Página 1 dos resultados de 23399 itens digitais encontrados em 0.024 segundos

Barriers faced by MSEs: evidence from Mozambique

DINHUCHA, Nirza; FUMO, Goncalves; JABBOUR, Charbel Jose Chiappetta
Fonte: EMERALD GROUP PUBLISHING LIMITED Publicador: EMERALD GROUP PUBLISHING LIMITED
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.62%
Purpose - The purpose of this research is to shed light on the main barriers faced by Mozambican micro and small enterprises (MSEs) and their implications in respect to the support policies available for these enterprises. Design/methodology/approach - A literature review was made on those barriers faced by the MSEs and on the policies and governmental instruments of assistance available for MSEs. Then, a two-step research was conducted. The first phase consisted of collecting data from 21 MSEs in Mozambique, mainly by means of interviews where the main barriers faced by those interviewed were identified and hence, this led to the second phase, which was interviewing governmental/support entities in order to know what they had done to minimize those barriers which had been identified by the entrepreneurs. Findings - The results show that financial and competitive barriers are the main barriers faced by the analyzed MSEs. These barriers vary according to the field of activity of the enterprises. Originality/value - This study serves to enrich the state of the art on the subject of smaller enterprises in Africa and will specially. help to fill the lack of academic research available about Mozambique.

Reflexos das barreiras comerciais européias sobre as exportações brasileiras: uma abordagem utilizando a nova economia institucional; Reflexes of the european trade barriers on brazilian exports: an approach using the new institutional economics

Maragno, Renata Camargo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/10/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.56%
O tema referente ao aumento das exportações vem ganhando importância para o comércio exterior brasileiro. Desde 2003 as exportações brasileiras têm apresentado resultados recordes e o saldo da balança comercial acompanha este resultado. Entretanto, as exportações brasileiras tornam-se inexpressivas se comparadas às exportações que ocorrem no mundo, pois elas representam somente pouco mais de 1% das exportações mundiais. Um dos fatores responsáveis por este resultado seria a incidência de barreiras comerciais aos produtos brasileiros exportados, uma vez que estas barreiras aumentam os custos das transações envolvidos nos processos de exportações e são capazes de torná-los inviáveis. Assim, este trabalho possui como objetivo principal utilizar a abordagem da nova economia institucional (NEI) para analisar o desempenho de alguns dos principais produtos da pauta exportadora brasileira considerando a incidência de barreiras comerciais européias sobre eles. Para atingir este objetivo, faz-se necessário levantar as barreiras comerciais impostas pela União Européia, principal parceiro comercial do Brasil, aos produtos brasileiros e mostrar quais os possíveis reflexos que estas barreiras representam ao comportamento do comércio exterior brasileiro.; The subject that refers to the increase of the exports has been becoming an important issue to the brazilian international business. The brazilian exports have been showing an excellent performance since 2003 and the balance of trade imitates this result. However...

Barreiras à gestão organizacional na África: um estudo com organizações de porte reduzido em Moçambique, Matola; Barriers to organizational management in Africa: A study of small-sized organizations in Mozambique Matola

Fumo, Nirza Dinúcha Gonçalves
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/02/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.62%
O presente trabalho tem como propósito levantar as principais barreiras enfrentadas pelas micro e pequenas empresas (MPEs) na Cidade da Matola. Para tanto, fez-se uma fundamentação teórica sobre as barreiras enfrentadas pelas MPEs e sobre políticas e instrumentos governamentais de apoio às empresas deste porte. A fundamentação teórica apoiou o desenvolvimento de uma triangulação da pesquisa empírica baseada em duas fases. A primeira fase consistiu na coleta de dados junto a 21 empresas de micro e pequeno porte, por meio de entrevistas onde posteriormente fez-se a identificação das principais barreiras enfrentadas pelos entrevistados e daí conduziu a segunda fase do trabalho de campo que foi as entrevistas junto as entidades governamentais de modo a saber o que estes tem feito para minimizar ou mitigar as barreiras identificadas pelos empresários. Os resultados mostram que as barreiras de financiamento e de concorrência são as principais barreiras enfrentadas pelas MPEs na Matola e que estas variam de acordo com o ramo de atuação das empresas. A dissertação vai servir para enriquecer o estado da arte sobre a temática das micro e pequenas empresas e sobretudo vai ajudar a suprir o déficit de pesquisas acadêmicas em Moçambique.; This paper aims to identify the main barriers faced by micro and small enterprises (MSEs) in the city of Matola. As such...

