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Análise da potencialidade ergogênica e riscos associados ao uso do antiinflamatório não-esteroidal ibuprofeno em corredores de endurance; Analysis of the ergogenic potential and risks associated with the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory ibuprofen in endurance runners

Silva, Eduardo Ramos da
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
Introdução: Devido ao fato dos antiinflamatórios serem amplamente utilizados no meio atlético, da suposta melhora de desempenho pelo efeito analgésico, independentemente da presença ou não de lesão, e, por fim, em razão dos extensos relatos de efeitos adversos associados a esta classe farmacológica, o objetivo da presente Tese Doutoral foi verificar a potencialidade do antiinflamatório não-esteroidal (AINE) Ibuprofeno em enquadrar-se como doping segundo o Código Mundial Antidoping da Agência Mundial Antidoping (WADA-COI), segundo critérios de ergogenia e risco à saúde em atleta em corrida de duração. Para tanto, foram realizados um estudo observacional e três ensaios clínicos, randomizados e duplo-cego. Materiais e Métodos: No primeiro trabalho (laboratorial), 14 atletas especialistas em provas de longa duração realizaram dois testes progressivos de corrida em esteira rolante com 72 horas de intervalo (modelo cruzado), sendo administrada em cada teste dose única e por via oral de 1,2g de AINE ou Placebo (lactose). Os resultados indicaram que o uso de AINE reduziu a percepção de esforço no segundo limiar ventilatório (p 0,01), todavia com diminuição da velocidade associada (p=0,01) e redução do VO2máx (p=0...

Micro-extração adsortiva aplicada na análise de esteróides anabólicos em contexto de controlo anti-doping

Ahmad, Samir Marcos Esmail
Fonte: Universidade de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2013 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.35%
Tese de mestrado em Bioquímica, apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa, através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2013; A testosterona é uma das substâncias mais abusadas por atletas em todo o mundo. Por forma a controlar a sua administração exógena, a Agência Mundial de Antidopagem (WADA) produziu diretivas para se proceder à respetiva análise, que combinam um passo de extração e outro de derivatização, que permitam a análise posterior por cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massa. No entanto, face ao elevado tempo despendido, assim como à utilização de solventes orgânicos tóxicos, é necessário o desenvolvimento de métodos analíticos alternativos que permitam a diminuição do consumo de solventes e eliminação do passo de derivatização, mantendo ou melhorando o desempenho analítico. O presente trabalho consistiu no desenvolvimento, otimização, validação e aplicação de um método inovador, alicerçado na tecnologia de amostragem por flutuação, para a determinação de testosterona e epitestosterona em matrizes de urina. Por conseguinte, recorreu-se à técnica de micro-extração adsortiva em barra seguida de dessorção líquida e análise por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com deteção por rede de díodos (BAμE-LD/HPLC-DAD). Para otimização da metodologia desenvolvida...

Specificity and selectivity improvement in doping analysis using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry

Barbosa,Samantha S.; Leal,Felipe D.; Padilha,Monica C.; Silva,Raphael S. F.; Pereira,Henrique Marcelo G.; Aquino Neto,Francisco R.; Silva Júnior,Ademário I. da
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used for the identification of forty doping agents. The improvement in the specificity was remarkable, allowing the resolution of analytes that could not be done by one-dimensional chromatographic systems. The sensitivity observed for different classes of prohibited substances was clearly below the value required by the World Anti-Doping Agency. In addition time-of-flight mass spectrometry gives full spectrum for all analytes without any interference from the matrix, resulting in selectivity improvements. These results could support the implementation of an exhaustive monitoring approach for hundreds of doping agents in a single injection.

