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Diversidade de formigas edáficas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) em fragmentos da Mata Atlântica do estado de São Paulo.; Diversity of edaphic ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in fragments of the Atlantic Forest of the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

Macedo, Luciano Pacelli Medeiros de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/02/2005 PT
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37.1%
Este trabalho objetivou conhecer e comparar a diversidade de formigas em três fragmentos florestais (Cananéia, Ibicatu e Pariquera-Açu) do Estado de São Paulo. As coletas foram realizadas em serapilheira e na camada mineral (0-5 cm de profundidade), na base de Euterpe edulis. As formigas foram coletadas, utilizando-se sonda cilíndrica de alumínio de 10 cm de diâmetro por 5 cm de altura, a qual era introduzida na serapilheira e no solo; depois triadas, montadas e identificadas. Os dados foram submetidos a análise de variância (ANOVA). Com o programa ANAFAU calcularam-se os índices faunísticos, a diversidade pelo método de Shannon- Wiener (H), os índices de eqüitabilidade (E) e similaridade. A riqueza estimada de espécies, o número de espécies singletons e doubletons e a curva de acumulação de espécies foram calculadas pelo programa EstimateS. As formigas também foram separadas em guildas, com base em aspectos biológicos. Pela análise da suficiência amostral em cada fragmento florestal, observou-se que Cananéia e Pariquera-Açu foram mais homogêneos do que Ibicatu. O número de amostras não foi suficiente para caracterizar os ambientes, pois a curva do coletor não se estabilizou. As formigas foram agrupadas em 9 guildas...

Avaliação do potencial das formigas como vetores mecâncios de micobactérias em hospital especializado na assistência de pacientes de tuberculose no Estado de São Paulo; Evaluation of ants as potential mechanical vectors of mycobacteria in a hospital specializing in assistance to TB patients, the state of São Paulo

Couceiro, Ana Paula Macedo Ruggiero
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/04/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
Introdução - A urbanização desencadeia inúmeros transtornos, como a disseminação de artrópodes e, conseqüentemente, de doenças veiculadas pelos mesmos. As formigas são muito adaptáveis e se beneficiam com a convivência humana. Nos hospitais, elas podem ser vetores mecânicos de inúmeras bactérias, e a diversidade de espécies encontradas nestes ambientes, causam preocupação pelo risco potencial à saúde pública. O aumento das infecções hospitalares envolvendo micobactérias ambientais, com surtos no Brasil entre 1998 a 2009 em 23 estados alarmou os órgãos e profissionais de saúde pública. Objetivos - Avaliar o potencial de formigas como vetores de micobactérias em um hospital especializado no atendimento de doentes com tuberculose. Métodos - Foram realizadas seis coletas de formigas em diferentes áreas do hospital no período de 2009 a 2010, que foram semeadas em meios de cultura de Löwenstein-Jensen e de Stonebrink para isolamento de micobactérias. As culturas sugestivas foram submetidas à coloração de Ziehl-Neelsen para bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes e identificação por métodos moleculares (PRA para o gene hsp65 com o par de primers TB11 e TB12 gênero-específico e sequenciamento genético do DNA). Resultados - Do total de 247 amostras de formigas coletadas e semeadas...

Aspectos temporais da organização coletiva do forrageamento em formigas saúvas (Atta sexdens rubropilosa); Temporal aspects of collective organization of foraging in leaf-cutting ants (Atta sexdens rubropilosa)

Toledo, Marcelo Arruda Fiuza de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/03/2013 PT
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Ao observarmos uma trilha de forrageamento de formigas saúvas parece bastante claro que ela consiste no tráfego de muitos indivíduos que buscam alimento numa mesma fonte e o trazem para a colônia. No entanto, a organização presente numa trilha vai muito além do fato de que formigas operárias transportam folhas para o ninho. Desde os mecanismos de formação e manutenção de trilhas baseados no recrutamento e em retroalimentação positiva da marcação feromonal, até a forma com que formigas de tamanhos diferentes se dividem entre as tarefas de corte, transporte e patrulhamento, as trilhas de forrageamento exibem uma organização muito sofisticada, que reflete a complexidade característica dos de organismos eussociais. Neste cenário, é particularmente desafiador identificar a relação entre os comportamentos individuais, característicos de formigas de um dado morfotipo, e os padrões globais coletivos observados na colônia, como por exemplo, o padrão temporal da atividade de forrageamento. No caso de formigas Atta sexdens, apesar de ser reconhecida a importância do polimorfismo na divisão de tarefas, não foi investigado o seu papel na determinação do padrão temporal com que as tarefas são realizadas. Esta questão é especialmente interessante no caso das trilhas...