Stages of behavior change and perceived barriers to physical activity in the elderly living in a medium size city in Brazil; Estágios de mudança de comportamento e barreiras percebidas à prática de atividade física em idosos residentes em uma cidade de médio porte do Brasil

Brazao, Manuella Colin; Hirayama, Marcio Sussumu; Gobbi, Sebastiao; Crispim Nascimento, Carla Manuela; Roseguini, Alex Zelanti
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Instituto de Biociências Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Instituto de Biociências
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 759-767
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.64%
The aim was to analyze the prevalence of the stages of behavior change (BCS) and the perceived barriers to physical activity in older people residents in a medium size city of São Paulo state, Brazil. Seventy-nine older people participated of the study. The BCS was assessed by the Questionnaire of Behavior Chance Stages and those on perception of barriers by the Questionnaire on Barriers to the Practice of Physical Activity in Older People (QBPPAE). Statistical analyses was comprised by the Chi-square test (p<0.05). Data showed that: a) 64,6% of the older people do not practice physical activity and only 22,8% of them have been practicing it on a regular basis for more than 6 months; b) The most perceived barriers were: "Active enough", "Too old"; "Need to rest" and; "Disease or injury"; c) The BCS seems modulate significantly the perception of barriers (p<0.05). We can conclude that: a) most of the older people are in the pre-contemplation, contemplation and preparation stages of the BCS, yet; b) gender influences almost nothing with perception of barriers and; c) the BCS interferes with the type of perceived barriers. Such conclusions support the suggestions that it is necessary to develop specific strategies for different stages of behavior change if it is to minimize the barriers. This may help to find the most effective way to change to more active lifestyle in the elderly.; O objetivo foi analisar a prevalência dos estágios de mudança do comportamento (EMC)...

Barriers to innovation amongst small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Portugal

Cordeiro, Ana; Vieira, Filipa Dionísio
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.62%
The importance of innovation on the survival and competitiveness of organizations is an undeniable fact. Small and Medium enterprises (SMEs) represent 99,99% of all Portuguese firms. This reality is shared by other European countries and therefore it is relevant to study their innovative behaviour and attitudes in order to achieve competitiveness and sustainability. The present study inquires about barriers to innovation, namely, what are the barriers faced by domestic companies, which barriers are easier to recognize and overcome and what is the level of importance they have on the firm point of view. The course of the investigation consists primarily in undertaking literature review on topics such as innovation, barriers to innovation, SMEs, strategy and competitiveness. The theoretical support, resulting therefrom leads to the building line of work that is embodied in two surveys. The results achieved made possible the creation of two new models of classification and segmentation of the barriers. The BARINOV Model that evidences the existence of internal or external barriers and flashes upon the concept of deviation barrier. The BARIFASE Model embodies the innovation process through three phases and evidences the occurrence of the barriers to innovation during these stages.

Reaching the Unreachable: Barriers of the Poorest to Accessing NGO Healthcare Services in Bangladesh

Ahmed, Nizam U.; Alam, Mohammed M.; Sultana, Fadia; Sayeed, Shahana N.; Pressman, Aliza M.; Powers, Mary Beth
Fonte: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh Publicador: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.59%
The NGO Service Delivery Program (NSDP), a USAID-funded programme, is the largest NGO programme in Bangladesh. Its strategic flagship activity is the essential services package through which healthcare services are administered by NGOs in Bangladesh. The overall goal of the NSDP is to increase access to essential healthcare services by communities, especially the poor. Recognizing that the poorest in the community often have no access to essential healthcare services due to various barriers, a study was conducted to identify what the real barriers to access by the poor are. This included investigations to further understand the perceptions of the poor of real or imagined barriers to accessing healthcare; ways for healthcare centres to maximize services to the poor; how healthcare providers can maximize service-use; inter-personal communication between healthcare providers and those seeking healthcare among the poor; and ways to improve the capacity of service providers to reach the poorest segment of the community. The study, carried out in two phases, included 24 static and satellite clinics within the catchment areas of eight NGOs under the NSDP in Bangladesh, during June-September 2003. Participatory urban and rural appraisal techniques...

