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Toxoplasmose animal no Brasil; Animal Toxoplasmosis in Brazil

Fialho, Cristina Germani; Teixeira, Mariana Caetano; Araujo, Flávio Antônio Pacheco de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
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36.04%
A toxoplasmose é causada pelo Toxoplasma gondii, parasito pertencente ao reino Protista, filo Apicomplexa, ordem Eucoccidiida e família Sarcocystidae. É um coccídeo intracelular obrigatório, que infecta naturalmente o homem, os animais selvagens e domésticos, e também os pássaros. É uma infecção de ampla distribuição geográfica e depende de alguns fatores como clima, condição socioeconômica e cultural. Os hospedeiros definitivos são os membros da família Felidae. A infecção ocorre pela ingestão de oocistos, taquizoítos, ou bradizoítos, e em algumas espécies, também por transmissão transplacentária e transmamária. É uma doença de importância em Saúde Pública, pelas alterações que causa nos fetos humanos, e de importância em produção animal pelas perdas por aborto. O diagnóstico laboratorial pode ser realizado pela demonstração do coccídeo (parasitológico), por métodos indiretos (imunológico) e por métodos de biologia molecular. A doença possui tratamento, mas não existem, atualmente, vacinas para toxoplasmose humana, apenas há uma vacina comercial para ovinos e estudos em outras espécies animais.; Toxoplasmosis is caused by Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite which belongs to the kingdom Protista...

A expressão da alegria no homem e no cão : emoção animal

Queimado, Ana Maria Muniz Vivas, 1951-
Fonte: Universidade de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 11/09/2014 POR
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The manifestation/demonstration of joy is made and understood through facial and bodily expressions. Joy is a positive feeling that is essential to the life of human beings; joy promotes the evolution of individuals. Those who live happily develop self-realization. Smiles and laughter are expressions which can be related to joy (happiness) and help to understand the feelings that one expresses. For example, a dog can also express joy with a laugh. In Art History, animals have been represented, in pre-history, with a magical character, and, in Antiquity, with a symbolic character. They’re present in the themes of greek, roman and nordic mythologies, spreading through the Middle Ages. The dog is found in the representations of hunts led by Man and also in paintings and tapestries, blazons and rubrications. In Renaissance, with the approximation to Nature and the return to Classic Antiquity, animals are present in paintings of religious and mythological themes. In Baroque art with the emergence of genre paintings (petit genre), the presence of pets reached greater representation and realism. Unequivocally, the dog is found throughout the entire History of Art, portraits currently commissioned by their owners and friends, fruit of a deeper integration into human society. All mammals have...

Calcium-dependent protein kinase: widespread occurrence in various tissues and phyla of the animal kingdom and comparison of effects of phospholipid, calmodulin, and trifluoperazine.

Kuo, J F; Andersson, R G; Wise, B C; Mackerlova, L; Salomonsson, I; Brackett, N L; Katoh, N; Shoji, M; Wrenn, R W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1980 EN
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A widespread occurrence of Ca2+-dependent protein kinase was shown in various tissues and phyla of the animal kingdom. Phosphatidylserine appeared to be more effective than calmodulin in supporting the Ca2+-dependent phosphotransferase activity. The phospholipid-sensitive Ca2+-dependent protein kinase activity, distributed in both the cytosolic and particulate fractions, was not inhibited by trifluoperazine, a specific inhibitor of calmodulin-sensitive, Ca2+-dependent reactions or processes. The enzyme activity levels, compared to those of cyclic AMP-dependent and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases, were exceedingly high in certain tissues (such as brain and spleen) and exhibited a much greater disparity among tissues. The Ka for Ca2+ was about 100 microM in the presence of phosphatidylserine; the value was as low as 2 microM in the presence of phosphatidylserine and diolein. It is suggested that phospholipid-sensitive Ca2+-dependent protein kinase may mediate certain actions of Ca2+ in tissues, acting independently or in a complementary manner with other protein phosphorylation systems stimulated by calmodulin-Ca2+, cyclic AMP, or cyclic GMP.

