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Biotecnologia animal

COUTINHO, Luiz Lehmann; ROSÁRIO, Millor Fernandes do; JORGE, Erika Cristina
Fonte: Instituto de Estudos Avançados da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Instituto de Estudos Avançados da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.36%
A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.; Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However...

Parceria público x privada no desenvolvimento de pesquisa em melhoramento genético animal; Public x private partnership in the development of animal breeding research

FERRAZ, José Bento Sterman; ELER, Joanir Pereira
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
O melhoramento genético animal é, normalmente, pesquisado e desenvolvido nas universidades e instituições públicas de pesquisa do Brasil. No entanto, os rebanhos de exploração zootécnica, verdadeiros objetivos desses estudos, pertencem à iniciativa privada. O melhoramento genético animal e as parcerias público-privadas constituem-se em um caso especial de grande sucesso, que é analisado no presente texto, com ênfase especial ao Grupo de Melhoramento Animal e Biotecnologia da Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos da Universidade de São Paulo, instituição de origem dos autores. O sucesso desse grupo, medido em atividades de pesquisa e suas conseqüentes publicações, de ensino e formação de recursos humanos e de extensão de serviços à comunidade, é apresentado como incentivo aos pesquisadores das mais diversas áreas ligadas à produção animal.; Animal breeding is, normally, developed and investigated in public institutions in Brazil. However, herds and populations, true users of that knowledge, are private. The relationship between the public and the private is a very successful case in animal breeding and that case is discussed in this text, with special emphasis on the Animal Breeding and Biotechnology Group of the College of Animal Science and Food Technology of the University of Sao Paulo...

Investigação de paternidade e seus efeitos no melhoramento de bovinos da raça Gir leiteiro.; Parentage verification and its effects on breeding in Gir cattle.

Baron, Erica Elias
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/06/2000 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.29%
Com o aumento da produtividade na área agropecuária, houve um aumento na busca por sistemas de produção mais eficientes e competitivos. Neste contexto, o melhoramento genético animal tem proporcionado avanços na obtenção de produtos de origem animal, principalmente na seleção de touros. A superioridade genética de touros para produção de leite não pode ser medida diretamente nos animais, assim, o valor genético é medido pelo desempenho de produção de leite de suas filhas pelo teste de progênie. A seleção de touros pelo teste de progênie pode ser considerada como método ideal quando temos características de baixa herdabilidade, populações grandes e um grande número de progênies, que hoje são obtidas pelo uso de inseminação artificial. O correto parentesco entre reprodutores é um pré-requisito para um eficiente programa de melhoramento genético animal. Muitas das questões de parentesco podem ser resolvidas pelos testes convencionais, como grupos sanguíneos e proteínas do soro. Entretanto em alguns casos, esses polimorfismos não são suficientes para esclarecer a correta paternidade e, em função disso outros métodos passaram a ser utilizados, como os marcadores moleculares microssatélites. Esta metodologia tem sido descrita para resolver com maior eficiência os casos de verificação e determinação de parentesco...

Incorporação de informações de marcadores genéticos em programas de melhoramento genético de bovinos de corte; Incorporation of genetic markers information in beef cattle breeding programs

Rezende, Fernanda Marcondes de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/05/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
A disponibilidade de informações baseadas nos marcadores genéticos surgiu como oportunidade de aprimorar os programas de melhoramento animal pela incorporação desses efeitos nas avaliações genéticas. Nesse contexto, o presente estudo teve como objetivos comparar modelos que consideraram ou não os efeitos dos marcadores para a estimação dos valores genéticos dos animais, bem como estimar os efeitos de substituição alélica dos marcadores por seis metodologias distintas (regressão múltipla bayesiana, regressão de cumeeira bayesiana, Bayes A, Bayes B, Bayes Cπ e LASSO bayesiano) e avaliar o impacto da inclusão desses efeitos na acurácia das estimativas dos valores genéticos e os conflitos de seleção existentes aos serem comparadas as classificações dos animais com base nos valores genéticos clássicos e nos valores genéticos assistidos por marcadores. Dados de 83.404 animais pertencentes a um programa de seleção de animas da raça Nelore, mensurados para peso na desmama, ganho de peso pós-desmama, perímetro escrotal e escore de musculosidade, que corresponderam a 116.652 animais na matriz de parentesco, foram utilizados. Do total de animais com informações fenotípicas e genealógicas disponíveis, apenas 3.160 foram genotipados para 106 marcadores do tipo SNP. Os resultados obtidos para a comparação de modelos não demonstraram vantagens claras da inclusão conjunta dos efeitos poligênicos e dos marcadores nos modelos de avaliação genética...