Short and long-term lifestyle coaching approaches used to address diverse participant barriers to weight loss and physical activity adherence

Venditti, Elizabeth M; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Delahanty, Linda M; Mele, Lisa; Hoskin, Mary A; Edelstein, Sharon L
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.65%
Background: Individual barriers to weight loss and physical activity goals in the Diabetes Prevention Program, a randomized trial with 3.2 years average treatment duration, have not been previously reported. Evaluating barriers and the lifestyle coaching approaches used to improve adherence in a large, diverse participant cohort can inform dissemination efforts. Methods: Lifestyle coaches documented barriers and approaches after each session (mean session attendance = 50.3 ± 21.8). Subjects were 1076 intensive lifestyle participants (mean age = 50.6 years; mean BMI = 33.9 kg/m2; 68% female, 48% non-Caucasian). Barriers and approaches used to improve adherence were ranked by the percentage of the cohort for whom they applied. Barrier groupings were also analyzed in relation to baseline demographic characteristics. Results: Top weight loss barriers reported were problems with self-monitoring (58%); social cues (58%); holidays (54%); low activity (48%); and internal cues (thought/mood) (44%). Top activity barriers were holidays (51%); time management (50%); internal cues (30%); illness (29%), and motivation (26%). The percentage of the cohort having any type of barrier increased over the long-term intervention period. A majority of the weight loss barriers were significantly associated with younger age...

Administrative Barriers to Foreign Investment : Reducing Red Tape in Africa

Emery, James J.; Spence, Melvin T., Jr.; Wells, Louis T., Jr.; Buehrer, Timothy S.
Fonte: Washington, DC: International Finance Corporation and the World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: International Finance Corporation and the World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.64%
The book consists of two papers which provide an overview of administrative barriers in Africa, and a very in-depth look at how one country, Mozambique, used a very large foreign investment as a mechanism to begin to tear them down. The first paper is based on a series of country-specific studies on administrative barriers done by Foreign Investment Advisory Service (FIAS) and the United States Agency for International Development. These studies covered Ghana, Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania, and Uganda. Each country study relied on review of primary materials, laws, and regulations. The second paper is a detailed look at how the administrative barriers that existed in Mozambique threatened to derail the huge Mozal aluminum smelter that was proposed by South African investors. Not only were the barriers overcome for this special project but also the Government used the knowledge gained in the process to reduce barriers for all investors and establish institutions that could facilitate other investments. The message in both papers is that administrative barriers constitute a significant impediment to foreign direct investment in Africa. Many of the administrative procedures required of investors have no real justification. Removal of unnecessary barriers and streamlining other administrative procedures require detailed efforts by governments involving the exercise of significant political leadership.

Informal Export Barriers and Poverty

Porto, Guido G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.69%
The author investigates the poverty impacts of informal export barriers like transport costs, cumbersome customs practices, costly regulations, and bribes. He models these informal barriers as export taxes that distort the efficient allocation of resources. In low-income agricultural economies, this distortion lowers wages and household agricultural income, thereby leading to higher poverty. The author investigates the poverty impacts of improving export procedures in Moldova. This is a unique case study: poverty is widespread (half of the Moldovan population lives in poverty), the country is very open and relies on agricultural exports for growth, formal trade barriers are fairly liberalized, and informal export barriers are common and widespread. The author finds that improving export practices would benefit the average Moldovan household across the whole income distribution. For example, halving informal export barriers would cause poverty to decline from 48.3 percent of the population to between 43.3 and 45.5 percent...

