security system is very limited. As a consequence, many workers seem to choose informal jobs because they think that the benefits from being affiliated with the social security system are too low compared with the costs. On the other hand, being affiliated does not seem to matter in terms of overall job satisfaction.

Creation of a Reformed Pension System for Civil Servants in Timor-Leste

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.04%
In February 2011, the government of Timor-Leste (GoTL) enacted a law creating a pension system for civil servants. However, the government now wants to repeal and replace this pension law as it deems it too broad in scope, coverage and cost, and it contains several non-standard design features. In its place, the GoTL wants to consider creating a reformed permanent civil service pension program covering all civil servants. Within a few years thereafter, the government also wants to implement a national social security system. This system will cover formal sector workers, and it is likely civil servants will also participate. Consequently, civil servants may get benefits from both the national social security system and the civil service pension system. Timor-Leste has many civil servants with long service both before and after independence. The reformed pension system for civil servants will give the government a method of honorably allowing its elderly civil servants to exit the work force. At this time, the primary method of caring for elderly civil servants is to continue salary payments. This is because there is no mandatory retirement age for civil servants and the government does not yet have effective procedures for compelling older workers to retire when their productivity level declines. Consequently...

The Swiss Multi-Pillar Pension System: Triumph of Common Sense?

Queisser, Monika; Vittas, Dimitri
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
The authors provide a detailed study of the Swiss pension system, analyzing its strengths and weaknesses. The unfunded public pillar is highly redistributive. It has near universal coverage, a low dispersion of benefits (the maximum public pension is twice the minimum), and no ceiling on contributions. Low-income pensioners receive means-tested supplementary benefits. Payroll taxes are low, but government transfers cover 27 percent of total benefits. Total benefits amount to 9.1 percent of GDP, equivalent to 15.2 percent of covered earnings. The funded private pillar was made compulsory in a defensive move against the relentless expansion of the public pillar. The compulsory pillar stipulates minimum benefits in the form of age-related credits, a minimum interest rate on accumulated credits, and a minimum annuity conversion factor, aimed to smooth changes in interest rates over time. Low-income workers are not required to participate in the second pillar. The first and second pillars as well as supplementary benefits are admirably integrated. Company pension plans are free to set terms and conditions in excess of these minimums, and most offer benefits exceeding obligatory levels. The second pillar has accumulated large financial resources...

China's Pension System : A Vision

Dorfman, Mark C.; Holzmann, Robert; O'Keefe, Philip; Wang, Dewen; Sin, Yvonne; Hinz, Richard
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.93%
China is at a critical juncture in its economic transition. A comprehensive reform of its pension and social security systems is an essential element of a strategy aimed toward achieving a harmonious society and sustainable development. Among policy makers, a widely held view is that the approach to pension provision and reform efforts piloted over the last 10-15 years is insufficient to enable China's economy and population to realize its development objectives in the years ahead. This volume suggests a national pension system that no longer distinguishes along urban and rural locational or hukou lines yet takes account of the diverse nature of employment relations and capacity of individuals to make contributions. This volume is organized as follows: the main text outlines this vision, focusing on summarizing the key features of a proposed long-term pension system. It first examines key trends motivating the need for reform then outlines the proposed three-pillar design and the rationale behind the design choices. It then moves on to examine financing options. The text continues by discussing institutional reform issues...

The Welfare Impact of Rural Electrification : A Reassessment of the Costs and Benefits

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.93%
It has long been claimed that rural electrification greatly improves the quality of life. Lighting alone brings benefits such as increased study time and improved study environment for school children, extended hours for small businesses, and greater security. But electrification brings more than light. It's second most common use is for television, which brings both entertainment and information. The people who live in rural areas greatly appreciate these benefits and are willing to pay for them at levels more than sufficient to cover the costs. However, the evaluation of these and other benefits, as well as of their distribution, has been sparse. This report reviews recent methodological advances made in measuring the benefits of rural electrification (RE) and commends them. It also notes that the understanding of the techniques shown in project documents is sometimes weak, and quality control for the economic analysis in project documents lacking. This study shows that willingness to pay for electricity is high...

Explicit Health Guarantees for Chileans : The AUGE Benefits Package

Bitran, Ricardo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.01%
This paper focuses on recent and significant health reform implemented in 2005, known as Universal Access with explicit guarantees (Acceso Universal con Garantias Explicitas - AUGE or GES), which mandated SHI insurers to adopt a broad benefits package defined via explicit legal guarantees for all beneficiaries. This innovative reform is a policy reaction to that which previously existed in Chile and which is widespread in many developing countries, whereby the health rights of citizens remain largely undefined or implicit. Limited public resources imply in those countries that access to health care is rationed through queues, patient deflection, legal or under-the-table user fees, and low-quality care. This paper describes the AUGE reform, its implementation, and the functioning of AUGE for the poor and for non-poor citizens. This paper is organized as: section two provides a brief historic overview of health coverage in Chile's SHI system. Section three describes the SHI system in existence today. Section four describes the services offered and mechanisms in place to cover the poor under SHI, while section five spells out the benefits of SHI. Section six introduces the AUGE health reform of 2005, which sought to broaden and make explicit the rights of all SHI beneficiaries. Section seven offers information about the flows and magnitudes of health financing in SHI. Section eight focuses on the system used by Fonasa to target the poor. Section nine explains how Fonasa manages AUGE. Section ten comments on the information environment of AUGE. Section eleven addresses the equity and fiscal implications of expanding the AUGE benefits. Finally...