Selenocysteine tRNA[Ser]Sec gene is ubiquitous within the animal kingdom.

Lee, B J; Rajagopalan, M; Kim, Y S; You, K H; Jacobson, K B; Hatfield, D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1990 EN
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Recently, a mammalian tRNA which was previously designated as an opal suppressor seryl-tRNA and phosphoseryl-tRNA was shown to be a selenocysteyl-tRNA (B. J. Lee, P. J. Worland, J. N. Davis, T. C. Stadtman, and D. Hatfield, J. Biol. Chem. 264:9724-9727, 1989). Hence, this tRNA is now designated as selenocysteyl-tRNA[Ser]Sec, and its function is twofold, to serve as (i) a carrier molecule upon which selenocysteine is biosynthesized and (ii) as a donor of selenocysteine, which is the 21st naturally occurring amino acid of protein, to the nascent polypeptide chain in response to specific UGA codons. In the present study, the selenocysteine tRNA gene was sequenced from Xenopus laevis, Drosophila melanogaster, and Caenorhabditis elegans. The tRNA product of this gene was also identified within the seryl-tRNA population of a number of higher and lower animals, and the human tRNA[Ser]Sec gene was used as a probe to identify homologous sequences within genomic DNAs of organisms throughout the animal kingdom. The studies showed that the tRNA[Ser]Sec gene has undergone evolutionary change and that it is ubiquitous in the animal kingdom. Further, we conclude that selenocysteine-containing proteins, as well as the use of UGA as a codon for selenocysteine...

Distribution of creatine, guanidinoacetate and the enzymes for their biosynthesis in the animal kingdom. Implications for phylogeny

Van Pilsum, John F.; Stephens, Grover C.; Taylor, Dorris
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1972 EN
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46.07%
1. The distribution of creatine and the creatine-synthesizing enzymes in the animal kingdom has been investigated. Creatine was found in tissues of all vertebrates examined, and in various invertebrates from phyla Annelida, Echinodermata, Hemichordata and Chordata, subphylum Cephalochordata. The activities of the creatine-synthesizing enzymes, arginine–glycine transamidinase and guanidinoacetate methylpherase, were not detected in the hagfish or in any of the invertebrates, including those in which creatine was found, with the exception that transamidinase activities were detected in the amphioxus and salt water clam; however, these activities are considered to be artifacts for reasons mentioned in the text. Additional evidence that the hagfish and various creatine-containing invertebrates could not synthesize creatine was the observation that these animals did not convert one or the other of the likely precursors of creatine (arginine and glycine) into creatine, in vivo. Further, the inability of these animals to synthesize creatine is correlated with the observations that all animals tested were able to abstract creatine from their aqueous environment. 2. The activities of the creatine-synthesizing enzymes were detected in the sea lamprey and in all but a few of the other vertebrates examined. Neither activity could be detected in the sharks and rays (cartilaginous fish)...

Barcoding animal life: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 divergences among closely related species.

Hebert, Paul D N; Ratnasingham, Sujeevan; deWaard, Jeremy R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/08/2003 EN
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36.2%
With millions of species and their life-stage transformations, the animal kingdom provides a challenging target for taxonomy. Recent work has suggested that a DNA-based identification system, founded on the mitochondrial gene, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI), can aid the resolution of this diversity. While past work has validated the ability of COI sequences to diagnose species in certain taxonomic groups, the present study extends these analyses across the animal kingdom. The results indicate that sequence divergences at COI regularly enable the discrimination of closely allied species in all animal phyla except the Cnidaria. This success in species diagnosis reflects both the high rates of sequence change at COI in most animal groups and constraints on intraspecific mitochondrial DNA divergence arising, at least in part, through selective sweeps mediated via interactions with the nuclear genome.