Spatialization of climate, physical and socioeconomic factors that affect the dairy goat production in Brazil and their impact on animal breeding decisions; Espacialização de fatores climáticos, ísicos e socioeconômicos que afetam a produção de caprinos leiteiros no Brasil e seu impacto sobre as decisões em melhoramento animal

Lopes, Fernando Brito; Silva, Marcelo Correa da; Miyagi, Eliane Sayuri; Fioravanti, Maria Clorinda Soares; Facó, Olivardo; Guimarães, Renato Fontes; Carvalho Junior, Osmar Abílio de; Pimentel, Concepta Margaret McManus
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
Brazil has high climate, soil and environmental diversity, as well as distinct socioeconomic and political realities, what results in differences among the political administrative regions of the country. The objective of this study was to determine spatial distribution of the physical, climatic and socioeconomic aspects that best characterize the production of dairy goats in Brazil. Production indices of milk per goat, goat production, milk production, as well as temperature range, mean temperature, precipitation, normalized difference vegetation index, relative humidity, altitude, agricultural farms; farms with native pasture, farms with good quality pasture, farms with water resources, farms that receive technical guidance, family farming properties, non-familiar farms and the human development index were evaluated. The multivariate analyses were carried out to spatialize climatic, physical and socioeconomic variables and so differenciate the Brazilian States and Regions. The highest yields of milk and goat production were observed in the Northeast. The Southeast Region had the second highest production of milk, followed by the South, Midwest and North. Multivariate analysis revealed distinctions between clusters of political-administrative regions of Brazil. The climatic variables were most important to discriminate between regions of Brazil. Therefore...

Spatialization of climate, physical and socioeconomic factors that affect the dairy goat production in Brazil and their impact on animal breeding decisions; Espacialização de fatores climáticos, físicos e socioeconômicos que afetam a produção de caprinos leiteiros no Brasil e seu impacto sobre as decisões em melhoramento animal

Lopes, Fernando Brito; Silva, Marcelo Corrêa da; Miyagi, Eliane Sayuri; Fioravanti, Maria Clorinda Soares; Facó, Olivardo; Guimarães, Renato Fontes; Carvalho Júnior, Osmar Abílio de; Pimentel, Concepta Margaret McManus
Fonte: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA Publicador: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.15%
Brazil has high climate, soil and environmental diversity, as well as distinct socioeconomic and political realities, what results in differences among the political administrative regions of the country. The objective of this study was to determine spatial distribution of the physical, climatic and socioeconomic aspects that best characterize the production of dairy goats in Brazil. Production indices of milk per goat, goat production, milk production, as well as temperature range, mean temperature, precipitation, normalized difference vegetation index, relative humidity, altitude, agricultural farms; farms with native pasture, farms with good quality pasture, farms with water resources, farms that receive technical guidance, family farming properties, non-familiar farms and the human development index were evaluated. The multivariate analyses were carried out to spatialize climatic, physical and socioeconomic variables and so differenciate the Brazilian States and Regions. The highest yields of milk and goat production were observed in the Northeast. The Southeast Region had the second highest production of milk, followed by the South, Midwest and North. Multivariate analysis revealed distinctions between clusters of political-administrative regions of Brazil. The climatic variables were most important to discriminate between regions of Brazil. Therefore...

Taking ethics into account in farm animal breeding: what can the breeding companies achieve?