Romania : Strengthening Inclusion and Improving Effectiveness for Social Assistance Benefits

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.97%
Despite the overall successful picture of sustained economic growth, a significant share of Romanians live in absolute poverty and deep pockets of poverty still remain, pointing to the need of more inclusive and effective social safety nets. During recent years Romania made efforts to redistribute the benefits of growth by keeping constant the share of GDP devoted to social protection; still, the per capita expenditure on the main social assistance benefits is amongst the lowest in EU. Compared with the EU average, Romania has a good mix of targeted/ non-targeted social assistance programs, but they provide only a modest protection of the poor against income vulnerability, and at a relatively high cost. Taken together, the safety net benefits cover 71 percent of the poor. Some key issues and challenges for Romania are: The 'leakages' of social assistance cash transfers has increased, while performance in covering the poverty gap weakened. Spending on poverty targeted programs has decreased relative to GDP and so has the capability of these benefits to adequately cover the basic needs of the poor. The high number of programs and the heterogeneity of the eligibility thresholds/criteria for different benefits translate into a rather fragmented and difficult to monitor system of social assistance benefits. The report describes several policy options or recommendations...

The Decumulation (Payout) Phase of Defined Contribution Pillars : Policy Issues in the Provision of Annuities and Other Benefits

James, Estelle; Vittas, Dimitri
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.03%
Most countries reforming their pension system, focus more on the accumulation phase, than on the decumulation (pay-out), because the number of beneficiaries is likely to be small initially, especially if older workers are discouraged from joining the new system. Policymakers place a priority on the new accumulation system being administratively efficient, and well regulated. But the decumulation phase must also be well organized, and efficient. The purpose of pension systems is, after all, to pay retirement benefits - old age, survivor, and disability pensions. The authors argue that: 1) Pay-out arrangements are likely to evolve gradually, through trial and error, as problems are discovered and tackled. 2) Adverse selection may not be as great a problem as is sometimes thought. 3) Many other annuity, and insurance market problems have yet to be solved, and policies must be formulated to make these markets work as well. The under-development of voluntary annuity markets is only partly explained by adverse selection...

Architecture for a territorial dispute resolution system : a systems approach

Sharma, Rajeev, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 139 leaves
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.74%
Introduction: A great part of the world today is engaged in excruciating conflicts that threaten the afflicted regions locally besides holding global peace to ransom. Most of these conflicts take the form of territorial disputes that are often protracted and sap the energies out of the nation states. Kashmir, Sudan, Israel-Palestine and Sri-Lanka today are embroiled in a bitter dispute embittered by relentless bloodshed and deep-rooted animosity carried forward through generations. The disputed regions in themselves are a mute testimony of the abject neglect of its subjects by the central ruling body (could be a democratic government! a dictator or a monarch) and failure to provide some of the important political goods across the board for a long period of time. When weighed against some of the accepted norms of development indices like the GINI index, GDP, GDP per capita, infant mortality rates, HDI index, TI index, etc one would see that the disputed regions perform quite pathetically across most of the metrics and not without a reason. Nation states exist to provide political goods to people (Ref 1). However, quite unabashedly nation-states continue its tirade against each other over a piece of land pumping huge sums of public assets that could otherwise be diverted towards development efforts depressing benefits in both the disputed territory and on the whole. Territoriality is dogma that invokes strong reactions. As per Zartman (Ref 2) a state's territory is a collective good that is equally shared by the citizens of the state. This means that the territory is indivisible and is available in the same proportion to all the citizens. It is considered to be one of the three basic components--together with people and a government--which endow a state with a sovereign moral personality universally recognized by the law and the community of nations. Till the time the territoriality is perceived as a collective good...

Government proposals to cut legal aid come at a time when the benefits system is being reconfigured from the ground up: vulnerable people will pay the price as legal aid funding and free expert advice disappears

Forbess, Alice
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/11/2011 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.76%
The new Legal Aid Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Bill has troubling implications, according to Alice Forbess, who argues that the bill eliminates legal aid cover for areas of the law that disproportionately affect vulnerable people, including social welfare, clinical negligence, employment tribunals, special education needs and much of immigration and asylum. Particularly worrying is the fact that these drastic cuts are to be implemented alongside the Welfare Reform Bill, which will restructure the benefits system from the ground up and is expected to temporarily heighten the need for essential legal advice.