Animal leptospirosis in Malaya*: 1. Methods, zoogeographical background, and broad analysis of results

Smith, C. E. Gordon; Turner, L. H.; Harrison, J. L.; Broom, J. C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1961 EN
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35.99%
In recent years leptospirosis has been shown to be an important cause of human febrile illness in Malaya. Studies were therefore undertaken to determine its animal reservoirs and the factors influencing spread of infection from them to man and domestic animals. This paper presents the board picture obtained. A wide range of animal species were trapped in forest localities, ricefield areas, areas of scrub and cultivation and in several towns and villages. The maintenance hosts of leptospirosis in Malaya appear to be mainly or entirely rats, although evidence of infection has been found throughout the animal kingdom. Some rat species have characteristics which suggest that they are better maintenance hosts than others. Evidence was found of practically every serogroup of leptospires infecting animals in Malaya. Altogether 104 strains were isolated and identified, and 155 animals were found to have serological evidence of infection. Of 1763 rodents examined, 194 had evidence of infection, and 41 of 1083 other animals. A serum survey of domestic animals showed the highest incidence of antibodies to be in goats and the lowest in oxen.

ClanTox: a classifier of short animal toxins

Naamati, Guy; Askenazi, Manor; Linial, Michal
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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36.02%
Toxins are detected in sporadic species along the evolutionary tree of the animal kingdom. Venomous animals include scorpions, snakes, bees, wasps, frogs and numerous animals living in the sea such as the stonefish, snail, jellyfish, hydra and more. Interestingly, proteins that share a common scaffold with animal toxins also exist in non-venomous species. However, due to their short length and primary sequence diversity, these, toxin-like proteins remain undetected by classical search engines and genome annotation tools. We construct a toxin classification machine and web server called ClanTox (Classifier of Animal Toxins) that is based on the extraction of sequence-driven features from the primary protein sequence followed by the application of a classification system trained on known animal toxins. For a given input list of sequences, from venomous or non-venomous settings, the ClanTox system predicts whether each sequence is toxin-like. ClanTox provides a ranked list of positively predicted candidates according to statistical confidence. For each protein, additional information is presented including the presence of a signal peptide, the number of cysteine residues and the associated functional annotations. ClanTox is a discovery-prediction tool for a relatively overlooked niche of toxin-like cell modulators...

The fifth element in animal Gα protein evolution

Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I
Fonte: Landes Bioscience Publicador: Landes Bioscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
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36.13%
Heterotrimeric G proteins are key molecules regulating cellular responses to extracellular stimuli, and are composed of α, β and γ subunits. All α subunits in vertebrates belong to four major classes, Gs, Gi, Gq and G12, which are conserved throughout the animal kingdom. Unexpectedly, now a fifth class of Gα protein, Gv, has been discovered. Gv is conserved across the animal kingdom and present in vertebrates, arthropods, mollusks, annelids and even sponges. Presumably, Gv has been missed so far, because it has been lost in many lineages in the major model organisms such as nematodes, fruit fly and mammals. On the other hand, gene gains are also observed for Gv, with at least two independent gene duplications, one in sponges and the other in the teleost lineage. Such frequent gene gains and losses fit to a birth-and-death mode of evolution, which is unusual for a well-conserved and ancient gene family like the Gα proteins. The discovery of a novel major class of Gα proteins provides new insights in the evolution of the Gα protein family and opens new possibilities in G protein signaling research.

Animal Models for Periodontal Disease

Oz, Helieh S.; Puleo, David A.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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36.02%
Animal models and cell cultures have contributed new knowledge in biological sciences, including periodontology. Although cultured cells can be used to study physiological processes that occur during the pathogenesis of periodontitis, the complex host response fundamentally responsible for this disease cannot be reproduced in vitro. Among the animal kingdom, rodents, rabbits, pigs, dogs, and nonhuman primates have been used to model human periodontitis, each with advantages and disadvantages. Periodontitis commonly has been induced by placing a bacterial plaque retentive ligature in the gingival sulcus around the molar teeth. In addition, alveolar bone loss has been induced by inoculation or injection of human oral bacteria (e.g., Porphyromonas gingivalis) in different animal models. While animal models have provided a wide range of important data, it is sometimes difficult to determine whether the findings are applicable to humans. In addition, variability in host responses to bacterial infection among individuals contributes significantly to the expression of periodontal diseases. A practical and highly reproducible model that truly mimics the natural pathogenesis of human periodontal disease has yet to be developed.

