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Efeitos do extrato aquoso de cebola (Allium cepa L.) sobre a função renal e a pressão arterial em ratos Wistar

Campos, K. E.; Balbi, A. P C; Alves, M. J Q F
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 24-29
POR
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The vegetal species, Allium cepa, known as onion, is widely used in the folk medicine as diuretic, besides it has been used on the bronchitis, cough, cardiovascular diseases and hypertension treatment. In this study we evaluate the onion aqueous extract (AE) effect on water flow and electrolytes in anesthetized Wistar rats, besides we also evaluate arterial pressure alterations. Two groups were studied: Group 1 (control) - oral tratment with 1.0 mL of distilled water, and Group 2 (experimental) - oral treatment with 1.0 mL of AE 20%. The rats were anesthetized and we canulate the trachea, left carotide artery (for arterial pressure measurement and blood collecting), jugular vein (to execute inulin perfusion - to register glomerular filtration), and urinary bladder (to collect urine). The Group 1 results had shown that the animals had not presented significant alterations (p>0.05) in the analyzed parameters. The animals of Group 2 had a significant reduction (p<0.05) in the arterial pressure (22.0%). However, there were not significant alterations in renal parameters (p>0.05). These results show that the treatment with the AE lead a hypotensor effect in anesthetized Wistar rats, but not followed by renal parameters alterations.

Ability of Allium cepa L. root tips and Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea in N-nitrosodiethylamine genotoxicity and mutagenicity evaluation

Rainho,Claudia R. de; Kaezer,Andréa; Aiub,Claudia A.F.; Felzenszwalb,Israel
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Ciências Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2010 EN
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N-nitroso compounds, such as N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), can be formed by the reaction of secundary amines with nitrosating agents, and are suspected to be involved in tumors in humans. NDEA has been considered a weak carcinogen in genotoxic assays probably due to the inefficient nitrosamine activation system that is used and/or to the efficient repair system. In this work, we evaluated the sensibility of Allium cepa L. root tips and Tradescantia stamen hair mutation assay (Trad-SH) using Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea for NDEA (0.1; 0.5; 5 and 25mM) genotoxicity and mutagenicity induction. Allium cepa L. was treated with different NDEA concentrations for 3h, for 3 consecutive days, including negative control (distilled water) and positive control maleic hydrazide (MH 30mg/mL). After treatment, the roots were hydrolyzed, squashed, and the mitotic index (MI) and cytological abnormalities were scored. The results revealed a cytostatic effect of NDEA (0.5 and 5mM), showing a significant reduction in the MI. Chromosome stickiness suggests a NDEA toxic effect. T. pallida purpurea did not respond to mutagens with a dose-dependent pattern. In conclusion, our study indicates that the root tips of Allium cepa L. have sensibility to detect NDEA genotoxicity...

Action of Aqueous Extracts of Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae) leaves on Meristematic Root Cells of Allium cepa L.

NEVES,ERASMOVLANE S.B.; FERREIRA,PAULO MICHEL PINHEIRO; LIMA,LEONARDO H.G.M.; PERON,ANA PAULA
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Ciências Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2014 EN
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This study aimed to evaluate the effects of aqueous extracts of dried Phyllanthus niruri L. (stonebreaker) leaves on Allium cepa L. root meristem cells at four concentrations, 0.02 (usual concentration), 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08mg/mL and exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. For each concentration we used a group of five onion bulbs that were first embedded in distilled water and then transferred to their respective concentrations. The radicles were collected and fixed in acetic acid (3:1) for 24 hours. The slides were prepared by the crushing technique and stained with 2% acetic orcein. Cells were analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5000 for each control and exposure time. The calculated mitotic indices were subjected to the Chi-squared statistical analysis (p<0.05). From the results obtained it was observed that all four concentrations tested had significant antiproliferative effect on the cell cycle of this test system. We also found the presence of cellular aberrations such as colchicined metaphases, anaphasic and telophasic bridges, and micronuclei in the two exposure times for all concentrations evaluated. Therefore, under the conditions studied the concentrations of aqueous extracts of leaves of P. niruri showed to be cytotoxic and genotoxic.

Antiproliferative action of aqueous extracts of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. (Fabaceae) on the cell cycle of Allium cepa L.