Low variation in ribosomal DNA and internal transcribed spacers of the symbiotic fungi of leaf-cutting ants (Attini: Formicidae)

Silva-Pinhati, A. C. O.; Bacci Junior, Mauricio; Hinkle, G.; Sogin, M.L.; Pagnocca, Fernando Carlos; Martins, V. G.; Bueno, O. C.; Hebling, Maria José Aparecida
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica (ABRADIC) Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica (ABRADIC)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1463-1472
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.1%
Leaf-cutting ants of the genera Atta and Acromyrmex (tribe Attini) are symbiotic with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Leucoagaricus (tribe Leucocoprineae), which they cultivate on vegetable matter inside their nests. We determined the variation of the 28S, 18S, and 5.8S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene loci and the rapidly evolving internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2) of 15 sympatric and allopatric fungi associated with colonies of 11 species of leafcutter ants living up to 2,600 km apart in Brazil. We found that the fungal rDNA and ITS sequences from different species of ants were identical (or nearly identical) to each other, whereas 10 GenBank Leucoagaricus species showed higher ITS variation. Our findings suggest that Atta and Acromyrmex leafcutters living in geographic sites that are very distant from each other cultivate a single fungal species made up of closely related lineages of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. We discuss the strikingly high similarity in the ITS1 and ITS2 regions of the Atta and Acromyrmex symbiotic L. gongylophorus studied by us, in contrast to the lower similarity displayed by their non-symbiotic counterparts. We suggest that the similarity of our L. gongylophorus isolates is an indication of the recent association of the fungus with these ants...

COEVOLUTION BETWEEN ATTINE ANTS and ACTINOMYCETE BACTERIA: A REEVALUATION

Mueller, Ulrich G.; Dash, Debadutta; Rabeling, Christian; Rodrigues, Andre
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Publicador: Blackwell Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 2894-2912
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); We reassess the coevolution between actinomycete bacteria and fungus-gardening (attine) ants. Actinomycete bacteria are of special interest because they are metabolic mutualists of diverse organisms (e.g., in nitrogen-fixation or antibiotic production) and because Pseudonocardia actinomycetes are thought to serve disease-suppressing functions in attine gardens. Phylogenetic information from culture-dependent and culture-independent microbial surveys reveals (1) close affinities between free-living and ant-associated Pseudonocardia, and (2) essentially no topological correspondence between ant and Pseudonocardia phylogenies, indicating frequent bacterial acquisition from environmental sources. Identity of ant-associated Pseudonocardia and isolates from soil and plants implicates these environments as sources from which attine ants acquire Pseudonocardia. Close relatives of Atta leafcutter ants have abundant Pseudonocardia, but Pseudonocardia in Atta is rare and appears at the level of environmental contamination. In contrast, actinomycete bacteria in the genera Mycobacterium and Microbacterium can be readily isolated from gardens and starter-cultures of Atta. The accumulated phylogenetic evidence is inconsistent with prevailing views of specific coevolution between Pseudonocardia...