Cannabis in Sport: Anti-Doping Perspective

Huestis, Marilyn A.; Mazzoni, Irene; Rabin, Olivier
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/11/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
Since 2004, when the World Anti-Doping Agency assumed the responsi-bility for establishing and maintaining the list of prohibited substances and methods in sport (i.e. the Prohibited List), cannabinoids have been prohibited in all sports during competition. The basis for this prohibition can be found in the World Anti-Doping Code, which defines the three criteria used to consider banning a substance. In this context, we discuss the potential of can-nabis to enhance sports performance, the risk it poses to the athlete’s health and its violation of the spirit of sport. Although these compounds are prohibited in-competition only, we explain why the pharmacokinetics of their main psychoactive compound, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, may complicate the results management of adverse analytical findings. Passive inhalation does not appear to be a plausible explanation for a positive test. Although the prohibition of cannabinoids in sports is one of the most controversial issues in anti-doping, in this review we stress the reasons behind this prohibition, with strong emphasis on the evolving knowledge of cannabinoid pharmacology.

Time for change: a roadmap to guide the implementation of the World Anti-Doping Code 2015

Dvorak, Jiri; Baume, Norbert; Botré, Francesco; Broséus, Julian; Budgett, Richard; Frey, Walter O; Geyer, Hans; Harcourt, Peter Rex; Ho, Dave; Howman, David; Isola, Victor; Lundby, Carsten; Marclay, François; Peytavin, Annie; Pipe, Andrew; Pitsiladis,
Fonte: BMJ Publishing Group Publicador: BMJ Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
A medical and scientific multidisciplinary consensus meeting was held from 29 to 30 November 2013 on Anti-Doping in Sport at the Home of FIFA in Zurich, Switzerland, to create a roadmap for the implementation of the 2015 World Anti-Doping Code. The consensus statement and accompanying papers set out the priorities for the antidoping community in research, science and medicine. The participants achieved consensus on a strategy for the implementation of the 2015 World Anti-Doping Code. Key components of this strategy include: (1) sport-specific risk assessment, (2) prevalence measurement, (3) sport-specific test distribution plans, (4) storage and reanalysis, (5) analytical challenges, (6) forensic intelligence, (7) psychological approach to optimise the most deterrent effect, (8) the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) and confounding factors, (9) data management system (Anti-Doping Administration & Management System (ADAMS), (10) education, (11) research needs and necessary advances, (12) inadvertent doping and (13) management and ethics: biological data. True implementation of the 2015 World Anti-Doping Code will depend largely on the ability to align thinking around these core concepts and strategies. FIFA, jointly with all other engaged International Federations of sports (Ifs)...

THE UEFA EURO 2012 ANTI-DOPING PROGRAMME – SCIENTIFIC REVIEW

Earl, M.; Vouillamoz, M.; Kwiatkowska, D.; Turek-Lepa, E.; Pokrywka, A.; Saugy, M.; Baume, N.; Gmeiner, G.
Fonte: Institute of Sport in Warsaw Publicador: Institute of Sport in Warsaw
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
The final tournament of the UEFA European Football Championship is one of the top sporting events in the world, and a high-profile event of this kind requires a well-planned and well-executed anti-doping programme to ensure the integrity of results in the competition. UEFA EURO 2012 presented a unique logistical challenge, with the tournament spread across two countries, both covering a large geographical area. This paper discusses the planning and delivery of both the pre tournament out-of-competition (OOC) testing programme and the in-competition (IC) programme, as well as reviewing the activities of doping control officers (DCOs), the whereabouts programme and assessing the sample collection and transport process. The analytical approach applied is also discussed, along with an overview of the distribution of T/E ratios and blood parameters.

Sanções disciplinares aplicáveis em caso de doping a atletas profissionais e não profissionais