Estimating Trade Flows, Describing Trade Relationships, and Identifying Barriers to Cross-Border Trade Between Cameroon and Nigeria

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.59%
Cameroon and Nigeria share a common border of nearly 1,700km and both countries have strong historical and cultural ties. However, the partnership between the two countries has had its difficult periods, most recently when the relationship turned hostile over the disputed Bakassi Peninsula, and economic linkages between the economies remain limited. Expanding trade between the two countries could play a critical role in accelerating economic development and regional integration by opening up new markets for producers, and allowing them to benefit from economies of scale. This will require reducing barriers to cross-border trade, allowing increased trade flows to reach the larger market, and permitting private sector producers to increase the scale of their activities. Removing barriers to trade between the two neighbors is likely to benefit particularly relatively remote areas of both countries. The study finds that regulatory and security barriers at the border and along the road remain key impediments to trade. The remainder of this report proceeds as follows. Section one describes drivers for cross border trade such as historical relations...

Addressing Regulatory Software Barriers to Business Growth

Kularatne, Chandana; Lopez-Calix, Jose
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.67%
This policy paper explores the relative importance of the software regulatory barriers to growth in Pakistan. Such software barriers have been identified as part of the major constraint in the Framework for Economic Growth of the Government of Pakistan. Indeed, adequate software is needed to provide an environment in which the hardware of growth (physical infrastructure) could be expanded and made more productive. Among possible software constraints, the findings of various international surveys allow to disentangle the relative importance of multiple possible regulatory barriers; first by identifying what is in the books, and then by assessing what is actually experienced on the ground by entrepreneurs. Following the ensuing prioritization of the identified barriers, this paper suggests that the new growth strategy would benefit from focused policy efforts in seven key areas, where regulatory barriers and perceived obstacles are most constraining to business development: getting electricity, paying taxes...

Quantifying the Impact of Technical Barriers to Trade : A Framework for Analysis

Maskus, Keith E.; Wilson, John S.; Otsuki, Tsunehiro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.65%
There has been increasing use of technical regulations as instruments of commercial policy in the context of multilateral, regional, and global trade. These nontariff barriers are of special concern to developing countries, which may bear additional costs in meeting mandatory standards. Many industrial and developing countries express frustration with regulations that vary across their export markets, require duplicative conformity procedures, and are continually revised to exclude imports. The authors provide a comprehensive overview of the policy debate and methodological issues surrounding product standards and technical barriers to trade. They begin with a review of the policy context driving demand for empirical analysis of standards in trade, then provide an analytical overview of the role of standards and their relationship to trade. They then review methodological approaches that have been used to analyze standards and their impact on trade. Their main interest lies in advancing techniques that are practical and may be fruitfully extended to the empirical analysis of regulations and trade. They discuss concrete steps that could be taken to move forward a practical...

Changing barriers to use of eye care services in Timor-Leste: 2005 to 2010

Lee, L.; Ramke, J.; Blignault, I.; Casson, R.
Fonte: Informa Healthcare Publicador: Informa Healthcare
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.62%
Purpose: To determine barriers to seeking eye care services in Timor-Leste in 2010, and compare this to similar analyses undertaken 5 years previously. Methods: An interview-based questionnaire used in a 2005 survey was re-administered as part of a population-based cross-sectional survey of adults selected by multistage random sampling from those aged ≥40 years in Timor-Leste in 2010. Results: The participation rate for the 2010 survey was 89.5% (n = 2014). The sex-age-domicile-adjusted prevalence of a history of at least one previous or current ophthalmic problem in the population aged ≥40 years was 92.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.4–93.7%). Of these, 75.4% (95% CI 73.4–77.3%) had not consulted a care provider. In multivariate analysis, rural domicile, illiteracy and subsistence farming were associated with having not sought care for an eye problem. The most frequently cited reasons were “service too far away” (36.3%), “no time/other priorities” (21.7%) and “unaware of eye care service” (20.7%). More people reported a history of an eye problem in 2010 than in 2005, but the proportion seeking care was no different. Social barriers became more prevalent for urban dwellers in 2010, while attitudinal barriers decreased. For rural residents...

The Data Chase : What's Out There on Trade Costs and Nontariff Barriers?

Bagai, Shweta; Wilson, John S.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.59%
Trade costs and nontariff barriers are at the forefront of discussions on competitiveness and expanding trade opportunities for developing countries. This paper provides a summary overview of data and indicators relevant to these issues and has been informed by work underway at the World Bank on trade facilitation over the past several years to catalogue data sets and indicators. Although there has been progress in expanding data sets and developing policy-relevant indicators on trade costs and barriers, much more is needed. In order to assess progress toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals, evaluating the impact of development projects, and whether meeting Aid for Trade goals will be met, for example, a dedicated and expansive new effort to collect and assess data is needed. This paper attempts to highlight gaps in data on trade costs and provides insight into the type of new data that might be developed in the future.