Seed removal by ants from faeces produced by different vertebrate species

Pizo, M. A.; Guimaraes, P. R.; Oliveira, P. S.
Fonte: Universite Laval Publicador: Universite Laval
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 136-140
ENG
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Ants frequently harvest seeds from faeces of frugivorous vertebrates. By transporting these seeds to nests, ants may influence seed dispersal success of plants. Seed removal by ants from vertebrate faeces is influenced by the seed species involved. Faeces from different vertebrates differ in chemical composition and physical characteristics. It remains unclear, however, whether the faeces itself affects the ant-seed interaction. In this study experimental seed-containing faecal portions were prepared using defecations of birds, marsupials, and monkeys and seeds of two aroids (Philodendron corcovadense and P. ppendiculatum, Araceae) and one liana species (Schlegelia parviflora, Bignoniaceae). Faecal portions were arranged along a transect established in the understory of a lowland rainforest in southeast Brazil. For P. appendiculatum the probability of detection and the proportion of seeds removed were identical between marsupial and monkey faeces. For P. corcovadense and S. parviflora, the probability of detection was affected by seed species and, apparently, also by the interaction between seed species and type of faeces (P = 0.097), but not by the type of faeces itself (bird or monkey). Both factors (i.e., seed species and type of faeces) affected the proportion of seeds removed (faeces type was marginally significant; P = 0.08)...

Analysis of Ant Communities Comparing Two Methods for Sampling Ants in an Urban Park in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

Ribeiro, Felipe M.; Sibinel, Neiva; Ciocheti, Giordano; Campos, Ana E. C.
Fonte: Univ Estadual Feira Santana Publicador: Univ Estadual Feira Santana
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 971-984
ENG
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This study aimed to analyze the species composition and functional groups of the ant community and to assess the efficiency of two sampling methods, pitfall and leaf litter sampling, in an urban park. A total of 1,401 ants were collected, which belonged to six subfamilies and 36 species. The predominant species was Wasmannia auropunctata (present in 45.36% of the samples), while the functional group of opportunistic ants were the most frequent (present in 83.75% of the samples) and abundant (95.29% of the total collected specimens) functional group. The Jaccard Similarity Index showed a low similarity between the two sampling methods, as the difference of the number of individuals for each species between these two methods was not significant in only one case (Linepithema sp. 1, p = 0.4561). The fungus-growing and cryptic ants were more collected in leaflitter samples (p<0.0001; p = 0.0348 respectively). Although there was no significant difference (p = 0.6397) between the two sampling methods for the total individuals of opportunistic ants, more species of this group were collected in pitfall traps. This difference was not significant because of the high presence of W. auropunctata, an opportunistic ant, in samples of leaf litter. Due to the predominance of tramp ants in the studied area...

ANTS AS POTENTIAL VECTORS OF PATHOGENS IN HOSPITALS IN THE STATE OF SAO-PAULO, BRAZIL

Fowler, H. G.; Bueno, O. C.; Sadatsune, T.; Montelli, A. C.
Fonte: Icipe Science Press Publicador: Icipe Science Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 367-370
ENG
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Baiting studies performed in large, medium and small hospitals in Brazil revealed the presence of 14 ant species, with up to nine recorded in one hospital. Dominant species were exotic ants, and in the large hospital, Tapinoma melanocephalum was the most prevalent. Ants were not uniformly spread through the hospitals, but tended to be found in the more critical areas, particularly in nursery, intensive care, obstetrics, neurology and dermatology units. Bacteriological studies using specific media for bacteria associated with intra-hospital infections indicated the potential for the mechanical vectoring of species of Staphylococcus, Serratia, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, Candida and Enterococcus by ants. Although T. melanocephalum did not have the highest rate of association with these bacteria, its ubiquitous occurrences resulted in the highest overall potential as a vector of these bacteria. Because of a large number of ant species occurring in Brazilian hospitals, ants pose a potential problem to the spread of diseases in hospitals. Because of the number of associated ant species in hospitals, the control of this potential problem is much more difficult than in registered temperate areas.