Olsson, I. Anna S.; Gamborg, Christian; Sandøe, Peter
Fonte: Universidade do Porto Publicador: Universidade do Porto
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.43%
Animal welfare and the ethical issues it raises have been discussed intensively for a couple of decades. The emphasis has been on the direct effects of housing and husbandry, but more attention is now being given to problems originating in selective breeding. European attempts to adjust animal welfare legislation to deal with these problems have been largely unsuccessful, but the fact that selective breeding can introduce welfare problems continues to place an ethical responsibility on the animal breeding industry. Since breeding decisions are made centrally and, increasingly, internationally, strategic change is only likely to occur if it is embedded in an international agreement of some kind. The aim of this paper is to describe the key ethical issues facing animal breeding and assess the suggestion that the breeding industry itself can deal with ethical issues by means of an ethical code. Results from recent projects involving commercial breeding enterprises are presented.

Spatialization of climate, physical and socioeconomic factors that affect the dairy goat production in Brazil and their impact on animal breeding decisions

Lopes,Fernando B.; Silva,Marcelo C. da; Miyagi,Eliane S.; Fioravanti,Maria C.S.; Facó,Olivardo; Guimarães,Renato F.; C. Júnior,Osmar A. de; McManus,Concepta M.
Fonte: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA) Publicador: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.21%
Brazil has high climate, soil and environmental diversity, as well as distinct socioeconomic and political realities, what results in differences among the political administrative regions of the country. The objective of this study was to determine spatial distribution of the physical, climatic and socioeconomic aspects that best characterize the production of dairy goats in Brazil. Production indices of milk per goat, goat production, milk production, as well as temperature range, mean temperature, precipitation, normalized difference vegetation index, relative humidity, altitude, agricultural farms; farms with native pasture, farms with good quality pasture, farms with water resources, farms that receive technical guidance, family farming properties, non-familiar farms and the human development index were evaluated. The multivariate analyses were carried out to spatialize climatic, physical and socioeconomic variables and so differenciate the Brazilian States and Regions. The highest yields of milk and goat production were observed in the Northeast. The Southeast Region had the second highest production of milk, followed by the South, Midwest and North. Multivariate analysis revealed distinctions between clusters of political-administrative regions of Brazil. The climatic variables were most important to discriminate between regions of Brazil. Therefore...

Application of molecular information in sustainable animal breeding

Koning,Dirk-Jan de
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.35%
Livestock genomics is aimed at dissecting the genetic control of variation in economically important trait, such as disease resistance and product yield/quality. Unraveling the genetic control of such complex traits remains very challenging but farm animals are now well placed to bridge the gap between human biology and traditional model species. Livestock species share with model species the benefits of controlled breeding, while their biology is often much closer to that of humans. Livestock genetics can exploit the abundant genetic variation between divergent breeds as well as segregating variation within breeds, thus getting the best of both worlds. Large numbers of QTL have been detected for a variety of traits but for only a handful has the functional DNA mutation been discovered. The main challenge is how to exploit this information for sustainable animal breeding. The proposed applications for Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) vary from selecting on individual known mutations to using genome-wide SNP data for genome-wide selection. Molecular markers are also important tools to assess genetic variation within and between populations. Sustainable animal breeding should meet the needs of the current generation without compromising the needs of future generations. This contribution will discuss the status of molecular genetics in livestock and how this could support sustainable animal breeding.

SNPs genotyping technologies and their applications in farm animals breeding programs: review

Koopaee,Hamed Kharrati; Koshkoiyeh,Ali Esmailizadeh
Fonte: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar Publicador: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are DNA sequence variations that occur when a single nucleotide: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C) or guanine (G) in the genome sequence is altered. Traditional and high throughput methods are two main strategies for SNPs genotyping. The SNPs genotyping technologies provide powerful resources for animal breeding programs.Genomic selection using SNPs is a new tool for choosing the best breeding animals. In addition, the high density maps using SNPs can provide useful genetic tools to study quantitative traits genetic variations. There are many sources of SNPs and exhaustive numbers of methods of SNP detection to be considered. For many traits in farm animals, the rate of genetic improvement can be nearly doubled when SNPs information is used compared to the current methods of genetic evaluation. The goal of this review is to characterize the SNPs genotyping methods and their applications in farm animals breeding.