Perspectives of Educated Expatriate Bangladeshi Women About Post-Secondary Education: The Barriers Encountered and the Strategies They Have Employed

NAHAR, YAMUN
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 447975 bytes; application/pdf
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.64%
ABSTRACT Using a qualitative methodology, I conducted this study to identify the barriers to women’s post-secondary education in Bangladesh and to investigate the possible strategies to remove those barriers, from the perspectives of three Bangladeshi women who received post-secondary education in Bangladesh and who are currently living in Canada. To explore participants’ perceptions, I used open-ended structured interviews. I then analyzed data using the conceptual framework of subsystems within an open systems theory. The study revealed that the barriers Bangladeshi women encounter when pursuing a post-secondary education are vast and complex. The findings from this study indicated that Bangladeshi women face barriers from multi-level social subsystems such as family, financial, educational, socio-cultural, political, and governmental subsystems. Six broad themes of major barriers emerged from participants’ reports: (a) financial constraints; (b) socio-cultural practices and attitudes; (c) male domination; (d) inadequate education facilities; (e) student politics and unstable political situations; and (f) corrupt government and inconsistent implementation of law and punishment. Within these six themes, the study identified various factors that hamper women’s post-secondary education in Bangladesh. The participants suggested strategies that may help those who make and implement policy find ways to minimize barriers to women’s post-secondary education in Bangladesh and beyond. The results showed that since the barriers are multifaceted...

Supporting newcomers to overcome the barriers to contribute to open source software projects; Apoiando novatos a superarem barreiras para contribuir a projetos de software livre

Steinmacher, Igor Fábio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/02/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.65%
Community-based Open Source Software (OSS) projects are generally self-organized and dynamic, receiving contributions from volunteers spread across the globe. These communities survival, long-term success, and continuity demand a constant influx of newcomers. However, newcomers face many barriers when making their first contribution to an OSS project, leading in many cases to dropouts. Therefore, a major challenge for OSS projects is to provide ways to support newcomers during their first contribution. In this thesis, our goal was to identify and understand the barriers newcomers face and provide appropriate strategies to lower these barriers. Toward this end, we conducted multiple studies, using multiple research methods. To identify the barriers, we used data collected from: semi-structured interviews with 35 developers from 13 different projects; 24 answers to an open questionnaire conducted with OSS developers; feedback from 9 graduate and undergraduate students after they tried to join OSS projects; and 20 primary studies gathered via a systematic literature review. The data was analyzed using Grounded Theory procedures: namely, open and axial coding. Subsequently, the analysis resulted in a preliminary conceptual model composed of 58 barriers grouped into six categories: cultural differences...

Appraisal of intra-reservoir barriers in the Permo-Triassic successions of the Central Persian Gulf, Offshore Iran

Rahimpour-Bonab, H.; Enayati-Bidgoli, A.H.; Navidtalab, A.; Mehrabi, H.
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.64%
Owing to their tightness, intra reservoir barriers have the potential to prevent homogenization of reservoir fluids and so cause compartmentalization. Identification of these barriers is an important step during reservoir evaluation. In order to achieve this, three main approaches: i) detailed petrographic and core analysis, ii) petrophysical studies (flow unit concept) and iii) geochemical analysis (strontium residual salt analysis) were applied systematically in the Permo-Triassic carbonate reservoirs (Dalan and Kangan formations) of a supergiant gas reservoir located in the Central Persian Gulf. Integration of these approaches has led to a fullclarification of the intra reservoir barriers. Petrographic examinations revealed the potential stratigraphic barriers to fluids flow created by various depositional/ diagenetic characteristics. Petrophysical data such as poroperm values, pore throat size distribution and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis were used to differentiate the reservoir flow units from non-reservoir rock. According to different trends in 87Sr/86Sr ratios of residual salts, the existence of flow barriers was evaluated and proved. Finally, by integrating these approaches, three intra reservoir barriers were introduced in the studied reservoir interval. These intra reservoir barriers are depositional and diagenetic in nature and are located in stratal positions with sequence stratigraphic significance. The possibility of reservoir compartmentalization was evaluated in the studied wells...