Association between Pseudonocardia symbionts and Atta leaf-cutting ants suggested by improved isolation methods

Marsh, Sarah E.; Poulsen, Michael; Gorosito, Norma B.; Pinto-Tomás, Adrián; Masiulionis, Virginia E.; Currie, Cameron R.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 17-25
ENG
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Fungus-growing ants associate with multiple symbiotic microbes, including Actinobacteria for production of antibiotics. The best studied of these bacteria are within the genus Pseudonocardia, which in most fungus-growing ants are conspicuously visible on the external cuticle of workers. However, given that fungus-growing ants in the genus Atta do not carry visible Actinobacteria on their cuticle, it is unclear if this genus engages in the symbiosis with Pseudonocardia. Here we explore whether improving culturing techniques can allow for successful isolation of Pseudonocardia from Atta cephalotes leaf-cutting ants. We obtained Pseudonocardia from 9 of 11 isolation method/colony component combinations from all 5 colonies intensively sampled. The most efficient technique was bead-beating workers in phosphate buffer solution, then plating the suspension on carboxymethylcellulose medium. Placing these strains in a fungus-growing ant-associated Pseudonocardia phylogeny revealed that while some strains grouped with clades of Pseudonocardia associated with other genera of fungus-growing ants, a large portion of the isolates fell into two novel phylogenetic clades previously not identified from this ant-microbe symbiosis. Our findings suggest that Pseudonocardia may be associated with Atta fungus-growing ants...

The metapleural glands of fungus-growing and non-fungus-growing ants: Ultrastructural study

Vieira, Alexsandro Santana; Bueno, Odair Correa; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel
Fonte: Brill Academic Publishers Publicador: Brill Academic Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 277-294
ENG
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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Processo FAPESP: 08/54301-3; The metapleural glands are considered an autapomorphic structure to ants and probable have an antibiotic or antifungal function. The present study was aimed at investigating the ultrastructural morphology of the metapleural glands in ants which have different feeding types: from fungus-growing ants, the higher and lower attine, and non-fungus-growing ants from the tribes Blepharidattini and Ectatommini analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Plasma membrane invaginations in secretory cells of both fungus-growing and non-fungus-growing ants facilitate absorption of extracellular material from hemolymph. Higher and lower attines differed slightly from non-fungus-growing ants, by the presence of oval secretory cells and well-developed RER in the metapleural glands, which indicates a higher production of secretion in attines. Also, well-developed Golgi regions in the leaf-cutting ants and Ectatommini probably modify the secretions, produced by the secretory cell or coming of the hemolymph, into pheromone or antimicrobial compounds, the latter mainly in leaf-cutting ants. Still...

Interações entre formigas, frutos e sementes em solo de cerrado : o papel de formigas na biologia de sementes e plantulas; Interactions etween ants, fruits and seeds in the cerrado : the role of ants in the biology of seeds and seedlings

Alexander Vicente Christianini
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/08/2007 PT
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Nosso conhecimento a respeito dos sistemas de dispersão de sementes tem aumentado consideravelmente nos últimos anos. Um número crescente de estudos tem mostrado que a regeneração de plantas é freqüentemente muito mais complexa do que pensávamos, incluindo vários agentes ao longo de etapas subseqüentes do processo de dispersão de sementes. Por exemplo, formigas podem rearranjar a sombra de sementes que cai ao solo, o que pode influenciar as probabilidades de transição do estágio de semente para plântula durante o recrutamento. Neste trabalho reportamos informações mostrando que formigas são importantes agentes de dispersão secundária de sementes na maior savana da América do Sul, o cerrado. Formigas interagiram com diásporos caídos de muitas plantas dispersas primariamente por vertebrados frugívoros. Formigas freqüentemente limparam as sementes da polpa dos frutos, o que aumentou sua germinação. As sementes de Erythroxylum pelleterianum (Erythroxylaceae), Xylopia aromatica (Annonaceae) e Miconia rubiginosa (Melastomataceae) são dispersas primariamente por aves, mas a maior parte de seus frutos cai ao solo sob a planta-mãe. Formigas removeram grande parte destes diásporos caídos, e promoveram dispersão direcionada a microsítios ricos em nutrientes onde houve maior sobrevivência de plântulas...