LACERDA,LOURRAN P.; MALAQUIAS,GEIZ; PERON,ANA PAULA
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Ciências Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2014 EN
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In this study we evaluated the action of crude aqueous extracts obtained from rhytidome of Hymenaea stigonocarpa (jatobá-do-cerrado) on Allium cepa meristematic root cells in three concentrations: 0.082, 0.164, 0.328g/mL, at exposure times of 24 and 48 h. The slides were prepared by the crushing technique, and cells analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5000 for each control group and concentration. It was found that all three concentrations, including the lowest which is considered ideal for use, in all exposure times, had significant antiproliferative action on the cell cycle of this test system. For cells under division, we observed a high number of cells in prophase. Therefore, under the conditions studied H. stigonocarpa indicated to be cytotoxic.

Progressão da floração e antese de Allium cepa L. (Alliaceae) em Candiota, RS, Brasil

Witter,Sidia; Wittmann,Dieter; Blochtein,Betina
Fonte: Sociedade Botânica de São Paulo Publicador: Sociedade Botânica de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2005 PT
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A necessidade de polinização por insetos depende da morfologia da flor, do grau de autofertilidade e do arranjo das flores. A progressão da floração de Allium cepa L., foi avaliada com base na freqüência de visitas por Apis mellifera L., das fases da antese e da viabilidade do pólen. A floração na cultivar Crioula (56 dias) foi mais longa que em Bola Precoce (50 dias). A duração do pico da floração foi semelhante nas duas cultivares, respectivamente 15 e 17 dias. A correlação entre a freqüência de visitas por A. mellifera e o número de umbelas com flores abertas foi alta em Crioula e média em Bola Precoce. A antese foi de 7 e 8 dias, respectivamente, nas duas cultivares. Diferentemente de outras observações, foi verificada protandria incompleta em ambas cultivares. Os estigmas estavam receptivos quando os estiletes mediam 4-5,5 mm de comprimento. O percentual médio de viabilidade do pólen foi de 90,46 (Crioula) e 80,25 (Bola precoce).

Citotoxicity of food dyes sunset yellow (E-110), bordeaux red (E-123), and tatrazine yellow (E-102) on Allium cepa L. root meristematic cells

Gomes,Keiva Maria Silva; Oliveira,Maria Virna Gonçalves Aguiar de; Carvalho,Francisco Ronielson de Sousa; Menezes,Camila Carvalho; Peron,Ana Paula
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2013 EN
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86.47%
The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of the food dyes sunset yellow, bordeaux red, and tartrazine yellow on the cellular cycle of Allium cepa L. Each dye was evaluated at the doses of 0.4 and 4.0 mL, at the exposure times of 24 and 48 hours in root tip cells of Allium cepa L. Slides were prepared and cells were analyzed during the whole cell cycle for cellular aberrations totaling 5,000 total cells for each dose evaluated. The mitotic index was calculated, and statistical analysis was performed using the Chi-squared test (p < 0.05). The results showed that the three dyes used under the evaluated doses and exposure times were cytotoxic to the cells of the system-test used. Further cytotoxicity studies should be conducted for additional results and a proper evaluation of the effect of these three dyes on a cellular level.

Phytotoxic activity of crude aqueous extracts and fractions of young leaves of Sapindus saponaria L. (Sapindaceae)

Grisi,Patrícia Umeda; Gualtieri,Sônia Cristina Juliano; Ranal,Marli Aparecida; Santana,Denise Garcia de
Fonte: Sociedade Botânica do Brasil Publicador: Sociedade Botânica do Brasil
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2013 EN
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytotoxic potential of aqueous extract of young leaves of Sapindus saponaria L. (soapberry) on the diaspore germination and seedling growth Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce) and Allium cepa L. (onion), as well as to determine, by bioassay-guided fractioning, whether the fractionated extracts of those leaves are phytotoxic to Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) coleoptiles. The aqueous extract was prepared using 100 g of dried plant material dissolved in 1000 ml of distilled water, resulting in a concentration of 10.0%. Distilled water was added in order to obtain dilutions of 7.5%, 5.0%, and 2.5%. The extraction was carried out with young leaves (in powder form) and organic solvents of various polarities. We fractioned the ethyl acetate extract using column chromatography. The phytotoxic potential of the aqueous extract of young leaves S. saponaria varied according to the receiving species and the concentration-dependent inhibitory effect. The ethyl acetate extract, specifically fraction 6 (57-70), had the greatest inhibitory effect on the elongation of wheat coleoptiles, indicating that the compounds responsible for the phytotoxic effect reside within this fraction.