Cunha, Renata da Cruz
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde; Ciências da Saúde Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde; Ciências da Saúde
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
A presente pesquisa descritiva do tipo documental centrou-se em analisar as sanções disciplinares aplicadas em caso de doping, a atletas profissionais e não profissionais que atuam no Brasil. A amostragem foi levantada através de um processo de seleção não probabilística intencional, utilizando-se como sujeitos, 18 atletas de uma modalidade esportiva dita não profissional: atletismo e 19 de uma modalidade profissional: futebol, de ambos os sexos, os quais tenham sido flagrados pelo exame de controle de dopagem da Confederação Brasileira de Atletismo (CBAt) e da Confederação Brasileira de Futebol (CBF). Como instrumentos de análise, foram utilizados os diagnósticos de dopagem positiva, arquivados junto a CBAt e CBF; além dos processos julgados pelo Superior Tribunal de Justiça Desportiva (STJD) do atletismo entre os anos de 2003/2007 e os processos julgados pelo STJD do futebol no ano de 2007. Os resultados demonstram que as sanções aplicadas aos desportistas diferem muito entre as modalidades incluídas no estudo. Enquanto encontramos, no atletismo a aplicação de sanções em conformidade com o Código Mundial Anti Doping (CMAD) com penalidades de no mínimo de dois anos, no futebol encontrou-se grande número de absolvições ou aplicação de penalidades conforme o Código Brasileiro de Justiça Desportiva (CBJD) que prevê penalidades muito inferiores. Por outro lado verificou-se ser a modalidade Futebol a que mais realiza controles...

Desenvolvimento de ensaio imunoqu??mico para detec????o de doping com eritropoetina; Development of immunochemical assay for detection of doping with erythropoietin

COLLARES, Thais Farias
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Biotecnologia; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Biotecnologia; UFPel; BR Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Biotecnologia; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Biotecnologia; UFPel; BR
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.52%
The history of sports competition has been related to the use of methods for physical training associated with physiological methods to increase athlete performance. Ethical issues involving the high performance sport and doping are confused with the history of competitive sports. The World Anti - Doping Agency (WADA) prohibits the use of substances or methods to artificially increase sports performance. Currently, 258 substances are listed by WADA and athletes around the world are subjected to tests proving the non-use of doping. EPO is a glycoprotein hormone that has as its main physiological effect induction of erythropoiesis and thereby improving the capacity to transport oxygen in the blood. For these reason EPO has been included in WADA list. The analytical differentiation of endogenous erythropoietin from its recombinant counterpart, using isoelectric focusing and double blotting is a milestone in the detection of doping with recombinant erythropoietin. However, several analogs of the original recombinant EPO are not easily detectable by standard IEF method, requiring the development of alternatives for the detection of doping. In order to improve the current methods of EPO detection, monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against EPO were obtained and used in various techniques for detection of EPO in biological samples. However...

A Pragmatic Approach to Ethical Inquiry on Transhuman Athletes and Gene Doping in Sport

Meshki, Rand
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
Gene doping is the most recent addition to the list of banned practices formulated by the World Anti-doping Agency. It is a subset of doping that utilizes the technology involved in gene therapy. The latter is still in the experimental phase but has the potential to be used as a type of medical treatment involving alterations of a patient‘s genes. I apply a pragmatic form of ethical inquiry to evaluate the application of this medical innovation in the context of sport for performance-enhancement purposes and how it will affect sport, the individual, society and humanity at large. I analyze the probable ethical implications that will emerge from such procedures in terms of values that lie at the heart of the major arguments offered by scholars on both affirmative and opposing sides of the debate on gene doping, namely fairness, autonomy and the conception of what it means to be human.

Doping in sport: an interdisciplinary study of its management and prevention.

Hermann, Aaron
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
This thesis addresses aspects of two key fields of research. One component addresses the areas of medicine and science, whilst the second addresses the areas of law and policy. This research contributes new results regarding effects of doping on sport achievements, the widespread nature of doping and offers new ideas to the area of anti-doping, anti-doping policy and law, and to the greater sporting arena. It firstly demonstrates that doping is far more widespread than official results would have one think. Doping is not confined to a limited few individuals, rather it is a widespread major problem in a number of sports throughout the world. It furthermore demonstrates that summer sports appear to have a greater problem with doping than winter sports. Next, it shows that current anti-doping testing and detection systems are inefficient and ineffective. The current system is structured such that a single test will, in most cases, not detect a doped athlete. Moreover, in order for the current system to be effective, testing and funding would need to be increased to such a level as to make anti-doping, and sports in general, economically unfeasible. This thesis also shows that in order to combat doping (given the realities of the sporting arena and the findings of the papers) there are a few different approaches which could be taken to change the laws and policies; firstly...