Family and Provider Perceptions of Barriers to NGO-Based Pediatric Surgical Care in Guatemala

Silverberg, Benjamin Andrew
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.64%

Background: Globally, there is often a gap between medical need and access to care, and this is particularly true for surgical care for children. In Guatemala, for instance, families frequently pursue care outside of the government health system. Using a structured anthropologic approach, we sought to explore the barriers to surgical care for children in Guatemala, suspecting both financial and cultural barriers were the primary obstacles families had to face.

Study design: Twenty-nine parents/guardians of children receiving surgical care at two non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Guatemala and 7 health care providers participated in semi-structured interviews to explore what they believed to be the impediments to care. Transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Current models for barriers to care were critiqued and a novel Framework for Barriers to Pediatric Surgery in Guatemala (FBPSG) was developed, which highlights both the existence, and centrality, of fear and mistrust in families' experience.

Results: Families and providers identified financial costs, geography, and systems limitations as the primary barriers to care. Mistrust and fear were also voiced. In addition, health literacy and cultural issues were also thought to be relevant by providers.

Conclusions: Due to biases inherent in this sample...

Barriers to palliative care for children: Perceptions of pediatric health care providers

Davies, B.; Sehring, S.A.; Patridge, J.C.; Cooper, B.A.; Hughes, Ann Maree; Philp, J.C.; Amidi-Nouri, A.; Kramer, R.F.
Fonte: American Academy of Pediatrics Publicador: American Academy of Pediatrics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.64%
OBJECTIVE. The goal was to explore barriers to palliative care experienced by pediatric health care providers caring for seriously ill children. METHODS. This study explored pediatric provider perceptions of end-of-life care in an academic children's hospital, with the goal of describing perceived barriers to end-of-life care for children and their families. The report focuses on the responses of nurses (n = 117) and physicians (n = 81). RESULTS. Approximately one half of the respondents reported 4 of 26 barriers listed in the study questionnaire as frequently or almost always occurring, that is, uncertain prognosis (55%), family not ready to acknowledge incurable condition (51%), language barriers (47%), and time constraints (47%). Approximately one third of respondents cited another 8 barriers frequently arising from problems with communication and from insufficient education in pain and palliative care. Fourteen barriers were perceived by >75% of staff members as occasionally or never interfering with pediatric end-of-life care. Comparisons between physicians and nurses and between ICU and non-ICU staff members revealed several significant differences between these groups. CONCLUSIONS. Perceived barriers to pediatric end-of-life care differed from those impeding adult end-of-life care. The most-commonly perceived factors that interfered with optimal pediatric end-of-life care involved uncertainties in prognosis and discrepancies in treatment goals between staff members and family members...

Barriers: Friend or Foe

Blackburn, Stephen; Hosking, Anthony
Fonte: Association for Computing Machinery Inc (ACM) Publicador: Association for Computing Machinery Inc (ACM)
Tipo: Conference paper
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.67%
Modem garbage collectors rely on read and write barriers imposed on heap accesses by the mutator, to keep track of references between different regions of the garbage collected heap, and to synchronize actions of the mutator with those of the collector. It has been a long-standing untested assumption that barriers impose significant overhead to garbage-collected applications. As a result, researchers have devoted effort to development of optimization approaches for elimination of unnecessary barriers, or proposed new algorithms for garbage collection that avoid the need for barriers while retaining the capability for independent collection of heap partitions. On the basis of the results presented here, we dispel the assumption that barrier overhead should be a primary motivator for such efforts. We present a methodology for precise measurement of mutator overheads for barriers associated with mutator heap accesses. We provide a taxonomy of different styles of barrier and measure the cost of a range of popular barriers used for different garbage collectors within Jikes RVM. Our results demonstrate that barriers impose surprisingly low cost on the mutator, though results vary by architecture. We found that the average overhead for a reasonable generational write barrier was less than 2% on average...