Application of Genomics Tools to Animal Breeding

Dekkers, Jack C.M.
Fonte: Bentham Science Publishers Publicador: Bentham Science Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
The main goal in animal breeding is to select individuals that have high breeding values for traits of interest as parents to produce the next generation and to do so as quickly as possible. To date, most programs rely on statistical analysis of large data bases with phenotypes on breeding populations by linear mixed model methodology to estimate breeding values on selection candidates. However, there is a long history of research on the use of genetic markers to identify quantitative trait loci and their use in marker-assisted selection but with limited implementation in practical breeding programs. The advent of high-density SNP genotyping, combined with novel statistical methods for the use of this data to estimate breeding values, has resulted in the recent extensive application of genomic or whole-genome selection in dairy cattle and research to implement genomic selection in other livestock species is underway. The high-density SNP data also provides opportunities to detect QTL and to encover the genetic architecture of quantitative traits, in terms of the distribution of the size of genetic effects that contribute to trait differences in a population. Results show that this genetic architecture differs between traits but that for most traits...

From genetical genomics to systems genetics: potential applications in quantitative genomics and animal breeding

Kadarmideen, Haja N.; von Rohr, Peter; Janss, Luc L.G.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
This article reviews methods of integration of transcriptomics (and equally proteomics and metabolomics), genetics, and genomics in the form of systems genetics into existing genome analyses and their potential use in animal breeding and quantitative genomic modeling of complex traits. Genetical genomics or the expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping method and key findings in this research are reviewed. Various procedures and potential uses of eQTL mapping, global linkage clustering, and systems genetics are illustrated using actual analysis on recombinant inbred lines of mice with data on gene expression (for diabetes- and obesity-related genes), pathway, and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) linkage maps. Experimental and bioinformatics difficulties and possible solutions are discussed. The main uses of this systems genetics approach in quantitative genomics were shown to be in refinement of the identified QTL, candidate gene and SNP discovery, understanding gene-environment and gene-gene interactions, detection of candidate regulator genes/eQTL, discriminating multiple QTL/eQTL, and detection of pleiotropic QTL/eQTL, in addition to its use in reconstructing regulatory networks. The potential uses in animal breeding are direct selection on heritable gene expression measures...

Progesterone profile and reproductive performance of estrous-induced, Alpine goats given hCG fire days after breeding.

FONSECA, J. F. da; TORRES, C. A. A.; COSTA, E. P.; MAFFILI, V. V.; CARVALHO, G. R.; ALVES, N. G.; RUBERT, M. A.
Fonte: Animal Reproduction, Belo Horizonte, v. 2, n. 1, p. 55-59, jan./mar. 2005. Publicador: Animal Reproduction, Belo Horizonte, v. 2, n. 1, p. 55-59, jan./mar. 2005.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
The objective of this study was to investigate lhe effect of hCG administration tive days after breed- ing on plasma progesterone concentration (P4) and reproductive performance of estrous-induced Alpine goats. A total of 42 lactating does were treated with intravaginal sponges (MAP, 60 mg) for 9 d plus 200 lU eCG and 22.5 mg d-cloprostenol 24 h before sponge removal. After detection of estrus (day of estrus = day 0) and breeding, females were randomly assigned into two treatments (T1 and T2). In T1 (n=19) and T2 (n=18) lhe animaIs received intramuscular injection of 1 ml of saline solution (control) or 250 lU hCG, respectively, 5 d after breeding. P4 (ng/ml) was recorded from blood sampled on days O, 5, 7, 13, 17, 21, 28 and 45 after breeding. Animals were scanned with lhe aid of transrectal ultra-sound (5 MHz probe) on days 35 and 70 after breeding, for diagnosis of pregnancy. P4 was higher in lhe hCG-treated than the control animaIs only at day 45 (P < 0.05). No effect of treatment on pregnancy and kidding rales, gestation period, prolificacy and fetal weight was recorded (P > 0.05). Results of this study suggest that hCG administration 5 d after breeding may alter the luteal function but not reproductive performance in estrous-induced lactating goats.; 2005

Selection in several environments by BLP as an alternative to pooled anova in crop breeding; Seleção em diversos ambientes pelo BLP como alternativa à anava conjunta