Anti-doping systems in sports are doomed to fail: a probability and cost analysis

Maciej Henneberg, A.H.; Hermann, A.
Fonte: OMICS International Publicador: OMICS International
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.33%
OBJECTIVE: Doping in sports now seems to be more widespread despite testing. The objective is to assess the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of the current anti-doping system. METHODS: A probability and cost analysis was performed. Using calculations based on official world-level data of positive doping test results, sensitivity and frequency of testing in 93 categories of sport, and estimates of numerical characteristics (frequency, window of detectability, test predictability) RESULTS: A low probability of doping detection was demonstrated; 0.029 for doping once a week by a single random test with average sensitivity (40%) and window of detectability of 48 hours. With 12 tests a year probability of detection of continuous doping is ~33%. To detect 100% of doping in one year 16-50 tests per athlete must be done costing ~$25,000. CONCLUSION: Testing is not economically viable for effective detection. Changes are thus required to the current system to combat sophisticated doping techniques.; Aaron Hermann, and Maciej Henneberg

Entstehung einer Dopingkarriere: Prädiktoren eines Phasenmodells von Kindern und Jugendlichen in Baden-Württemberg.; Doping Career Development: Predictors of a Life-Cycle Model in Children and Adolescents

Kovar, Peter
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
Doping steht durch die permanente Präsenz in den Medien mehr denn je im Fokus der Öffentlichkeit. Doping ist nicht nur auf den monetären Zwängen ausgesetzten Spitzensport begrenzt. Doping entwickelt sich zum Problem der menschlichen Gesellschaft, die den Missbrauch mit leistungssteigernden Mittel einerseits missbilligt, andererseits aber geradezu aufgrund bestimmter Wertmaßstäbe und sozialer Prämisse herausfordert. Unter der Voraussetzung, dass Personen in komplexen Entscheidungssituationen unterschiedliche Stadien durchlaufen, soll in der vorliegenden Untersuchung der Entscheidungsprozess im Hinblick auf die Dopingdisposition von Kindern und Jugendlichen durchleuchtet und der Frage nach-gegangen werden, welche inneren und äußeren Prädiktoren/Indikatoren in den jeweiligen Phasen zu erkennen sind. Letzteres soll zur Formulierung sinnvoller Maßnahmen in der Dopingprävention beitragen. Die Auseinandersetzung mit dem Verständnis von Doping im wissenschaftlichen Bereich und im Sprachgebrauch von Kindern und Jugendlichen dient als Basis für die Untersuchungsaus-wertung und die Formulierung eines Drogenpräventionsansatzes (Kap.2). Der gesellschaftliche Rahmen der Drogenproblematik wird abgesteckt (Kap. 3). Ausgangspunkt ist die These...

Detection and metabolic investigations of a novel designer steroid: 3-chloro-17α-methyl-5α-androstan-17β-ol

Cawley, Adam T.; Blakey, Karen; Waller, Christopher C.; McLeod, Malcolm D.; Boyd, Sue; Heather, Alison; McGrath, Kristine C.; Handelsman, David J.; Willis, Anthony C.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 12 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
In 2012, seized capsules containing white powder were analyzed to show the presence of unknown steroid-related compounds. Subsequent gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) investigations identified a mixture of 3α- and 3β- isomers of the novel compound; 3-chloro-17α-methyl-α-androstan-17β-ol. Synthesis of authentic reference materials followed by comparison of NMR, GC-MS and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) data confirmed the finding of a new ‘designer’ steroid. Furthermore, in vitro androgen bioassays showed potent activity highlighting the potential for doping using this steroid. Due to the potential toxicity of the halogenated steroid, in vitro metabolic investigations of 3α-chloro-17α-methyl-α-androstan-17β-ol using equine and human S9 liver fractions were performed. For equine, GC-MS/MS analysis identified the diagnostic 3α-chloro-17α-methyl-5α-androstane-16α,17β-diol metabolite. For human, the 17α-methyl-α-androstane-3α,17β-diol metabolite was found. Results from these studies were used to verify the ability of GC-MS/MS precursor-ion scanning techniques to support untargeted detection strategies for designer steroids in anti-doping analyses.; Synthesis and in vitro metabolic investigations of 3α/β-chloro-17α-methyl-5α-androstan -17β-ol was suppo rted by the Austr a-lian Research Council Linkage Grant (LP120200444) Strat egies for the detection of designer ster oids in ra cehorses.