Avaliação da atividade mutagênica da infusão de Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC. em teste de Allium cepa e teste de aberrações cromossômicas em linfócitos humanos

Pinho,Daiane S. de; Sturbelle,Régis T.; Martino-Roth,Maria da Graça; Garcias,Gilberto L.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2010 PT
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76.44%
A carqueja (Baccharis trimera(Less.) DC.) é uma planta medicinal da família Asteraceae muito utilizada como chá no sul do Brasil no tratamento de doenças renais, intestinas, estomacais e principalmente como emagrecedora. O objetivo desde trabalho foi de avaliar a mutagenicidade in vivoe in vitrodo chá e para isso foi realizado o teste de Allium cepaL. e o de aberrações cromossômicas em linfócitos humanos utilizando quatro tratamentos: T1 (água); T2 (20 g/L de carqueja); T3 (200 g/L de carqueja), e T4 (paracetamol, a 400 mg/L). Ambos os procedimentos foram analisados pelo teste Mann-Whitney U. Este estudo evidencia um efeito mutagênico do chá em células vegetais (Allium cepa) e em células humanas (aberrações cromossômicas) cultivadas, pois em ambos os testes, T2 e T3 obteve-se uma média mais elevada que nos outros tratamentos. Este estudo demonstra que o efeito é dependente da dose, portanto recomenda-se que o chá de carqueja seja consumido com moderação.

Avaliação da atividade mutagênica e antimutagênica da Aloe vera em teste de Allium cepa e teste de micronúcleo em linfócitos humanos binucleados

Sturbelle,Régis T.; Pinho,Daiane S. de; Restani,Rossana G.; Oliveira,Gisele R. de; Garcias,Gilberto de L.; Martino-Roth,Maria da Graça
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2010 PT
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Algumas das substâncias presentes nos vegetais podem ter efeitos mutagênicos, enquanto outras podem atenuar ou anular estes efeitos. Estima-se que mais de 200 substâncias ativas façam parte do gel de Aloe vera, sendo que os polissacarídeos chegam a 30%, e muitos dos benefícios terapêuticos, nutricionais e cosméticos são a eles atribuídos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito mutagênico e antimutagênico da solução de Aloe vera, em teste de Allium cepa e teste de micronúcleos em linfócitos humanos binucleados. Para as soluções, as folhas de Aloe vera foram trituradas, filtradas e esterilizadas. O teste de Allium cepa foi constituído de oito tratamentos e o de linfócitos, de cinco (com quatro repetições). Observou-se que na dose usual, a solução de Aloe vera não foi mutagência para o sistema de teste vegetal e nem para o humano. Já na dose dez vezes mais concentrada provocou um efeito citotóxico e mutagênico em Allium cepa. Em células vegetais a solução foi antimutagênica apenas quando colocada depois do paracetamol, enquanto que nas células humanas, essa ação se manifestou quando a solução foi utilizada ao mesmo tempo com o paracetamol.

Allelopathic activity of micropropagated Hyssopus officinalis L., Lamiaceae, water infusions

Dragoeva,Asya P.; Nanova,Zheni D.; Kalcheva,Vanya P.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2010 EN
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76.41%
The natural habitats of Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) in Bulgaria are not sufficient to satisfy the needs of this herb. Micropropagation might be used for obtaining plants with desirable traits. Hyssopus is a medicinal aromatic plant that has not been studied very much. Recently aromatic plants were investigated as potent allelopathic plants. Determining the modes of action of allelochemicals is one of the challenging aspects in allelopathic studies. The objective of this study was to determine the allelopathic activity of micropropagated Hyssopus officinalis L. water infusions. We evaluated the influence of hot and cold infusions made from the aerial parts of hyssopus under laboratory conditions. For this purpose we tested the effects of infusions on germination and root elongation of Cucumis sativus L. and Triticum aestivum L. We determined also the effect on mitotic activity using Allium cepa L. chromosome aberration test. The results demonstrated the presence of water soluble allelopathic compounds in hyssopus tissue. Infusions exhibited growth depressive effect which was stronger at early stage of growth. The inhibitory effects on germination and root elongation were stronger in T. aestivum than in C. sativus. Hyssopus also exerted mitodepressive and genotoxic effect in Allium cepa root tip cells.

Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae, on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa

Silva,Déborah S. B. S.; Garcia,Anuska C. F. S.; Mata,Samuel S.; Oliveira,Betejane de; Estevam,Charles S.; Scher,Ricardo; Pantaleao,Silmara M.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2011 EN
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The effects of the decoction of Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae, were investigated using the root meristem cells of Allium cepa L., Amaryllidaceae. Ten concentrations of the aqueous extract (0.125 to 1.25%) of this medicinal plant were analyzed at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. All concentrations showed root growth inhibition after 96 h treatment. Although there were no significant differences between the mitotic indexes of any concentration and the control, there were changes in the frequencies of cell stages at three different concentrations. Additionally, the presence of five different cells abnormalities was recorded: chromosome bridging, lagging chromosomes, chromosome fragments, disturbed metaphase and disturbed anaphase. These results suggest inhibitory and genotoxic activity of the decoction of E. velutina on Allium cepa.

Investigation of protective effects of Erythrina velutina extract against MMS induced damages in the root meristem cells of Allium cepa

Silva,Deborah S. B. S.; Barboza,Benhur; Garcia,Anuska C. F. S.; Oliveira,Betejane de; Estevam,Charles S.; A. Neto,Vitor; Santos,Andre L. L. M.; Dias,Antonio S.; Scher,Ricardo; Pantaleao,Silmara M.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2013 EN
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76.42%
Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae, is a medicinal plant that can be found in the tropics and subtropics, including in the semi-arid northeastern Brazil. It is commonly used in folk medicine to treat anxiety, agitation and insomnia. E. velutina has been known to present analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities, however, it is unknown if this plant present a protective effect on DNA. We assessed the antigenotoxic effect of E. velutina against the genotoxic effects induced by MMS in the root meristem cells of Allium cepa. Three concentrations of the aqueous extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/L) of this medicinal plant were used in three different types of treatment (pre-, post- and simultaneous). The effects of the extracts on the root meristem cells of A. cepa were analyzed at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. Protective effects were observed at higher concentrations in pre-treatment and in simultaneous treatment. The results suggest that E. velutina may present antigenotoxic properties and demonstrate its chemopreventive potential.

Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of Br-containing oxaphosphole on Allium cepa L. root tip cells and mouse bone marrow cells

Kalcheva,Vanya P.; Dragoeva,Asya P.; Kalchev,Karamfil N.; Enchev,Dobromir D.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 EN
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76.27%
The continuous production and release of chemicals into the environment has led to the need to assess their genotoxicity. Numerous organophosphorus compounds with different structures have been synthesized in recent years, and several oxaphosphole derivatives are known to possess biological activity. Such chemical compounds may influence proliferating cells and cause disturbances of the genetic material. In this study, we examined the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of 4-bromo-N,N-diethyl-5,5-dimethyl-2,5-dihydro-1,2-oxaphosphol-2-amine 2-oxide (Br-oxph). In A. cepa cells, Br-oxph (10-9 M, 10-6 M and 10-3 M) reduced the mitotic index 48 h after treatment with the two highest concentrations, with no significant effect at earlier intervals. Mitotic cells showed abnormalities 24 h and 48 h after treatment with the two lowest concentrations but there were no consistent changes in interphase cells. Bone marrow cells from mice treated with Br-oxph (2.82 x 10-3 µg/kg) also showed a reduced mitotic index after 48 h and a greater percentage of cells with aberrations (principally chromatid and isochromatid breaks). These findings indicate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Br-oxph in the two systems studied.

Ação genotóxica e antiproliferativa de Polygonum punctatum Elliott (Polygonaceae) sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa L.

PASTORI,T.; KUHN,A.W.; TEDESCO,M.; HOFFMANN,C.E.; NEVES,L.A.S.; CANTO-DOROW,T.S.; TEDESCO,S.B.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2015 PT
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86.42%
RESUMO: A espécie Polygonum punctatum Elliott (Polygonaceae) é amplamente utilizada pela população como planta medicinal. O objetivo deste trabalho é o de avaliar o potencial genotóxico e mutagênico de P. punctatum utilizando raízes de bulbos e radículas em sementes germinadas de Allium cepa através do teste in vivo, e realizar comparações da extração do material vegetal por calor (infusões) e extração a frio (extrato). Para isso, foram preparadas dois tipos de soluções, infusões e extratos foliares de P. punctatum, em duas concentrações 0,4 g mL-1 e 2,4 g mL-1. A infusão foi preparada pela adição das folhas secas em água destilada fervente (100ºC), permanecendo por 10 minutos enquanto o extrato foi preparado através da maceração das folhas secas em água destilada fria. Para o teste em A. cepa foram utilizados, para cada tratamento, seis grupos de quatro bulbos e seis caixas gerbox com 50 sementes em cada caixa. Duas lâminas para cada tratamento foram obtidas através da técnica de esmagamento das raízes e coradas com orceína acética 2%. Foram contadas 2000 células por grupo de bulbos e 3000 células por grupo de sementes...