Novel Protein Genes in Animal mtDNA: A New Sex Determination System in Freshwater Mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoida)?

Breton, Sophie; Stewart, Donald T.; Shepardson, Sally; Trdan, Richard J.; Bogan, Arthur E.; Chapman, Eric G.; Ruminas, Andrew J.; Piontkivska, Helen; Hoeh, Walter R.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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36.02%
Mitochondrial (mt) function depends critically on optimal interactions between components encoded by mt and nuclear DNAs. mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) inheritance (SMI) is thought to have evolved in animal species to maintain mito-nuclear complementarity by preventing the spread of selfish mt elements thus typically rendering mtDNA heteroplasmy evolutionarily ephemeral. Here, we show that mtDNA intraorganismal heteroplasmy can have deterministic underpinnings and persist for hundreds of millions of years. We demonstrate that the only exception to SMI in the animal kingdom, that is, the doubly uniparental mtDNA inheritance system in bivalves, with its three-way interactions among egg mt-, sperm mt- and nucleus-encoded gene products, is tightly associated with the maintenance of separate male and female sexes (dioecy) in freshwater mussels. Specifically, this mother-through-daughter and father-through-son mtDNA inheritance system, containing highly differentiated mt genomes, is found in all dioecious freshwater mussel species. Conversely, all hermaphroditic species lack the paternally transmitted mtDNA (=possess SMI) and have heterogeneous macromutations in the recently discovered, novel protein-coding gene (F-orf) in their maternally transmitted mt genomes. Using immunoelectron microscopy...

About a Snail, a Toad, and Rodents: Animal Models for Adaptation Research

Roubos, Eric W.; Jenks, Bruce G.; Xu, Lu; Kuribara, Miyuki; Scheenen, Wim J. J. M.; Kozicz, Tamás
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/10/2010 EN
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36.02%
Neural adaptation mechanisms have many similarities throughout the animal kingdom, enabling to study fundamentals of human adaptation in selected animal models with experimental approaches that are impossible to apply in man. This will be illustrated by reviewing research on three of such animal models, viz. (1) the egg-laying behavior of a snail, Lymnaea stagnalis: how one neuron type controls behavior, (2) adaptation to the ambient light condition by a toad, Xenopus laevis: how a neuroendocrine cell integrates complex external and neural inputs, and (3) stress, feeding, and depression in rodents: how a neuronal network co-ordinates different but related complex behaviors. Special attention is being paid to the actions of neurochemical messengers, such as neuropeptide Y, urocortin 1, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. While awaiting new technological developments to study the living human brain at the cellular and molecular levels, continuing progress in the insight in the functioning of human adaptation mechanisms may be expected from neuroendocrine research using invertebrate and vertebrate animal models.

A new class of animal collagen masquerading as an insect silk

Sutherland, Tara D.; Peng, Yong Y.; Trueman, Holly E.; Weisman, Sarah; Okada, Shoko; Walker, Andrew A.; Sriskantha, Alagacone; White, Jacinta F.; Huson, Mickey G.; Werkmeister, Jerome A.; Glattauer, Veronica; Stoichevska, Violet; Mudie, Stephen T.; Harito
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/10/2013 EN
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35.99%
Collagen is ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom, where it comprises some 28 diverse molecules that form the extracellular matrix within organisms. In the 1960s, an extracorporeal animal collagen that forms the cocoon of a small group of hymenopteran insects was postulated. Here we categorically demonstrate that the larvae of a sawfly species produce silk from three small collagen proteins. The native proteins do not contain hydroxyproline, a post translational modification normally considered characteristic of animal collagens. The function of the proteins as silks explains their unusual collagen features. Recombinant proteins could be produced in standard bacterial expression systems and assembled into stable collagen molecules, opening the door to manufacture a new class of artificial collagen materials.