Variação espacial em sistemas multi-tróficos : plantas hospedeiras e defesa contras formigas em lepidópteros; Spatial variation in multi-trophic systems: host-plants and defense against ants in Lepidoptera

Sebastian Felipe Sendoya Echeverry
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/08/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.33%
As formigas são organismos dominantes em muitos ecossistemas tropicais, dentre os quais se encontra o Cerrado. É sabido que no dossel de florestas tropicais a maioria das formigas é altamente dependente de alimentos líquidos derivados das plantas (como nectários extraflorais ou secreções de insetos produtores de exsudatos), sendo considerada funcionalmente como herbívora. A alta abundância destes recursos na folhagem do Cerrado é considerada um incentivo para visitação de formigas, entretanto, não sabemos qual é o grau de dependência da comunidade de formigas de Cerrado por estes recursos. Algumas formigas podem se comportar como predadores oportunistas enquanto forrageiam nas plantas, de forma que para algumas plantas de Cerrado foi comprovado que a presença das formigas pode afetar os níveis de infestação de insetos fitófagos. Neste estudo avaliamos a influência das formigas sobre as larvas de lepidópteros que habitam a folhagem das plantas, tanto para os padrões de uso de hospedeiro como para as estratégias de defesa. Testes de laboratório mostraram que a construção de abrigos foi a estratégia mais frequente e eficiente para evitar o ataque de formigas. Outras características como o tamanho da larva foram importantes para predizer o ataque das formigas...

Ants in a hospital environment and their potential as mechanical bacterial vectors

Lima,Wanda Ramos dos Santos; Marques,Sirlei Garcia; Rodrigues,Fernanda Souto; Rebelo,Jose Manuel Macario
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Introduction We studied the richness and abundance of ant species, their bacteria and the bacteria isolated from patient clinical samples. Methods Ants were collected with baited traps at 64 sites in a public hospital in São Luis, State of Maranhão, Brazil. Results In total, 1,659 ants from 14 species were captured. The most frequent species were Crematogaster victima, Solenopsis saevissima, Tapinoma melanocephalum, Camponotus vittatus and Paratrechina fulva. Forty-one species of bacteria were isolated from the ants and 18 from patients. Conclusions Ants are potential vehicles for pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria, and they can represent a risk factor in nosocomial infections.

Low variation in ribosomal DNA and internal transcribed spacers of the symbiotic fungi of leaf-cutting ants (Attini: Formicidae)

Silva-Pinhati,A.C.O.; Bacci Jr.,M.; Hinkle,G.; Sogin,M.L.; Pagnocca,F.C.; Martins,V.G.; Bueno,O.C.; Hebling,M.J.A.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.1%
Leaf-cutting ants of the genera Atta and Acromyrmex (tribe Attini) are symbiotic with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Leucoagaricus (tribe Leucocoprineae), which they cultivate on vegetable matter inside their nests. We determined the variation of the 28S, 18S, and 5.8S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene loci and the rapidly evolving internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2) of 15 sympatric and allopatric fungi associated with colonies of 11 species of leafcutter ants living up to 2,600 km apart in Brazil. We found that the fungal rDNA and ITS sequences from different species of ants were identical (or nearly identical) to each other, whereas 10 GenBank Leucoagaricus species showed higher ITS variation. Our findings suggest that Atta and Acromyrmex leafcutters living in geographic sites that are very distant from each other cultivate a single fungal species made up of closely related lineages of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. We discuss the strikingly high similarity in the ITS1 and ITS2 regions of the Atta and Acromyrmex symbiotic L. gongylophorus studied by us, in contrast to the lower similarity displayed by their non-symbiotic counterparts. We suggest that the similarity of our L. gongylophorus isolates is an indication of the recent association of the fungus with these ants...

Irish ants (hymenoptera, formicidae) : distribution, conservation and functional relationships

Niechoj, Robin
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: Doctoral thesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations; none
ENG
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peer-reviewed; This thesis consists of six chapters. Chapter 1 provides a general introduction to this work within the context of the wider national soil biodiversity project CréBeo. Furthermore ants, earthworms and the use of stable isotopes measurements as a tool for the investigation of trophic ecology of ants and other organisms are introduced. Chapter 2 presents the baseline survey undertaken for ants. An overview of the outcomes of surveys on other soil organisms is also provided. Chapter 3 provides information on the distribution of Irish ants in the Counties Clare, Galway and Limerick. It identifies species and habitats worthy of conservation and gives recommendations for the conservation of ants and suggests situations where information on ants should feed into conservation plans for other taxa. Chapter 4 investigates the relationships between long established colonies of the soil dwelling ant Lasius flavus (F.) and the earthworm community in old limestone grasslands. Chapter 5 presents new information on the trophic interactions of Irish ants based on the use of stable isotopes. It includes not just species of three native genera from a limestone pavement, a notably rare habitat in the European context, but also addresses ontogenetic...