Correlation between heavy metal ions (copper, zinc, lead) concentrations and root length of Allium cepa L. in polluted river water

Palacio,Soraya Moreno; Espinoza-Quiñones,Fernando Rodolfo; Galante,Raquel Manozzo; Zenatti,Dilcemara Cristina; Seolatto,Araceli Aparecida; Lorenz,Evandro Kleber; Zacarkim,Carlos Eduardo; Rossi,Nickeli; Rizzutto,Márcia de Almeida; Tabacniks,Manfredo Harr
Fonte: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar Publicador: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2005 EN
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The present work was performed using the common onion (Allium cepa L.) as a bioindicator of toxicity of heavy metals in river water. The test waters were collected at two sampling sites: at the beginning and the end of the Toledo River. The bulbs of A. cepa L. were grown in test water with nine concentration levels of copper, zinc and lead from 0.1 to 50 ppm. In the laboratory, the influence of these test liquids on the root growth was examined during five days. For test liquids containing below 0.03-ppm dissolved Cu the root growth was reduced by 40% However, the same reduction occurred for 1-ppm dissolved Zn. For dissolved Pb, results reveal toxicity above 0.1 and 0.6 ppm at the beginning and the end of the Toledo river water, respectively.

Evaluation of the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of water from the River Paraíba do Sul, in Brazil, with the Allium cepa L. test

Barbério,A.; Barros,L.; Voltolini,JC.; Mello,MLS.
Fonte: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia Publicador: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2009 EN
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86.35%
This work investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of water from the River Paraíba do Sul (Brazil) using Allium cepa roots. An anatomo-morphological parameter (root length), mitotic indices, and frequency of micronuclei were analysed. Eight bulbs were chosen at random for treatment for 24 to 120 hours with the River water collected in the years of 2005 and 2006 from sites in the cities of Tremembé and Aparecida (São Paulo state, Brazil). Daily measurements of the length of the roots grown from each bulb were carried out throughout the experiment. Mitotic index (MI) and frequency of micronuclei (MN) were determined for 2000 cells per root, using 3-5 root tips from other bulbs (7-10). Only in the roots treated with samples of the River water collected in 2005 in Tremembé city was there a decrease in the root length growth compared to the respective control. However, a reduction in MI values was verified for both sites analysed for that year. Considering the data involving root length growth and especially MI values, a cytotoxic potential is suggested for the water of the River Paraíba do Sul at Tremembé and Aparecida, in the year of 2005. On the other hand, since in this year the MN frequency was not affected with the river water treatments...

Genotoxicity and toxicity evaluations of ECF cellulose bleaching effluents using the Allium cepa L. Test

Roa,O.; Yeber,MC.; Venegas,W.
Fonte: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia Publicador: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2012 EN
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76.32%
Toxicity and genotoxicity tests were performed on root cells of Allium cepa in order to evaluate wastewater quality following an ECF cellulose bleaching process. The results revealed a toxic effect of the effluent, with inhibition of meristem growth and generally lower values of metaphase, anaphase and telophase indices at pH 10.5 than pH 7 for all effluent concentrations. The genotoxicity effect was different from the toxic effect given that the micronucleus and the chromosomal aberration tests in anaphase-telophase cells were low over all ranges of the studied effluent concentrations.

Elementos-tra??o em Allium cepa L. e Lactuca sativa L.; Trace element in Allium cepa L. and Lactuca sativa L.