A critical examination of the involvement of Canadian high-performance athletes in the development of anti-doping policy

Jackson, Gregory R.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.4%
The use of certain perfonnance enhancing substances and methods has been defined as a major ethical breach by parties involved in the governance of highperfonnance sport. As a result, elite athletes worldwide are subject to rules and regulations set out in international and national anti-doping policies. Existing literature on the development of policies such as the World Anti-Doping Code and The Canadian antiDoping Program suggests a sport system in which athletes are rarely meaningfully involved in policy development (Houlihan, 2004a). Additionally, it is suggested that this lack of involvement is reflective of a similar lack of involvement in other areas of governance concerning athletes' lives. The purpose ofthis thesis is to examine the history and current state of athletes' involvement in the anti-doping policy process in Canada's high-perfonnance sport system. It includes discussion and analysis of recently conducted interviews with those involved in the policy process as well as an analysis of relevant documents, including anti-doping policies. The findings demonstrate that Canadian athletes have not been significantly involved in the creation of recently developed antidoping policies and that a re-evaluation of current policies is necessary to more fully recognize the reality of athletes' lives in Canada's high-perfonnance sport system and their rights within that system.

The Application of a Pluralist Approach of Global Administrative Law on the Governance of Doping in Sport

Gok, Erdal
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.53%
Plusieurs problèmes liés à l'utilisation de substances et méthodes interdites de dopage dans les sports posent de grands défis à la gouvernance antidopage. Afin de lutter contre le dopage, certains pays ont mis en oeuvre des cadres juridiques basés exclusivement sur le droit pénal tandis que d'autres pays ont plutôt misé sur des mécanismes et organismes spécialisés trouvant fondement en droit privé ou sur un régime hybride de droit public et privé. Ces différentes approches réglementaires ont pour conséquence de faire en sorte qu’il est très difficile de lutter efficacement contre le dopage dans les sports, notamment parce que leur exécution requiert un degré de collaboration internationale et une participation concertée des autorités publiques qui est difficile à mettre en place. À l’heure actuelle, on peut par exemple observer que les États n’arrivent pas à contrer efficacement la participation des syndicats et organisations transnationales liés au crime organisé dans le marché du dopage, ni à éliminer des substances et méthodes de dopage interdites par la réglementation. Par ailleurs, la gouvernance antidopage basée sur les règles prescrites par l’Agence mondiale antidopage prévoit des règles et des normes distinctes de dopage distinguant entre deux catégories de personnes...

Anti-doping education and dietary supplementation practice in Korean elite university athletes

Kim, Jongkyu; Lee, Namju; Kim, Eung-Joon; Ki, Sun-kyung; Yoon, Jaeryang; Lee, Mi-sook
Fonte: The Korean Nutrition Society and the Korean Society of Community Nutrition Publicador: The Korean Nutrition Society and the Korean Society of Community Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
This study was conducted to investigate relationships and gender differences in dietary supplement (DS) and oriental supplement (OS) prevalence as well as anti-doping awareness during training and the game period. Korea National Sport University athletes (343 male and 136 female) participated in this study and completed DS and OS practice and anti-doping awareness questionnaires. Forty-six percent of athletes used DS during the training period, and there was significantly higher DS use in females (53%) compared to males (43%) (P < 0.05). Twenty-eight percent of athletes used OS, and there was significantly higher OS use in females (35%) than males (26%) (P < 0.05) during the training period. The primary reason of DS use was to supply energy both in males (36%) and females (28%). The main reason for male athletes' OS use was to supply energy (41%). Meanwhile, the reasons for female athletes' OS use were to supply energy (23%), to maintain health (19%), and to improve recovery ability (20%), which showed a significant gender difference (P < 0.05). Athletes rated their perceived degree of satisfaction, perceived importance, and beliefs in efficacy of DS and OS use all over 50% during the training period, and no gender differences were detected. In a comparison between athletes educated about anti-doping (at least more than one time) and non-received athletes...