Brasilianische Pilzzüchter-Ameisen der Gattung Mycetophylax – Lebensweise und Taxonomie; Brazilian fungus growing ants of the genus Mycetophylax – natural history and taxonomy

Klingenberg, Christiana
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
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Die Untersuchungen zur Lebensweise von Mycetophylax-Arten (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Attini) haben gezeigt, dass die drei Arten, die auch nach der taxonomischen Revision noch zu Mycetophylax gehören, vorwiegenden in Brasilien an den Stränden und Restingas des südatlantischen Ozeans vorkommen. Doch gibt es keine direkte Überlappung in der Besiedlung von Mikrohabitaten. Die Arten M. conformis und M. simplex sind zudem in verschiedenen geographischen Breiten zu finden. Mycetophylax morschi (früher Cyphomyrmex) lebt zwar in den gleichen Zonen, die Nester befinden sich aber in der Restinga und nur in solchen Dünen, die bereits von Pflanzenbewuchs geprägt sind. Nester der Arten M. conformis und M. simplex findet man dagegen nur in den Vordünen, ohne oder mit nur sehr wenig Bewuchs. Die Nestarchitekturen sind ähnlich mit einigen artspezifischen Unterschieden. Die Kolonien sind monogyn und enthalten in der Regel weniger als 300 Arbeiterinnen. Mit der Haltung von Labornestern hatte ich nur bei Kolonien von M. conformis über einen längeren Zeitraum Erfolg. Die Ergebnisse der molekularbiologischen Untersuchungen haben Monandrie für die Königinnen aller drei Arten M. conformis, M. simplex und C. morschi ergeben. Die Königinnen haben also nur einmal kopuliert...

Arboreal Ants Use the ???Velcro?? Principle??? to Capture Very Large Prey

Dejean, Alain; Leroy, C??line; Corbara, Bruno; Roux, Olivier; C??r??ghino, R??gis; Orivel, J??r??me; Boulay, Rapha??l
Fonte: Public Library of Science (PLOS) Publicador: Public Library of Science (PLOS)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Plant-ants live in a mutualistic association with host plants known as ???myrmecophytes??? that provide them with a nesting place and sometimes with extra-floral nectar (EFN) and/or food bodies (FBs); the ants can also attend sap-sucking Hemiptera for their honeydew. In return, plant-ants, like most other arboreal ants, protect their host plants from defoliators. To satisfy their nitrogen requirements, however, some have optimized their ability to capture prey in the restricted environment represented by the crowns of trees by using elaborate hunting techniques. In this study, we investigated the predatory behavior of the ant Azteca andreae which is associated with the myrmecophyte Cecropia obtusa. We noted that up to 8350 ant workers per tree hide side-by-side beneath the leaf margins of their host plant with their mandibles open, waiting for insects to alight. The latter are immediately seized by their extremities, and then spread-eagled; nestmates are recruited to help stretch, carve up and transport prey. This group ambush hunting technique is particularly effective when the underside of the leaves is downy, as is the case for C. obtusa. In this case, the hook-shaped claws of the A. andreae workers and the velvet-like structure of the underside of the leaves combine to act like natural Velcro?? that is reinforced by the group ambush strategy of the workers...