Of Fighting Flies, Mice, and Men: Are Some of the Molecular and Neuronal Mechanisms of Aggression Universal in the Animal Kingdom?

Thomas, Amanda L.; Davis, Shaun M.; Dierick, Herman A.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/08/2015 EN
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46.07%
Aggressive behavior is widespread in the animal kingdom, but the degree of molecular conservation between distantly related species is still unclear. Recent reports suggest that at least some of the molecular mechanisms underlying this complex behavior in flies show remarkable similarities with such mechanisms in mice and even humans. Surprisingly, some aspects of neuronal control of aggression also show remarkable similarity between these distantly related species. We will review these recent findings, address the evolutionary implications, and discuss the potential impact for our understanding of human diseases characterized by excessive aggression.

Small intestinal inflammation following oral infection with Toxoplasma gondii does not occur exclusively in C57BL/6 mice: review of 70 reports from the literature

Schreiner,Maximilian; Liesenfeld,Oliver
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2009 EN
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36.04%
Small intestinal immunopathology following oral infection with tissue cysts of Toxoplasma gondii has been described in C57BL/6 mice. Seven days after infection, mice develop severe small intestinal necrosis and succumb to infection. The immunopathology is mediated by local overproduction of Th1-type cytokines, a so-called "cytokine storm". The immunopathogenesis of this pathology resembles that of inflammatory bowel disease in humans, i.e., Crohn's disease. In this review, we show that the development of intestinal pathology following oral ingestion of T. gondii is not limited to C57BL/6 mice, but frequently occurs in nature. Using a Pubmed search, we identified 70 publications that report the development of gastrointestinal inflammation following infection with T. gondii in 63 animal species. Of these publications, 53 reports are on accidental ingestion of T. gondii in 49 different animal species and 17 reports are on experimental infections in 19 different animal species. Thus, oral infection with T. gondii appears to cause immunopathology in a large number of animal species in addition to mice. This manuscript reviews the common features of small intestinal immunopathology in the animal kingdom and speculates on consequences of this immunopathology for humankind.

A unifying framework for quantifying the nature of animal interactions

Potts, Jonathan R.; Mokross, Karl; Lewis, Mark A.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/02/2014
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35.99%
Collective phenomena, whereby agent-agent interactions determine spatial patterns, are ubiquitous in the animal kingdom. On the other hand, movement and space use are also greatly influenced by interactions between animals and their environment. Despite both types of interaction fundamentally influencing animal behaviour, there has hitherto been no unifying framework for the various models so far proposed. Here, we construct systems of coupled step selection functions, providing a general method for inferring population-level spatial patterns from underlying individual movement and interaction processes, a key ingredient in building a statistical mechanics for ecological systems. We show that resource selection functions, as well as several examples of collective motion models, arise as special cases of our framework, thus bringing together resource selection analysis and collective animal behaviour into a single theory. In particular, we focus on combining the various mechanistic models of territorial interactions in the literature with step selection functions, by incorporate interactions into the step selection framework and demonstrating how to derive territorial patterns from the resulting models. We demonstrate the efficacy of our model by application to a population of insectivore birds in the Amazon rainforest.