BUENO FILHO, Júlio Sílvio de Sousa; VENCOVSKY, Roland
Fonte: Editora da Universidade Federal de Lavras Publicador: Editora da Universidade Federal de Lavras
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
Plant breeders often carry out genetic trials in balanced designs. That is not always the case with animal genetic trials. In plant breeding is usual to select progenies tested in several environments by pooled analysis of variance (ANOVA). This procedure is based on the global averages for each family, although genetic values of progenies are better viewed as random effects. Thus, the appropriate form of analysis is more likely to follow the mixed models approach to progeny tests, which became a common practice in animal breeding. Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) is not a "method" but a feature of mixed model estimators (predictors) of random effects and may be derived in so many ways that it has the potential of unifying the statistical theory of linear models (Robinson, 1991). When estimates of fixed effects are present is possible to combine information from several different tests by simplifying BLUP, in these situations BLP also has unbiased properties and this lead to BLUP from straightforward heuristics. In this paper some advantages of BLP applied to plant breeding are discussed. Our focus is on how to deal with estimates of progeny means and variances from many environments to work out predictions that have "best" properties (minimum variance linear combinations of progenies' averages). A practical rule for relative weighting is worked out.; Os melhoristas de plantas em geral conduzem testes genéticos em delineamentos balanceados...

Multi-trait and random regression mature weight heritability and breeding value estimates in Nelore cattle

BOLIGON, A. A.; MERCADANTE, M. E. Z.; BALDI, F.; LOBO, R. B.; ALBUQUERQUE, L. G.
Fonte: SOUTH AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCES Publicador: SOUTH AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCES
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
Mature weight breeding values were estimated using a multi-trait animal model (MM) and a random regression animal model (RRM). Data consisted of 82 064 weight records from 8 145 animals, recorded from birth to eight years of age. Weights at standard ages were considered in the MM. All models included contemporary groups as fixed effects, and age of dam (linear and quadratic effects) and animal age as covariates. In the RRM, mean trends were modelled through a cubic regression on orthogonal polynomials of animal age and genetic maternal and direct and maternal permanent environmental effects were also included as random. Legendre polynomials of orders 4, 3, 6 and 3 were used for animal and maternal genetic and permanent environmental effects, respectively, considering five classes of residual variances. Mature weight (five years) direct heritability estimates were 0.35 (MM) and 0.38 (RRM). Rank correlation between sires' breeding values estimated by MM and RRM was 0.82. However, selecting the top 2% (12) or 10% (62) of the young sires based on the MM predicted breeding values, respectively 71% and 80% of the same sires would be selected if RRM estimates were used instead. The RRM modelled the changes in the (co) variances with age adequately and larger breeding value accuracies can be expected using this model.

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemias and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas by histological type in farming-animal breeding workers: a population case-control study based on job titles.

Amadori, D; Nanni, O; Falcini, F; Saragoni, A; Tison, V; Callea, A; Scarpi, E; Ricci, M; Riva, N; Buiatti, E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1995 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
OBJECTIVES--A population based case-control study was conducted in a highly agricultural area in the north east of Italy to evaluate the association between farming and animal breeding and the risk of developing non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). METHODS--Occupational histories and other data were collected by personal interview on 164 NHLs, 23 CLLs, diagnosed in 1988-90, and on 977 controls. This paper only reports the results of the analysis relative to the coding of job titles through the modified International Labour Office (ILO) classification. Estimates of odds ratios (ORs) for occupational variables were calculated, after adjustment for sex, age, altitude of municipality, first degree familiarity, and previous Herpes zoster infection. RESULTS--From the analysis of the most frequent occupational categories, no occupation showed a significantly high risk. When the two job titles farmers only and farmer-breeders who are also involved in animal breeding are classified within the extremely varied occupation of agriculture or animal-breeding or fishing, a high risk for NHLs and CLLs is seen in the farmer-breeders (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.22 - 2.63). Analyses according to histological type show that the risks are concentrated in CLLs and in low grade NHLs. No effect or trend by period at work or duration of employment in farming and animal breeding was found. CONCLUSION--Subjects working in agriculture associated with animal breeding are at high risk of NHL/CLLs...

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemias and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas by histological type in farming-animal breeding workers: a population case-control study based on a priori exposure matrices.