Questions of fairness and anti-doping in US cycling: The contrasting experiences of professionals and amateurs

Henning, April D.; Dimeo, Paul
Fonte: Informa Healthcare Publicador: Informa Healthcare
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
The focus of researchers, media and policy on doping in cycling is often limited to the professional level of the sport. However, anti-doping test results since 2001 demonstrate that banned substances are also used by US cyclists at lower levels of the sport, necessitating a broader view of the patterns and motivations of substance use within the sport. In this article, we describe and explain the doping culture that has emerged in domestic US cycling among amateur and semi-professionals. Through analysis of records from sports governing bodies and journalistic reports, we assess the range of violation types and discuss the detection and punishing of riders who were not proven to have intended to cheat but became “collateral damage” in the war on doping. We argue that the phenomenon of doping is more complex than what has been shown to occur in elite sport, as it includes a wider variety of behaviours, situations and motivations. We develop fresh insights by examining cases where doping has been accidental, intrinsically motivated, non-performance enhancing or the result of prescribed medical treatments banned by anti-doping authorities. Such trends call into question the fairness of anti-doping measures, and we discuss the possibility of developing localised solutions to testing and sanctioning amateur athletes.

An agent-based concept to analyze elite-athletes' doping behavior

Westmattelmann, Daniel; Goelden, Marcel; Schewe, Gerhard; Sascha Hokamp
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
A seemingly endless series of scandals has focused increasing public attention on the issue of doping among elite athletes. But we still do not know how many elite athletes really make use of banned drugs. In addition, we recognize the literature suffers a lack of appropriate game theory models for complex social interactions related to doping. Therefore, we think that an agent-based approach may allow doping behavior patterns in professional sports to be explored and elucidated. We conceptualize an agent-based model on three interacting objectives, namely (i) elite athletes, (ii) anti-doping laboratory and (iii) anti-doping agency. The latter agency announces antidoping rules and imposes penalties; the anti-doping laboratory executes doping controls and elite athletes compete for income. In particular, we focus on presenting an agent-based concept to analyze elite athletes’ doping behavior. Using such an agentbased framework and computational simulations may lead in the future to policy recommendations for the fight against doping.

The complexities of anti-doping violations: a case study of sanctioned cases in all performance levels of USA cycling

Henning, April D; Dimeo, Paul
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Text
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
The use of banned substances and techniques in sport is regulated by anti-doping rules co-ordinated by the World Anti-Doping Agency. The purposes of these rules are to protect the health of the athlete, the level playing field and what WADA refers to as the spirit of sport. In this article, we review the known cases of sanctions in USA cycling since 2001. We show that the diversity of cases expands upon the simplistic, one-dimensional understanding of doping as risky and cheating. Contrary to this paradigm, we establish a typology of cases that challenges the one size fits all approach and, more specifically, we argue that WADA should develop new policies with independent standards for amateur and masters athletes.

Knowledge and Perceptions of Pharmacy Students in Qatar on Anti-Doping in Sports and on Sports Pharmacy in Undergraduate Curricula

Awaisu, Ahmed; Mottram, David; Rahhal, Alaa; Alemrayat, Bayan; Ahmed, Afif; Stuart, Mark; Khalifa, Sherief
Fonte: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education Publicador: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 25/10/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
Objective. To assess pharmacy students’ knowledge and perceptions of doping and anti-doping in sports and to explore the curricular needs for undergraduate pharmacy in the field of sports pharmacy.