Página 1 dos resultados de 14 itens digitais encontrados em 0.001 segundos

Aviation psychology. I: Human errors and warning systems.

Green, R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/06/1983 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.03%

Aviation psychology. II: Assessing workload and selecting pilots.

Green, R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/06/1983 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.03%

Designing informative warning signals: Effects of indicator type, modality, and task demand on recognition speed and accuracy

Stevens, Catherine J.; Brennan, David; Petocz, Agnes; Howell, Clare
Fonte: University of Finance and Management in Warsaw Publicador: University of Finance and Management in Warsaw
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/05/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.03%
An experiment investigated the assumption that natural indicators which exploit existing learned associations between a signal and an event make more effective warnings than previously unlearned symbolic indicators. Signal modality (visual, auditory) and task demand (low, high) were also manipulated. Warning effectiveness was indexed by accuracy and reaction time (RT) recorded during training and dual task test phases. Thirty-six participants were trained to recognize 4 natural and 4 symbolic indicators, either visual or auditory, paired with critical incidents from an aviation context. As hypothesized, accuracy was greater and RT was faster in response to natural indicators during the training phase. This pattern of responding was upheld in test phase conditions with respect to accuracy but observed in RT only in test phase conditions involving high demand and the auditory modality. Using the experiment as a specific example, we argue for the importance of considering the cognitive contribution of the user (viz., prior learned associations) in the warning design process. Drawing on semiotics and cognitive psychology, we highlight the indexical nature of so-called auditory icons or natural indicators and argue that the cogniser is an indispensable element in the tripartite nature of signification.

Error management for musicians: an interdisciplinary conceptual framework

Kruse-Weber, Silke; Parncutt, Richard
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/07/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.27%
Musicians tend to strive for flawless performance and perfection, avoiding errors at all costs. Dealing with errors while practicing or performing is often frustrating and can lead to anger and despair, which can explain musicians’ generally negative attitude toward errors and the tendency to aim for flawless learning in instrumental music education. But even the best performances are rarely error-free, and research in general pedagogy and psychology has shown that errors provide useful information for the learning process. Research in instrumental pedagogy is still neglecting error issues; the benefits of risk management (before the error) and error management (during and after the error) are still underestimated. It follows that dealing with errors is a key aspect of music practice at home, teaching, and performance in public. And yet, to be innovative, or to make their performance extraordinary, musicians need to risk errors. Currently, most music students only acquire the ability to manage errors implicitly – or not at all. A more constructive, creative, and differentiated culture of errors would balance error tolerance and risk-taking against error prevention in ways that enhance music practice and music performance. The teaching environment should lay the foundation for the development of such an approach. In this contribution...

Statistical Reporting Errors and Collaboration on Statistical Analyses in Psychological Science

Veldkamp, Coosje L. S.; Nuijten, Michèle B.; Dominguez-Alvarez, Linda; van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.; Wicherts, Jelte M.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.19%
Statistical analysis is error prone. A best practice for researchers using statistics would therefore be to share data among co-authors, allowing double-checking of executed tasks just as co-pilots do in aviation. To document the extent to which this ‘co-piloting’ currently occurs in psychology, we surveyed the authors of 697 articles published in six top psychology journals and asked them whether they had collaborated on four aspects of analyzing data and reporting results, and whether the described data had been shared between the authors. We acquired responses for 49.6% of the articles and found that co-piloting on statistical analysis and reporting results is quite uncommon among psychologists, while data sharing among co-authors seems reasonably but not completely standard. We then used an automated procedure to study the prevalence of statistical reporting errors in the articles in our sample and examined the relationship between reporting errors and co-piloting. Overall, 63% of the articles contained at least one p-value that was inconsistent with the reported test statistic and the accompanying degrees of freedom, and 20% of the articles contained at least one p-value that was inconsistent to such a degree that it may have affected decisions about statistical significance. Overall...

Instrument scan, performance, and mental workload in aircraft pilots

Stephens, Albert Thomas
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: [1], 246 leaves; 10742235 bytes; 10741994 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.03%
by Albert Thomas Stephens.; Thesis (M.S.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1981.; MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND AERONAUTICS.; Bibliography: leaves 129-132.