Nanni, O; Amadori, D; Lugaresi, C; Falcini, F; Scarpi, E; Saragoni, A; Buiatti, E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1996 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.44%
OBJECTIVES: A population based case-control study was conducted in a highly agricultural area in Italy to investigate the association between chronic lymphocytic leukaemias (CLLs) and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs), and subtypes, and exposure to pesticides in farming-animal breeding workers. METHODS: 187 cases of CLLs and NHLs and 977 population controls were interviewed on medical, residential, family, and occupational history. Detailed information was collected about cultivated crops and animals bred from subjects who worked in farming and animal breeding. Information on crop diseases and pesticides used (and their quantity and duration) was also obtained. A priori job-exposure matrices were applied when a crop disease was reported, estimating the most probable pesticide and, when possible, an estimate of the cumulative dose. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by unconditional logistic analysis with adjustment for relevant confounders in farmers who bred animals and in farmers alone, for the main crops, types of animals, and pesticides categories. First recall and then the matrices were used for defining exposure, as it affected CLLs and NHLs and then separately on CLLs and low grade NHLs. Finally, the dose-response was investigated for those pesticides which had shown some association. RESULTS: No variable under study was associated with work in farming alone. In farming and animal breeding...

Biotecnologia animal; Animal biotechnology

Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann; Rosário, Millor Fernandes do; Jorge, Erika Cristina
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Estudos Avançados Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Estudos Avançados
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2010 POR; ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.36%
A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.; Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However...

Simula??o em n?vel de gene e de indiv?duo aplicada ao melhoramento animal; Simulation of individual and gene level applied to animal breeding

Farah, Michel Marques
Fonte: UFVJM Publicador: UFVJM
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
A simula??o de dados apresenta diversas vantagens, como proporcionar a obten??o de respostas ? sele??o e diminuir o tempo necess?rio para a avalia??o das metodologias estudadas no melhoramento gen?tico animal. Por?m, os trabalhos que utilizam simula??o empregam v?rios termos como simula??o estoc?stica, simula??o determin?stica, simula??o de Monte Carlo, simula??o em n?vel de gene e simula??o em n?vel de indiv?duo e, muitas vezes, estes termos s?o utilizados de maneiras diferentes ou em outras condi??es, causando uma diverg?ncia nos termos utilizados. Assim, os objetivos deste trabalho foram agrupar, definir e diferenciar os termos t?cnicos utilizados nos trabalhos de simula??o em melhoramento gen?tico animal e comparar e definir as propriedades dos procedimentos de simula??o em n?vel de indiv?duo e em n?vel de gene. Foram desenvolvidos tr?s cen?rios de simula??o, em n?vel de indiv?duo, em n?vel de gene com e sem marcador utilizando o software LZ5. Foram simuladas tr?s popula??es de su?nos para cada cen?rio e com diferentes herdabilidades (0,12, 0,27 e 0,47). A popula??o-base foi constitu?da de 1500 animais, sendo 750 machos e 750 f?meas e para as duas simula??es em n?vel de gene foi considerado um genoma de 2800 cM e 18 cromossomos de tamanhos aleat?rios...

Livestock breeding for sustainability to mitigate global warming, with the emphasis on developing countries

Scholtz,M.M.; Maiwashe,A.; Neser,F.W.C.; Theunissen,A.; Olivier,W.J.; Mokolobate,M.C.; Hendriks,J.
Fonte: South African Journal of Animal Science Publicador: South African Journal of Animal Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
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Global warming is predicted to have a profound effect on livestock production in developing countries. An improved understanding of the adaptation of livestock to such changing production environments is thus important, but the measurement of adaptation is complex and difficult. Proxy-indicators for adaptation, such as reproductive and production traits, however, can be used. Livestock industries have a responsibility to reduce the release of greenhouse gases (i.e. the carbon footprint) and water use (i.e. the water footprint). An effective way of decreasing the carbon and water footprints from livestock is to reduce livestock numbers and increase the production per animal. Increased production generates less greenhouse gas emissions per unit of livestock product. Proper definition of breeding objectives and trait definition is essential in implementing efficient breeding systems to cope with climate change. Sophisticated statistical models continue to support animal breeding and improvement, especially with respect to production traits. Traits linked to fertility and survival are still problematic and appropriate genetic technology to properly characterize these traits needs to be developed. Gene or marker-assisted selection may play an important role in selection for disease and parasite resistance or tolerance...