Recent social conditions affect boldness repeatability in individual sticklebacks; Recent social conditions affect repeatability

Jolles, Jolle Wolter; Taylor, Benjamin Aaron; Manica, Andrea
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
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This is the author accepted manuscript. It is currently embargoed pending publication.; Animal personalities are ubiquitous across the animal kingdom, and have been shown both to influence individual behaviour in the social context and to be affected by it. However, little attention has been paid to possible carryover effects of social conditions on personality expression, especially when individuals are alone. Here we investigated how the recent social context affected the boldness and repeatability of three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus, during individual assays. We housed fish either solitarily, solitarily part of the time or socially in groups of four, and subjected them twice to a risk-taking task. The social conditions had a large effect on boldness repeatability, with fish housed solitarily before the trials showing much higher behavioural repeatability than fish housed socially, for which repeatability was not significant. Social conditions also had a temporal effect on the boldness of the fish, with only fish housed solitarily taking more risks during the first than the second trial. These results show that recent social conditions can thus affect the short-term repeatability of behaviour and obfuscate the expression of personality even in later contexts when individuals are alone. This finding highlights the need to consider social housing conditions when designing personality studies and emphasizes the important link between animal personality and the social context by showing the potential role of social carryover effects.; We thank Ben Walbanke-Taylor for help with fish husbandry and two anonymous referees for helpful feedback on the manuscript. We acknowledge funding from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (Graduate Research Fellowship to J.W.J).

Animal Kingdom "Re-Creation"

Chaiyarat, Rattapol
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
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45.99%
N/A; Describes the artist's thesis work on the effect reconstructed images of animals have on our culture and how we use animals to reflect culture and society. The artist's exhibit represented a fabricated simulation created from material images. Animal images are transformed into illusions in the ways that humans experience nature through simulations.

BEM-ESTAR E PRODUÇÃO ANIMAL: ASPECTOS ECONÔMICOS - REVISÃO

MOLENTO, C.F.M.
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/06/2005 POR
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O conflito entre recursos financeiros escassos e a necessidade de investimento para assegurar a qualidade de vida dos animais afeta diretamente as atitudes em relação ao bem-estar de animais de produção no Brasil. Em alguns países, esse conflito encontra-se em ampla discussão. Os principais conceitos necessários ao entendimento dessa questão são apresentados brevemente abaixo, incluindo os aspectos econômicos descritos no relatório sobre Bem-Estar Animal, Economia e Regulamentação, recentemente publicado pelo governo do Reino Unido, o qual constitui um dos artigos mais completos sobre o assunto. As informações são apresentadas contextualizadas para o atual cenário mundial e para a situação brasileira em relação ao bem-estar de animais de produção. Animal welfare and production: economic aspects – Review Abstract The conflict between scarce financial resources and the need to invest on animal life quality directly affects the attitudes towards farm animal welfare in Brazil. In some countries, this is an ongoing discussion. The main concepts related to the understanding of this issue are briefly presented below, including economic aspects described on the Report on Animal Welfare, Economics and Policy, recently published by the government of the United Kingdom...

Continuidades animais. Argumentos contra a dicotomia humano/animal não humanodoi:10.5007/1807-1384.2011v8n1p60; Animal continuities. Arguments against human/non-human animal dichotomy; Continuidades animales. Argumentos contra la dicotomía humano/animal no humano

Vernal, Javier Ignacio; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Ensaio; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 11/07/2011 POR; SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
Persiste, na atualidade, uma profunda necessidade de diferenciar os membros da espécie Homo sapiens dos indivíduos pertencentes ao resto do reino animal. Como consequência dessa necessidade surge a dicotomia humano/animal não humano, baseada em diferencias artificiais e infundadas, que responde a fins sempre prejudiciais para os animais não humanos. Neste trabalho queremos mostrar que, por um lado, muitas das características propostas como especificamente humanas são compartilhadas ao menos por algumas espécies animais não humanas e que, por outro lado, existem características especificamente humanas, mas que disso não se conclui que devamos estabelecer uma separação entre animais humanos e não humanos. Rejeitamos a perspectiva especista e segregacionista de que somente o homem possui uma posição singular na natureza. Cada espécie animal tem suas próprias características únicas e, portanto, não haveria lugar para uma exceção humana, senão que haveria tantas exceções como espécies animais existem na natureza. No lugar do abismo traçado entre animais humanos e animais não humanos, defendemos a perspectiva do continuum animal, que permite reconhecer as características que compartilhamos com outras espécies animais e...