MENDES, Maribel da Silva
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Agronomia; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Agronomia; UFPel; BR Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Agronomia; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Agronomia; UFPel; BR
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
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The environmental pollution with trace-elements (ETs) is an increasing problem in the modern society, having extreme importance the evaluation of these environmental risks. The use of seeds of superior plants is ideal for such tests since they are efficient, quick and of easy execution. The objectives of this work were evaluate the toxic effects on the germination and cytotoxics on the meristematics cells of Allium cepa L. and Lactuca sativa L. roots, under different concentrations of the trace-elements cadmium (0,5; 1,0; 3,0; 5,0; 7,0 and 9,0mg. L-1), arsenic (2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10; 15; 20mg. L-1), lead (50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300mg. L-1), chromium (50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300mg. L-1) and mercury (0,25; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0 and 2,5mg. L-1), after 168 and 48h of exhibition, respectively. In lettuce, de maximum number and classes of nucleolus per interphasic cell were observed. The results showed toxic effect of the traceelements on the germination of the seeds and Mitotic Index (IM), besides the induction of chromosomic aberrations in the meristematic cells of A. cepa L. The degree of toxicity and the different anomalies increased with the increase of ET concentration. In L. sativa it was evident that both the percentage of germination and the IM decreased with the increase of ETs concentration. The cytotoxicity caused by these ETs was demonstrated in the different chromosomic anomalies caused to the meristematic cells of this vegetable species. The presence of chrome...

Evaluación de la actividad biológica de macromicetos en el área del cañón del Combeima (Departamento del Tolima)

Dávila Giraldo, Lina Rocio.
Fonte: Ibagué : Universidad del Tolima, 2014; Facultad de Ciencias, Programa de Biología Publicador: Ibagué : Universidad del Tolima, 2014; Facultad de Ciencias, Programa de Biología
Tipo: Trabajo de grado - Pregrado; Text; info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/submittedVersion Formato: application/pdf
SPA
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73 Páginas; Recurso Electrónico; Los macromicetos han sido reportados como una nueva fuente de metabolitos bioactivos para diferentes usos, en especial farmacéutico e industrial. El objetivo de este trabajo fue aportar nuevos datos sobre el conocimiento de la micobiota que se encuentra en el Cañón del Combeima (Ibagué-Tolima), y el posible potencial bioactivo de sus metabolitos secundarios. Se recolectaron cuarenta carpóforos y cinco especies fueron utilizadas para realizar un análisis fitoquímico y pruebas de actividad citotóxica con Allium cepa L e insecticida con Drosophila melanogaster: Se aisló micelio fresco, y se sembró en PDA (Papa Agar Dextrosa) para su obtención in vitro. Posteriormente los carpóforos de las cinco especies de macromicetos fueron sometidos a desecación y maceración. Se comparó la metodología de percolación y soxhlet para la obtención del extracto etanólico. La evaluación fitoquímica mostró presencia de carbohidratos reductores, terpenos esteroides y antroquinonas para Ganoderma sp, P. cinnabarinus y Phellinus sp ; polifenoles para todos y taninos para P.cinnabarinus, Phellinus sp A y L. elegans. La actividad insecticida sobre el modelo Drosophila melanogaster en ensayos por contacto resultó negativa. Al analizar los datos obtenidos del índice mitotico (IM)...

Actividad antioxidante e inhibidora de α-glucosidasa y α-amilasa de tres variedades de cebolla (Allium cepa L.)

López-Martínez,Leticia X.; Aguilar Cisneros,Luisa M.; Dublán-García,Octavio
Fonte: Universidad de La Salle Bajío A. C., Coordinación de Investigación Publicador: Universidad de La Salle Bajío A. C., Coordinación de Investigación
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 ES
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La cebolla (Allium cepa L.) ha sido cultivada durante miles de años y es utilizada como un componente importante en la dieta del ser humano. Estudios recientes sugieren que su consumo puede reducir o prevenir problemas de salud como asma, enfermedades cardiovasculares y diabetes, debido a sus efectos antioxidantes. En este estudio se determinó el contenido de compuestos fenólicos totales, la capacidad antiradical y la inhibición de las enzimas α-glucosidasa y α-amilasa de extractos acuosos y etanólicos de tres variedades de cebolla (blanca, amarilla y morada). El contenido de compuestos fenólicos totales varió de 6.59 a 9.25 mg/100 g y la actividad antiradical expresada como % DPPH- se encontró entre 20.4% a 39.6% y de 46.8 a 89.2% para los extractos acuosos y etanólicos respectivamente. Todos los extractos etanólicos fueron capaces de inhibir la actividad α-glucosidasa y α-amilasa de 58% a 34%% y 33 y 22% respectivamente, mientras que los extractos acuosos fueron menos efectivos. Entre los extractos estudiados, el extracto etanólicos de cebolla morada presenta la mayor concentración de compuestos fenólicos totales y la mayor actividad antiradical e inhibidora de α-glucosidasa. Las diferencias encontradas entre la concentración de compuestos fenólicos y las distintas actividades estudiadas parecen depender del perfil único de compuestos fenólicos que posee cada variedad de cebolla.