Acromyrmex charruanus: a new inquiline social parasite species of leaf-cutting ants

Rabeling, C.; Schultz, T. R.; Bacci, M.; Bollazzi, M.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 335-349
ENG
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Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Social parasites exploit the colony resources of social species to secure their own survival and reproduction. Social parasites are frequently studied as models for conflict and cooperation as well as for speciation. The eusocial Hymenoptera harbor a diverse array of socially parasitic species with idiosyncratic life history strategies, but it is probably in the ants where social parasites are most speciose and have evolved the highest degrees of morphological and behavioral specialization. In the fungus-growing ants, a total of five obligate social parasites are known: four species are parasites of leaf-cutting ants and one species parasitizes a primitive fungus-growing ant species in the genus Mycocepurus. Here we describe a new species of socially parasitic leaf-cutting ant, Acromyrmex charruanus sp. nov., from Uruguay, and we report initial observations on the parasite's life history as well as on the morphological and behavioral adaptations related to the inquiline syndrome. Our observations suggest that Acromyrmex charruanus is an obligate inquiline social parasite of the thatch-mound-building, leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex heyeri. Acromyrmex charruanus appears to be tolerant of the host...

Subterranean ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) as prey of fossorial reptiles (Reptilia, Squamata: Amphisbaenidae) in Central Brazil

ESTEVES, Flávia de Araújo; BRANDÃO, Carlos Roberto Ferreira; VIEGAS, Karen
Fonte: USP Publicador: USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.1%
The ant diversity observed in stomach contents of fossorial reptiles was compared to the subterranean ant richness collected using traditional and modern techniques of ant collections. We analyzed the alimentary tract of 64 specimens of amphisbaenians (4 Amphisbaena alba, 10 A. fuliginosa, 25 A. vermicularis, and 25 Leposternon infraorbitale) collected during the fauna rescue for the construction of Serra da Mesa hydroelectric dam in the Tocantins River (from 1992 to 1997), in Minaçu County, Goiás, Brazil. We found only five ant species present in the stomach contents, all belonging to the army ants subfamily Ecitoninae. In contrast, the traditional techniques for subterranean ants' collection are far more efficient than the exam of fossorial reptile's stomach contents, collecting a much richer and diverse ant fauna. The exclusive occurrence of army ants in the alimentary tract of these fossorial reptiles suggests that they trace the chemical trails laid by the ants while moving inside and over the soil. Further, the occurrence of the epigaeic army ants Eciton and Labidus in the stomach contents suggests that amphisbaenians may forage on the soil surface as well.; A diversidade de formigas no conteúdo estomacal de répteis fossoriais foi comparada à riqueza de formigas subterrâneas coletadas com o uso de técnicas tradicionais e modernas para sua coleta. Analisamos o trato alimentar de 64 espécimes de anfisbenídeos (4 Amphisbaena alba...

Biologia e ecologia de Pleuroptya silicalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) e Urbanus esmeraldus (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae): taticas defensivas e interações com formigas em arbustos de Urera baccifera (Urticaceae); Biology and ecology of Pleuroptya silicalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Urbanus esmeraldus (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae): defence tactics and interactions with ants on shrubs of Urera baccifera (Urticaceae)

Alice Ramos de Moraes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/09/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
1. O presente trabalho investiga aspectos comportamentais e de história natural de duas espécies de lepidópteros que se alimentam de Urera baccifera (Urticaceae), uma planta visitada por 22 espécies de formigas. Ambas as espécies, Pleuroptya silicalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) e Urbanus esmeraldus (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae), constróem abrigos foliares e apresentam diferentes mecanismos de defesa contra predação. Por exemplo, quando perturbadas, larvas de P. silicalis sacodem o corpo violentamente, jogam-se da folha, mordem e regurgitam. Larvas de U. esmeraldus mordem e regurgitam, apenas. Ambas as espécies preferem folhas maduras, passam por cinco estádios de desenvolvimento e apresentam características comuns a outros membros de suas famílias. 2. Pleuroptya silicalis constrói abrigos foliares em forma de tubo, enchendo-os com seda e fezes, sendo comum encontrar vários indivíduos no mesmo abrigo. Já Urbanus esmeraldus constrói dois tipos de abrigos foliares ao longo de seu desenvolvimento e apenas uma larva é encontrada em cada abrigo. 3. Abrigos foliares artificiais, similares aos abrigos de P. silicalis (porém sem fezes ou seda dentro) não fornecem proteção a cupins, usados como herbívoros simulados. As fezes também não provocam mudanças de comportamento em formigas no laboratório...