Human Factors, Safety Psychology Course Introduction

Ciavarelli, Anthony
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.03%
Human Factors, Anthony Ciavarelli, Ed.D., School of Aviation Safety, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, June 1997

Un marco de trabajo para la evaluación predictiva de sistemas de notificación en el campo de la aviónica

Sánchez-Puebla Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.03%
Es inaudito encontrar un sistema de cualquier tipo basado en computadores en el que el humano no interactúe con él. Incluso aunque se trate de una comunicación exclusivamente entre dos computadores, normalmente se incluye una interfaz que permita solucionar el enlace entre máquinas cuando aparece algún problema [Mulligan et al. 1991]. El usuario, como ser humano, necesita información, lo que se considera una de las pocas constantes en nuestro mundo, independientemente de la cultura a la que pertenezca o en el instante de tiempo en el que transcurra su actividad. Esta necesidad se combina con la ocupación del usuario en otras tareas que requieren su atención, de forma que hay al menos dos focos de atención que compiten por el bien más preciado de cualquier interfaz humano-computador: la atención del usuario. La existencia de diferentes escenarios, en las que el usuario espera resultados diferentes y consecuencias distintas ante la existencia de un error controla la aparición de distintos tipos de aplicaciones y dispositivos para soportar las demandas del usuario en condiciones de multitarea. En estos sistemas, conocidos como Sistemas de Notificación, las interfaces están diseñadas como un medio para acceder a información valiosa para el usuario de una forma efectiva y eficiente sin introducir interrupciones no deseadas en la ejecución de la tarea principal. Pueden encontrarse numerosas implementaciones de Sistemas de Notificación en una gran variedad de plataformas. Quizás en los sistemas de sobremesa son más fácilmente identificables: servicios de mensajería instantánea...

Application of avatars in display design to support spatial awareness under varying workload conditions

Myttas, Dimitrios.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 101 p. : ill. (chiefly col.) ;
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.03%
Human performance in spatial orientation tasks is mainly determined by spatial awareness and the skills to transition from the current spatial attitude into the desired spatial orientation and position. Erroneous spatial awareness may lead to degraded task performance, to the loss of equipment, to serious injuries, or fatal aviation mishaps. The use of UAVs is considered beneficial due to the reduction in risk to the human carrying out the "mission". However, the remote execution of such a mission is extremely demanding for the operator. If extensive use of UAVs is to become routine, a number of concerns that may influence their effective use needs to be addressed. When we consider the human-in-the-loop (HITL), then vehicle control and the use of autonomy are important issues for the end user. Therefore this thesis will investigate the use of a virtual avatar in the flight simulator software (Weber Box) and conduct experimental proof of concept (conduct of experiments and analysis, evaluation and validation of the data of the concept using actual flight simulation software). Results of a study (conducted by Weber, 2006) indicated that the proposed design (Weber Box) seemed to strongly support spatial awareness in 3D orientation tasks. Time to assess a spatial situation decreases significantly...

El estudio del factor humano en accidentes de aviación; Study of the human factor in aviation accidents; O estudo do fator humano em acidentes de aviação

Sánchez Rubio, Lina María
Fonte: Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali Publicador: Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artículo Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf
SPA; ENG; POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.56%
El factor humano ha sido considerado causa o contribución del 70 al 80% de los accidentes de aviación en el mundo, y constituye una prioridad en investigación para la seguridad aérea. Las estadísticas muestran que los índices y causas de accidentes de aviación se mantienen constantes, e identifican una importante diferencia entre regiones. La investigación científica requiere de nuevas y complementarias aproximaciones para la explicación y comprensión del factor humano en aviación. Los médicos y psicólogos que trabajan en Medicina Aeroespacial y factores humanos desempeñan un importante papel para alcanzar las metas en seguridad aérea.; The human factor has been considered as the cause of 70-80% of aviation accidents in the world, and is the prime target for research in the area of air travel safety. Statistics show that the indices and causes of aviation accidents are constant and show an important difference between regions. Scientific research requires new and complementary approximations to explain and understand the human factor in aviation. Doctors and psychologists who work in aerospace medicine and human factors play an important role in achieving goals in aviation safety.; O fator humano tem sido considerado causa ou contribuição de 70 a 80% dos acidentes de aviação no mundo e constitui uma prioridade na investigação para a segurança aérea. As estatísticas mostram que os índices e causas de acidentes da aviação se mantem constantes...

Identifying and training non-technical skills for teams in acute medicine

Flin, R; Maran, N
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.25%
The aviation domain provides a better analogy for the "temporary" teams that are found in acute medical specialities than industrial or military teamwork research based on established teams. Crew resource management (CRM) training, which emphasises portable skills (for whatever crew a pilot is rostered to on a given flight), has been recognised to have potential application in medicine, especially for teams in the operating theatre, intensive care unit, and emergency room. Drawing on research from aviation psychology that produced the behavioural marker system NOTECHS for rating European pilots' non-technical skills for teamwork on the flightdeck, this paper outlines the Anaesthetists Non-Technical Skills behavioural rating system for anaesthetists working in operating theatre teams. This taxonomy was used as the design basis for a training course, Crisis Avoidance Resource Management for Anaesthetists used to develop these skills, based in an operating theatre simulator. Further developments of this training programme for teams in emergency medicine are outlined.

El inicio de la psicología aplicada a la aviación : desde el principio del siglo XX a la década de los años treinta

Sáiz Roca, Milagros; Sáiz Roca, Dolores
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.36%
El inicio de la psicología aplicada a la aviación, con un especial interés por la selección de buenos aviadores, estuvo impulsada por las circunstancias militares que se provocaron fruto de la I Guerra Mundial, aunque en Alemania, se estaba trabajando en ello antes de esa fecha y los estudios fueron interrumpidos, precisamente, por ese acontecimiento. Desde el principio de la guerra, Inglaterra, Italia y Francia convocaron a sus expertos para la evaluación de sus pilotos. En Inglaterra desde 1914 estuvo en ejercicio un «Air Medical Investigation Commitee». En Francia, estuvieron sistematizadas las investigaciones desde 1915 y fueron Camus y Nepper quienes prepararon exámenes para los aviadores, evaluando su tiempo de reacción motriz y la acción de los estímulos sobre el sistema nervioso. De la misma forma, en Italia se organizó, en los primeros años de la guerra, exámenes psicológicos de aptitud, comprobando las cualidades necesarias para el aviador de guerra (reacción, atención, observación y emotividad). En Alemania, sería algo más tarde, en 1916, cuando reanudándose de nuevo los estudios, William Stern fue requerido para evaluar las aptitudes de los observadores aéreos. El enfoque de los alemanes sería, desde entonces...

Risk, interest groups and the definition of crisis: the case of volcanic ash

Hutter, Bridget M.; Lloyd-Bostock, Sally
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2013 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.03%
This paper considers a key aspect of the ‘risk society’ thesis: the belief that we should be able to manage risks and control the world around us. In particular it focuses on the interface between risk and risk events as socially constructed and the insights that ‘critical situations’ give us into ‘the routine and mundane’, the otherwise taken for granted assumptions underlying risk regulation. It does this with reference to the events precipitated by the April 2010 volcanic eruption in the Eyjafjallajökull area of Iceland. The resulting cloud of volcanic ash spread across Europe and much of Europe's airspace was closed to civil aviation for six days, with far reaching consequences including huge financial losses for airlines. The social processes of defining and reacting to risk and crisis both reveal and generate dilemmas and challenges in regulation. This paper examines the role of different interest groups in defining risk expectations and thereby redefining the ash crisis as a regulatory crisis.

Flight instructors' perceptions of pilot behaviour related to gender

Vermeulen,Leopold P.
Fonte: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology Publicador: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.03%
This study investigated flight instructors' perceptions with regard to gender-related pilot behaviour. The subjects fell into two sample groups. The first sample consisted of 93 flight instructors and the second sample was a control group of 93 commercial pilots. The Aviation Gender Attitude Questionnaire (AGAQ) was administered to measure the perceptions that both groups held about female pilots' flying proficiency and safety orientation. Statistical analysis revealed that flight instructors and commercial pilots differed significantly in their perceptions of female pilots' flying proficiency but that the two groups did not differ in their perceptions of female pilots' safety orientation.